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  1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study All organizations are set up to achieve expected goals. These goals can be fully achieved with the optimal utilization of available resources like manpower, materials, machines and money. It is worthy to note that employee, which is a resource for any organization plays an important role of harnessing all other resources. It is in line with this, that scholars have sought to understand the ways in which the efficiency of employee‘s performance can be bolstered overtime due to their germane nature (Olajide, 2014). The role of employees in an organization cannot be overemphasized, as increased organizational efficiency can be achieved if there is proper management and equality of the workforce which would subsequently increase profitability. The fact remains that companies who fully realize the potential of their workforce, not only benefit from the reduced cost of recruiting new personnel,  but also motivate their own workforce to maximize their potential (Tesfaye, 2010). Similarly, Channer, Abbassi and Ujan (2011) explained that employee performance constitutes the life line of any institute and as such there should be an adequacy of training, development, motivation and maintenance of these employees. In recent times, as businesses begin to go global and with high intensity of labor mobility, employees are bound to operate in an organization with diverse workforce in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, religion etc. hence, it is important that these differences in the work environment are been managed  properly in a way void of discrimination in other that all employees will be satisfied. Managing diversity is very essential for any organization, especially in this era of globalization. Managing diversity is required to close the unfair discrimination and thus enable employees to compete on equal  basis. Diversity in the workplace has overtime cumulated into various forms of discrimination. According to the Australian Human Rights Commission (2014), workplace discrimination is the treatment of certain workers in a less favorable manner than another group because of their background or certain personal characteristics. Omoh, Owusu and Mendah (2015) noted that workplace discrimination is a phrase that most  practitioners condemn and do not want to hear. It refers to discrimination in hiring, promoting, job assignment, termination and compensation. Discrimination happens when an employer treats an employee less favorably than others. According to Hasan and Ali (2014); and Fatima and Omar (2014), the different dimensions of workplace discrimination are; gender, discrimination, religion discrimination and ethnic discrimination. Discrimination in workplace could be direct or indirect. It is direct discrimination when an employer treats an employee less favorably than someone else. But indirect discrimination happens when a working conditions or rule disadvantages one group of people more than another. SEEDA  2 (2006) reported that racial or ethnic discrimination in the workplace has a huge impact both at individual and organizational levels. Hemphill and Haines (1997) identified six main types of discrimination which are; disabilities discrimination, sexual harassment, ethnic discrimination, race discrimination, sexual orientation discrimination and gender discrimination. Although, most work have been done in the developed countries on workplace discrimination and employee performance. These have however been a dearth of empirical studies on the relationship of workplace discrimination and employee performance as it relates to the Nigerian environment. It is this gap that has informed this study. This study therefore tends to fill this gap by investigating into the relationship between workplace discrimination and employee performance in the Demsa Local Government Area. 1.2 Statement of the Problem The problems in the work place arising from discrimination are clearly evident to everybody. The ways to eliminate discrimination in the work place have not yet been fully identified. Especially in developing nation like Nigeria, there has been great discrimination activities which appear in the form of hiring only women even in roles that men could rightly fit, employing based on the tribal card, a situation in which majority of firms in a particular state possess a strong inclination to employ individual from the same state rather than more qualified individuals which they liken to trust and security. Stunted growth of employees in terms of position and pay, as management usually discriminate towards promotion based on perception and are more likely to put certain set of individual  below their actual pay grade as a result of discrimination largely called ―reasons best known to them‖ (Alpert, 2011; Omoh et. al., 2015). Where workplace discrimination is practiced, employees suffer retaliation for opposing them or for reporting violations to the authorities, this organizational vices is most common in our part of the world, that is, Africa and most especially Nigeria in particular. Discrimination results in and reinforces inequalities and could result in poor morale of employee, high turnover, poor commitment and subsequently result in negative impact on the organizational performance. The freedom of employee to develop their capabilities and to choose and pursue their professional and personal aspirations is restricted, skills and competence cannot be developed, rewards to work are denied and a sense of humiliation, frustration and powerlessness takes over (Olsen, 2004). Employee performance grounds of discrimination can be seen when individuals feel they are mistreated because of their group membership, they often feel alienated and angry, which can result in negative work-related behaviors. Perceived discrimination is also related to more extreme work withdrawal behaviors, it is largely identified that discrimination turns the employees emotionally  brittle, simple peace loving employees transform into paranoid and suspicious, fearful and angry individuals. Elimination of gender discrimination is crucial for the satisfaction and motivation, commitment and enthusiasm and less stress of the employees (Channar et. al., 2011).  3 Another noteworthy factor is ethnic and cultural differences as some individuals harbor unfair  prejudices against people of different colors, cultures, ethnicity or religion than their own. Also is the existence of gender discrimination which represents one the oldest and most common diversity issues in the workplace is the "men vs. women" topic (Patterson, 2015). Employee poor performance result in low productivity, psychological distress, low employee involvement, lack of loyalty of employee, low salary of employee, reduced organizational and goodwill. Low employee performance negatively affects both individual and the entire organization. Hence, this research seeks to examine how discrimination in organization relates to employee performance in Demsa Local Government Area. 1.3 Aim and Objectives of the study The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of Discrimination on Employee Performance in Demsa Local Government Area. The specific objectives for this study are: i.   To examine the effect of physical discrimination on employee’s performance in Demsa Local Government Area. ii.   To analyse the effect age discrimination on employee’s performance in Demsa Local Government Area. iii.   To assess the effect gender discrimination on employee’s performance in Demsa Local Government Area. 1.4 Research Questions Based on the preceding Research Objective, The following research questions were formulated: i.   What are the effect of physical discrimination and employee performance in Demsa Local Government Area? ii.   What are the effects of age discrimination in Demsa Local Government Area? iii.   What are the effects of gender discrimination on Discrimination and Employee Efficiency in Demsa Local Government Area? 1.5   Significance of The Study Usually, no research is conducted without a purpose, the completion of this project will definitely afford educational institutions the opportunity to know the effects of job discrimination on employee  performance and enable them to determine adequate antidiscrimination policies. At the end of this study one will be able to know the impact of job discrimination on employee performance in terms of increasing efficiency of workers towards achieving high productivity. Furthermore, the finding of the research will encourage management to pay special attention on the part of personnel. This research will also be of great relevance to future researcher. Finally, this research study is also intended as an academic exercise in fulfillment of the requirement for the award of National Diploma in Business Administration in Adamawa State Polytechnic Yola, Adamawa State.  4 1.6   Scope and Limitation of The Study This study focused on the effect of job discrimination on employee’s performance in Demsa Local Government Area of Adamawa State. The study covers a period of 2 years. This is to enable the researcher to assess the performance of last administration (2016-2018) regarding job discrimination in the local government. This study among others includes in on the information gathered from text  books, journals, and internet sources, in addition to the research carried out. The limitation of this study also, is the financial constraints to enable the researcher reach the targeted audience and some vitals materials that will enable the research work. However, despite these apparent limitations notwithstanding, the researcher feels that the research had enough information with which to build a good work.  5 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Literature Review Peterson and Thea (2006) describe that their are so many ways of the gender biasness and discrimination in organizations due to the unfair actions of the employer; discrimination in job compensation package, hiring discrimination, favoritism related to job promotion, and biasness in wage setting for different type of job work. Many analysts agree on this “hiring is most important;  promotion is second; and wages are third.” Although in organizational research literature, Gender issues related to the differences of male and female were pinpointed in decade of 1950s, but highlighted as an important issue in management and organizational studies in between 1980s & 1990s. The duration between these two periods recognized the gender effects in different studies. Hearn & Parkin (1987) emphasized on female issue in those organizations who are dominated by male. Economic Forum of the world describes Gender inequality “no country in the world has yet managed to eliminate the gender gap and discrimination”. Workforce market is divided into horizo ntally and vertically with reference to male biasness and female biasness such as unfair distribution of pay and wages of male worker and female worker. Hiring criteria is different for male staff and female staff. Elisabeth K. Kelan (2009) claimed that gender-quake is disturbing gender terms and relations dramatically. It looks like that western well developed countries are well aware this issue but don‟t like to address gender  biasness and inequality among male & female employee. Parodan and Irina (2006) describe the objective of their research is to present a general idea of Romania‟s gender biasness and inequality in  both political and economic side in all walk of life of Romania citizens. One group of people assume that female has more importance and dominance in the society either workplace or not. But actually male are more dominated in government and state institutes. Different quotas are fixed in election of the state and jobs in the organizations or in the institute. of gender disparity in economic and political areas in Romania. Gender inequality facts are analyzed by the different ways and methods; for instance gender empowerment index, human development index and gender development index. Research findings reveals that people expectations are shifting from communism to democratic system and  provides more opportunities to the resident and citizen of the country is that one of the great people expectations have been changed and shifted towards more female empowerment and fair representation in government institutes or in private organization. Both type of sex must be participated in decision making and got equal benefits and opportunities from the available resources. The international scenario has been changed that female representation and participation is the basic condition of the distributive justice. Mari Teigen (1999) examines the hiring issues of one decade from 1985 to 1994 related to gender inequality. The research investigation aims to identify the discriminatory practices in hiring of different
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