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(proofs) Middle Kingdom History, An Overview, In: Adela Oppenheim, Dorothea Arnold, et al. (editors) Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom, 306-310

(proofs) Middle Kingdom History, An Overview, In: Adela Oppenheim, Dorothea Arnold, et al. (editors) Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom, 306-310
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  306 Te Middle Kingdom, especially he welfh Dynasy, appears in laer sources as he classical period o Egypian ar, lieraure, and poliics. Kings such as Senwosre I, Senwosre III, and  Amenemha III were worshipped as gods and were sill known  by classical Greek auhors or heir monumens and miliary enerprises. Te firs hal o he welfh Dynasy was one o he mos decenralized periods o Egypian hisory. Local governors  buil huge, lavishly decoraed rock- cu ombs wih inscripions ha  were copied as lae as Roman imes. However, as he dynasy progressed, he counry became more cenralized, and royal acivi-ies were concenraed in a ew ceners by is end. Te Middle Kingdom is defined here as he second hal o he Elevenh Dynasy o he end o he Tireenh. Te period can be divided ino he early and lae Middle Kingdom, he later having  begun during he reign o Senwosre III, when many changes in adminisraion and culure ook place.􀀱 King liss rom he period are no preserved, bu here are ragmens o wo royal annals, one rom he reign o Senwosre I ha had once adorned a emple a Heliopolis􀀲 and anoher ound a Memphis ha daes o he reign o Amenemha II.󰀳 Tese sone inscripions once provided a year-  by-  year lis o all evens he Egypians el were imporan, alhough he preserved ragmens cover only a ew years and mainly record donaions o emples; miliary enerprises are also described. Te urin Canon, a ragmenary Ramesside papyrus (abou 󰀱󰀲􀀰􀀰 󰁂.󰁃.) ound in he nineeenh cenury, srcinally conained a lis o all Egypian kings wih he lenghs o heir reigns rom he myhical beginning o Egyp down o he end o he Second Inermediae Period. Te lis is a major source or he regnal years in he Elevenh and welfh Dynasies and or he order o Tireenh Dynasy kings.󰀴 Furhermore, here are several Ramesside king liss preserved on monumens ha provide evidence or he succession o kings. Tese liss name only he kings o he lae Elevenh and welfh Dynasies; evidenly he Tireenh Dynasy was regarded as “inerior.” Te  Aegyptiaca  o he Egypian pries Maneho, wriing in Greek in he hird cenury 󰁂.󰁃., is he main record or he division o Egypian hisory ino dynasies. Maneho includes a lis o welfh Dynasy kings o which he adds he lengh o heir reigns, evidenly regarding his period as more imporan. For he Elevenh and Tireenh Dynasies, he gives jus he oal number o kings and he lengh o heir combined rules. Maneho’s hisory books are oday known solely hrough laer hisorians,  who copied he inormaion hey hough significan. Alhough names are presened in Greek orm and numbers are ofen garbled, he work sill provides a rough ouline o he dynasic divisions. Te erm “Middle Kingdom,” inroduced by nineeenh- cenury Egypologiss, would no have been recognized by he ancien Egypians. Te main sources or reconsrucing a hisory o he Middle Kingdom are he conemporary inscribed monumens ound in Egyp. Tese sources are ragmenary, however, and inscripions reporing acual, as opposed o idealized, poliical evens are rare. Te royal unerary complexes o he Middle Kingdom have been  badly damaged, and in any case, such complexes normally do no ofen provide hisorical inormaion. Masabas and ombs o cour officials can conain more hisorical inormaion and some  were adorned wih long biographical inscripions, bu hey are also preserved merely in ragmens. Beter preserved are several rock- cu ombs o local governors in Upper and Middle Egyp, some o which conain longer biographical exs. Some o he emples buil and decoraed by Middle Kingdom kings hroughou he counry were inscribed wih longer exs, bu again hese are ofen largely desroyed. Anoher imporan source is he corpus o privae selae, known rom ombs and local emples, wih a significan number ound a Abydos (see “ile o essay” in his volume, pp. XXX– XX). Tese depic he officials who commissioned hem, heir amilies, and someimes servans; selae o he early Middle King-dom in paricular are someimes inscribed wih a biography o he owner. Tose ha bear a king’s name (cas. XXX, XXX, XXX) ideniy fixed poins or known officials and occasionally year daes or kings and are an imporan source when laer king liss offer conflicing inormaion. Alhough a high percenage o selae dae o he lae Middle Kingdom, hese rarely include a royal name, an indicaion perhaps o diminished saus or he kings. A compara- ble source is he corpus o rock inscripions lef by members o expediions o quarries and oreign lands, which are known mainly rom he Easern Deser, Sinai, and Lower Nubia. Tese ofen give precise daes, he purpose o he expediion, and he names o he members o he enerprise. Alogeher, he sources or Middle Kingdom hisory are much broader han or he Old Kingdom and are disribued hroughou he counry.  Wolram Grajezki Middle Kingdom History An Overview MiddleKingdom_2P.indd 3066/5/15 2:35 PM  307  󰁷󰁯󰁬󰁦󰁲󰁡󰁭 󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁪󰁥󰁴󰁺󰁫󰁩  Adminisraive papyri ound a el- Lahun, in Tebes, and a oher sies shed ligh on he organizaion o Middle Kingdom Egyp. Tey include a se o palace accouns rom he Tireenh Dynasy ound a Tebes. Copies o leters rom viziers and lesser officials are also preserved. Scarab seals wih names and iles afford a uller picure o adminisraive uncions, and many include he names and iles o members o he royal amily (ca. XXX). Furhermore, archaeology has expanded he inorma-ion or he hisory o he period beyond he writen sources. For example, he orresses in Lower Nubia ates o Egypian rule in his region, and he rigid grid paterns o many Middle Kingdom setlemens provide evidence o some ype o cenral planning (see “ile o essay” in his volume, pp. XXX–XX; ca. XXX). All hese sources presen a general picure o he broad lines o Middle Kingdom hisory. I is, noneheless, impossible o wrie his hisory as a sequence o evens in he modern sense. Many single incidens can be idenified rom he sources menioned, bu he real orces behind hem remain unknown. Civil wars, opposi-ion agains kings or imporan officials, palace inrigues, and power sruggles a he cour or wihin he royal amily are hardly menioned in he surviving sources; hese end o be visible only  when he winner o a sruggle reers o hem in a biography. AFFAIRS OF STATE IN THE MIDDLE KINGDOM  Afer he long reign o Pepi II, he Old Kingdom disinegraed ino a number o small chiedoms ruled by local governors, who in heory were sill under he king in Memphis bu in realiy aced independenly. Very litle is known abou he kings residing in Memphis during his ime. I is cerain, however, ha wo power  blocs, one in he norh, he oher in he souh, emerged during he so- called Firs Inermediae Period. In he norh, a line o kings ruled in he radiion o he Old Kingdom and perhaps resided in Herakleopolis a he enrance o he Fayum, as hey are called Herakleopolian kings in laer sources.Te Elevenh Dynasy was ounded in Tebes, in souhern Egyp, by local governors who adoped pars o he royal iulary. Te firs hree kings ook he name Ine wih he ile “son o Re” and added a Horus name in order o confirm heir claim o king-ship. Nebhepere Menuhoep II, son o he las Ine king, was considered he rue ounder o he Middle Kingdom (fig. XX[󰀱]). During his fify- one-  year reign he seems o have conquered he norh o Egyp, deeaing he Herakleopolian kings and reuniying he counry under his rule. Te exac iming o he evens in his reign is unknown, bu he king wice changed pars o his names, mos likely in response o seps in he conques o Egyp. Te final unificaion o he counry migh have happened in he second par o his reign, alhough apar rom some vague reerences, he even is no menioned or described in any known conemporary inscripion. Neverheless, in a New Kingdom depicion, Menuho-ep II appears nex o Menes, he legendary king who unified Egyp in he Firs Dynasy, and Nebpehire Ahmose II, he ounder o he New Kingdom, clearly demonsraing ha in laer imes he  was regarded as he ounder o a new era.󰀵 Te Elevenh and welfh Dynasies each consised o a line o rulers descended, wih one excepion, rom a single amily. Te second par o he Elevenh Dynasy had hree kings named Menuhoep, beginning wih Nebhepere Menuhoep II, who was he firs king o he period o have he fiveold royal iulary: he  birh name wih he ile “son o Re,” he hrone name, he Horus name, he wo Ladies name, and he gold Horus name. Boh Menuhoep II and his successor, Seankhkare Menuhoep III, commissioned many emples ha conained scenes showing hem  wih various deiies (cas. XXX, XXX, XXX), subsaniaing heir righul place wih he gods and heir own divine saus. Nebawire Menuhoep IV, he las king o he Elevenh Dynasy, was perhaps no relaed by amily ies o his predecessors. His shor reign is enigmaic, and he absence o his name rom laer king liss possi- bly indicaes ha i eiher was no seen as legiimae or was marked  by power sruggles.Te seven kings o he welfh Dynasy, which ruled or abou 󰀱􀀸􀀰 years, were named eiher Amenemha or Senwosre. Te dynasy ended wih he shor reign o Egyp’s firs known emale sole ruler, Nerusobek. One concern o he welfh Dynasy kings  was o resore he glory o he Old Kingdom. Indeed, Amenemha I chose as his Horus name “repeaing o birhs,” evidenly ideniy-ing himsel as he ounder o a new era, a concep also expressed in a lierary work oday known as Te    Prophecies of Neferti .󰀶  Amenemha I, called Ameny in he sory, is described as a king Fig. XX. Relie o Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II siing under a baldachin. Limestone. Eleventh Dynasty, reign o Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II (ca. 󰀲󰀰󰀵󰀱–󰀲󰀰󰀰󰀰 󰁢.󰁣.). Dendera, side wall o the king’s ka  chapel. Egyptian Museum, Cairo (JE 󰀴󰀶󰀰󰀶󰀸) MiddleKingdom_2P.indd 3076/5/15 2:35 PM  308 󰁭󰁩󰁤󰁤󰁬󰁥 󰁫󰁩󰁮󰁧󰁤󰁯󰁭 󰁨󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁹  who brings sabiliy o Egyp afer a period o disorder during he Firs Inermediae Period (he effors o he Elevenh Dynasy are evidenly ignored). Te kings o he welfh Dynasy were again  buried in pyramids, as hose o he Old Kingdom had been (see “ile o essay” in his volume, pp. XXX–XX); he pyramid emple o Senwosre I is even closely modeled on Sixh Dynasy proo-ypes (see ca. XX). ile srings o early Middle Kingdom officials include many Old Kingdom iles, alhough hey seem o have los heir srcinal meanings. Funerary culs o Old Kingdom kings were also reacivaed.  A new approach o succession appeared or he firs ime in he welfh Dynasy, when in he wenieh year o his reign  Amenemha I chose his son Senwosre as coregen (fig. XX[󰀲]).󰀷 Senwosre I received he fiveold royal iulary and ruled as king in his own righ while his aher was sill living. Te younger king is prominen in he early welfh Dynasy sources, and mos daed documens name him. Te specific purpose o his ype o arrange-men is debaed in Egypology, bu one reason was doubless o secure he royal succession, as he deah o a king was always a criical momen. Indeed, wo lierary composiions o he Middle Kingdom, Te   eaching of Amenemhat   and Te   ale of Sinuhe  (cas. XXX, XXX), menion wha seems o be he assassinaion o  Amenemha I. Coregencies, atesed hroughou he dynasy, include one beween Senwosre III and Amenemha III ha migh have lased weny years. In sark conras o he welfh Dynasy, he Tireenh con-sised o a sequence o some fify kings who ruled over a period o 󰀱􀀵􀀰 years. A he beginning and end o he period, many reigns  were very shor, while in he middle some longer- ruling kings sa on he hrone or a oal o several decades. Tese kings were no all relaed, alhough some amily ies wihin he dynasy can be discerned, including ha o Khasekhemre Neerhoep I and Khaneerre Sebekhoep IV, who were brohers.󰀸 Tere is also he “king’s moher” and “king’s wie” Nubheepi, whose iles ates o a aher- o- son succession wihin he dynasy, bu he kings o  whom she was relaed have no been idenified.󰀹 Several kings seem o have sared ou as higher officials, alhough hard evidence is scarce. Evidenly, imporan amilies managed o place some o heir members on he hrone. King Khuawire Wega was per-haps “grea overseer o roops” beore becoming king, while Sekhemre- sewadjawi Sebekhoep III was “officer o he ruler’s crew.”􀀱󰀰 Several queens are known o have belonged o amilies o imporan officials.􀀱􀀱 Queen Aya came rom a amily conneced o he vizier Ankhu. Queen Nubkhaes was he siser o he “reporer o Tebes” Sebekemsa, and her uncle was he “high seward” Nebankh. Such close connecions beween officials and members o he royal amily have no as ye been atesed or he Elevenh or welfh Dynasy, alhough hey may have exised. Neverheless, i is hard o say wheher he concep o kingship changed in he Tireenh Dynasy, despie he ac ha, remarkably, some kings menion heir nonroyal parens on monumens, somehing no previously atesed.􀀱􀀲In he Elevenh Dynasy, he royal residence was mos likely a Tebes, where he ombs o he kings, heir wives, and he high couriers were locaed. A he beginning o he welfh Dynasy,  Amenemha I ounded a new royal residence in he norh called  Amenemha- Ijawi (Amenemha is he seizer o he wo Lands), ofen simply abbreviaed as Ijawi. Te move o he norh was evidenly boh pracical and symbolic. Locaed a he border  beween Upper and Lower Egyp, near he modern village o Lish, Ijawi was hereore a he poin where Egyp marked is reunifica-ion. Wih he move o he norh, he kings could also demonsrae heir connecion o he Old Kingdom, or is capial, Memphis, was only abou 􀀵􀀰 kilomeers o he norh o he new ciy. Furher-more, he new capial was close o he Fayum and migh indicae royal ineres in his oasis (see “ile o essay” in his volume, pp. XXX–XX); he region beween Memphis and he Fayum was also he locaion o he royal pyramid complexes o he welfh and Tireenh Dynasies (see “ile o essay” in his volume, pp. XXX–XX). Ijawi remained he capial ino he Tireenh Fig. XX. Relie o Senwosret I siing at an offering table. Limestone. welfh Dynasty, reign o Senwosret I (ca. 󰀱󰀹󰀶󰀱–󰀱󰀹󰀱󰀷 󰁢.󰁣.). Lisht, side wall o the entrance chapel o the king’s pyramid. Egyptian Museum, Cairo (JE 󰀶󰀳󰀹󰀴󰀲) fpo MiddleKingdom_2P.indd 3086/5/15 2:35 PM  309  󰁷󰁯󰁬󰁦󰁲󰁡󰁭 󰁧󰁲󰁡󰁪󰁥󰁴󰁺󰁫󰁩 Dynasy,􀀱󰀳 alhough in he lae Middle Kingdom, Tebes became a kind o second capial wih a royal palace. Kings seems o have spen increasing amouns o ime here, and a a cerain poin he cour permanenly moved o Tebes. Afer unificaion, Menuhoep II was aced wih he problem o ranserring he insiuions o he small Teban kingdom o hose o a unified sae. As a resul, new offices and officials were placed a he royal cour direcly under he king. Some o hese offices were new or he palace adminisraion; ohers, such as he  vizier, were aken rom he adminisraion o he Old Kingdom. Te highes sae officials received iles, such as “member o he elie” or “royal sealer,” ha announced heir posiions wihin he hierarchy a he royal cour and confirmed heir elevaed social saus. In addiion, however, hey had more specific designaions, such as “vizier,” “reasurer,” and “high seward,” which were he hree mos imporan offices hroughou he Middle Kingdom. Tese individuals were responsible or he adminisraion o he palace and he sae and were cerainly imporan poliical figures,  bu his ac is usually atesed only indirecly in conemporary sources. One such individual was he vizier Inefiqer, a leading figure who guided several expediions and miliary campaigns during he reigns o Amenemha I and Senwosre I. Te provincial adminisraion under Menuhoep II remained essenially inac, wih local governors reaining power and local cemeeries coninuing o flourish, as in he Firs Inermediae Period. In some places new governors were insalled, mos likely  because he king wished o place loyal officials in imporan posi-ions, paricularly as cerain sources imply ha uprisings occurred in he early Middle Kingdom. In some cases local governors a Khemenu (Hermopolis) received he ile o vizier.􀀱󰀴 I seems ha he power o he king was challenged by oher orces. Inscripions ound in he alabaser quarries o Hanub indeed repor disur- bances a he end o he Elevenh Dynasy. In Lower Nubia some local rulers even ook over royal iles. Tere are indicaions ha Senwosre I reorganized he provin-cial adminisraion and incorporaed i on all levels ino he cenral governmen on a scale no previously seen. An inscripion on he  Whie Chapel a Karnak, buil by Senwosre I, provides a lis o all provinces wih heir measuremens. Many provincial cemeeries sopped being used a abou he ime o Senwosre I’s reign, perhaps because o policies se by he king, and secors o he populaion were placed under he direc conrol o he cenral adminisraion. One revealing example is he new ile “overseer o he marshland dwellers,” which suggess ha he “marshland dwell-ers” were pu under an official o he cenral adminisraion by Senwosre I.􀀱󰀵 Anoher indicaion o a igher conrol over he counry is he inroducion under Senwosre I o he “grea com-pound,” an insiuion ha organized corvée labor or sae projecs, including pyramid building.􀀱󰀶 Local governors (nomarchs) did, however, remain in office and sill had subsanial resources; a sraegically imporan places such as Qaw el- Kebir new lines o governors were even insalled. Alhough hese were powerul officials, here is no quesion ha hey were loyal o he king, paricularly as royal names appear requenly in heir ombs. Sen- wosre I also sared o rebuild almos all he emples hroughou he counry. Te old mud-  brick srucures were replaced by sone  buildings decoraed wih relies and inscripions. Tis building program mos likely wen along wih he reorganizaion o he provincial adminisraion under he king. Local emples and relaed religious maters were now placed under he direc conrol o he cenral adminisraion. Te kings afer Senwosre I did no  build o he same exen across he counry, perhaps because em-ples were already ully under he conrol o he royal adminisraion. A cenury laer, Senwosre III wen one sep urher in cenral-izing he counry. Under his rule, even he local governors los power and were hereore no longer able o build monumenal ombs. Furher changes become visible in he adminisraion.􀀱󰀷 Many new iles appeared a all levels, while many older ones disappeared.􀀱󰀸 o give one example, he early Middle Kingdom ile “seward” now included more deailed designaions, such as “seward who couns catle” or “seward o he king’s wie,” indica-ing a srong demand or greaer precision and conrol.  Alhough local governors are sill well atesed in he Tir-eenh Dynasy, hey had limied resources and were much more conrolled by he cenral governmen. Tis developmen reached is peak in he same dynasy, during which adminisraive iles  were even more specific han in earlier and laer periods. A he same ime, scarab seals incised wih he names and iles o officials also came ino use, whereas in he early Middle Kingdom seals  were decoraed only wih geomeric or floral paterns. I became common o seal goods wih unfired lumps o clay on which designs rom he underside o scarabs were impressed (see ca. XXX). Seal impressions belong o he mos common finds a setlemens o he period, again demonsraing a wish or a igh conrol o people and goods. In adminisraive documens people mos ofen appear  wih double names, which were obviously mean o avoid conu-sion, as some Egypian names recur requenly. Tere are indicaions o a permanen “inner colonizaion” o Egyp hroughou he Middle Kingdom. Less developed and less populaed pars o he counry were now culivaed and placed under he cenral governmen. In several places in Egyp, planned setlemens were buil in a grid patern, mos likely in conjuncion  wih he urher expansion o he counry. Tese setlemens also perhaps indicae populaion movemens ino less developed areas such as he edge o he Easern Dela,􀀱󰀹 an early example o which is he planned communiy excavaed a ell el- Daba (see “ile o essay” in his volume, pp. XXX–XX). Wahsu, a own buil nex o a unerary emple o Senwosre III a Abydos (see “ile o essay” in his volume, pp. XXX–XX), may have uncioned as a local cener and example o “inner colonizaion,” while even Tebes was rebuil on a grid patern. Te mos imporan insance o he inner colonizaion, how-ever, is he Fayum Oasis. Tis marshy river oasis was deemed unsuiable or agriculure in he Old Kingdom, bu rom he begin-ning o he welfh Dynasy on, he marshes were culivaed, perhaps under direc cenral conrol. El- Lahun, a subsanial own in he Fayum, was also buil on a grid patern close o he pyramid o Senwosre II. I served as a pyramid own, bu is size and he documens ound here indicae ha i was par o he “inner colo-nizaion” as well; i cerainly was also se up and uncioned as a MiddleKingdom_2P.indd 3096/5/15 2:35 PM  310 󰁭󰁩󰁤󰁤󰁬󰁥 󰁫󰁩󰁮󰁧󰁤󰁯󰁭 󰁨󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁹 END OF THE MIDDLE KINGDOM Te end o he Middle Kingdom remains shrouded in mysery, and here is no ye any consensus among Egypologiss as o is iming and exac causes, alhough i is clear ha he close o he Tir-eenh Dynasy was relaed o evens in he norh. Te beginning and he end o he Tireenh Dynasy appear in our sources as a long line o weak, shor- reigning kings; privae monumens are sill abundan, bu he number and qualiy o royal monumens decline. Since he end o he welfh Dynasy, people coming rom he Levan had setled in he Easern Dela. Teir cener was Avaris (modern ell el- Daba), a subsanial ciy under Egypian rule bu  wih a parially Levanine culure and populaion. A some poin during he Tireenh Dynasy, local rulers in he Dela assumed royal iles and declared independence. Tese kings, who reigned or shor periods o ime, migh have weakened he power o he cenral adminisraion. Te iming o hese evens is uncerain, bu i is possible ha he adopion o royal iles by local rulers hap-pened as early as he mid- Tireenh Dynasy. Tese local rulers in he norh appear in laer sources as he Foureenh Dynasy and are mainly atesed on seals, whose daing is highly problemaic. Te disribuion o surviving monumens suggess ha he Egypian kings o he Tireenh Dynasy ranserred heir power  base rom he Memphie area in he norh o Tebes in he souh, a poin ha migh be seen o mark he end o he Tireenh Dynasy and he Middle Kingdom. Te las ruler atesed in boh he norh and he souh is Merneerre Aya, a mid- Tireenh Dynasy king according o he Ramesside urin Canon (fig. XX􀀴). Mos likely around his ime, a new line o kings known as he Hyksos sared o rule a Avaris, some o whom are atesed in a wider range o sources.  Wih he loss o norhern Egyp, Egypian kings had reduced resources. Te ew surviving royal inscripions rom Tebes repor clashes wih unnamed enemies. Souh o he Egypian border, in Nubia, he powerul kingdom o Kerma emerged and became a second enemy or Egyp. A recenly discovered inscripion o he local governor Sebeknakh, ound in his omb a el- Kab, even men-ions a Nubian raid on Egyp.􀀲󰀳 In he changed balance o power, he Teban kings ound hemselves squeezed beween he Kerma people o he souh and he Hyksos kings a Avaris in he norh. Tus began he new world o he Second Inermediae Period.local cener. Te pyramids o Senwosre II and Amenemha III are locaed on he eas side o he Fayum, a posiion chosen perhaps o  be close o newly culivaed land. Oher royal monumens in he Fayum ha are atesed under Senwosre I and Amenemha III include emples, colossal saues, an obelisk sela o Senwosre I, and a planned setlemen norh o he Fayum (see “ile o essay” in his volume, pp. XXX–XX). EGYPT AND THE OUTSIDE WORLD Shorly afer unificaion, Nebhepere Menuhoep II began raiding Lower Nubia, he Easern Deser, and perhaps Souh Palesine.􀀲󰀰 Recenly a rock inscripion naming he king was ound a he Gebel Uweina, near he modern Libyan- Sudanese- Egypian  border.􀀲􀀱 While he inscripion migh no prove miliary campaigns  were underaken so ar o he wes, i is a leas evidence o rading conacs. Raids are atesed or all o he Elevenh and welfh Dynasies (fig. XX􀀳), bu only Lower (norhern) Nubia was conquered and even parly colonized. Te ull conques o he province sared under Senwosre I and was compleed by Senwosre III. Huge orresses were buil o conrol hese new souhern provinces (see “Egyp’s Expanding Worldview” in his  volume, pp. XX–XX; ca. XXX). Similar orificaions are no known rom he border wih Palesine, bu lierary reerences menion somehing here called he Walls o he Ruler, which was mos likely a chain o orresses a he easern border. Especially in he welfh Dynasy, many expediions were sen o he Easern Deser and he Sinai in order o collec raw maerials. Expediions o he Red Sea and o he souheasern land o Pun, hus ar unlocaed, are also well known (see ca. XXX).􀀲􀀲 In he Tireenh Dynasy a ew atesaions or expediions o he Easern Deser exis, bu no o he Sinai.Miliary enerprises brough many oreigners o Egyp. Te ragmenary annal inscripion o Amenemha II, ound a Memphis, repors a raid on wo owns ha resuled in he rans-por o Egyp o 󰀱,􀀵􀀵􀀴 people who were aken o he pyramid o he king, mos likely as a workorce. Middle Kingdom liss o servans ofen conain numerous oreign names, indicaing ha oreigners were no unusual, a leas in some segmens o sociey (see ca. XXX). Fig. XX. Globular vessel with the name o Merneerre Aya. Obsidian. Tirteenth Dynasty, reign o Merneerre  Aya (ca. 󰀱󰀷󰀰󰀱–󰀱󰀶󰀷󰀷 󰁢.󰁣.). Te Metropolitan Museum o Art, New York, Purchase, Fletcher Fund and Te Guide Founda-tion Inc. Gif, 󰀱󰀹󰀶󰀶 (󰀶󰀶.󰀹󰀹.󰀱󰀷) Fig. XX. Detail o a wall painting o the siege o a Canaanite town. Eleventh Dynasty, reign o Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II (ca. 󰀲󰀰󰀵󰀱–󰀲󰀰󰀰󰀰 󰁢.󰁣.). Tebes, el-Asasi, pillar IIb o the tomb o Inte ( 󰀳󰀸󰀶). See fig. XX p. 󰀱󰀵󰀸 MiddleKingdom_2P.indd 3106/5/15 2:35 PM
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