Psychology

PUBLISHED PAPER

Description
This study examines tenants’ discrimination in Akure residential property market. Primary data used for this study was obtained through questionnaire survey. A total enumeration survey of all the Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in the study area
Categories
Published
of 21
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  1 EXAMINATION OF TENANTS’ DISCRIMINATION IN AKURE RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY MARKET AKINDELE NELSON AYODEJI MARCH 2018  2 ABSTRACT   This study examines tenants’ discrimination in Akure residential property market. Primary data used for this study was obtained through questionnaire survey. A total enumeration survey of all the Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in the study area was carried out and simple random  sampling method was used to select two tenants and two landlords from each of the Estate firms. The data collected was used to analyse the factors influencing tenants’ discrimination and the effects of tenants’ discrimination on property transactions in Akure metropolis.   The factors influencing tenants’ discrimination in the study area were subsequently analysed using descriptive statistical techniques such as the mean, standard deviation (S. D.) and the results were ranked accordingly in ascending order using the inferential statistical method of  Relative Importance Index (RII). The relationship between Landlords’ Ages and Sexes, Tenants’ Sexes and Occupations, Estate Surveyor and Valuers’ Years of Experience and Methods of Tenants Selection and the Effects of Tenants’ Dis crimination was determined using the inferential statistical method called Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The study revealed that Tenants’ discrimination is not affected by the landlords’ ages and sexes, i.e. no matter what the age and sex of landlord it ha  s no significant effect on tenants’ discrimination. Also the Sex and Occupation of Tenants have no significant effects on tenants’ discrimination. But the years of experience and the methods of tenants’ selection of Estate Surveyors and Valuers have  signif  icant effects on tenant’s discrimination. It was also discovered that majority of landlords in the study area discriminates against tenants based on their past experiences due to the relationship they have had with different tenants. The tribes/ethnics of tenants is the major or  greatest factor or reason why tenants think they are being discriminated against. Property managers always try as much as possible to adhere to landlords’ instruction thereby discriminating against tenants in the process. Keywords : Tenants’ Discrimination, Residential Property, Landlords, Tenants, Akure.    3 1.0 INTRODUCTION Discrimination arises due to the fact that people have stereotypical or prejudiced ideas or beliefs about other people because they happen to belong to a particular group of people or because they have certain personal characteristics or attributes. This kind of direct discrimination is often the result of failing to treat each person as an individual regardless of their sex, age, race etc. Australia (Queensland) Anti-Discrimination Act (1991). According to the Australia (Queensland) Anti-Discrimination Act (1991), discrimination can also occur in a more indirect way. In some cases treating everybody the same can be unfair  because it disadvantages a whole group of people. For example, requiring all new tenants to have  been in the workforce for at least five years would disadvantage young people who may have little chance of complying. Unless such a rule is necessary or reasonable in all the relevant circumstances it will be indirect discrimination and against the law. Indirect discrimination is not usually intentional but is often the result of failing to think about the impact of rules and requirements on different people. Tenant discrimination is a pervasive problem nationwide; it is also severely under-reported. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) estimates that more than two million instances of housing discrimination occur each year, but less than one percent are reported. Many people are unaware that they have been victims of housing discrimination. A 2002 study by HUD suggests that many renters and homebuyers do not fully understand which activities are illegal under the Fair Housing Act. Tenant discrimination do occurs when an individual or family is treated unequally when trying to  buy, rent, lease, sell or finance a home based on certain characteristics, such as race, class, sex, religion, national srcin, and family status. The U.S Fair Housing Act (Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968). This type of discrimination can lead to housing and spatial inequality and racial segregation which, in turn, can exacerbate wealth disparities between certain groups. Discrimination is common in the residential market because the landlord has his own policies  before any tenant could rent his property which the property manager must adhere strictly to.  4 In Akure residential property market, the three major stakeholders are; Estate Surveyors and Valuers who help in tenant selection; landlords who provide the residential properties; tenants who seek for housing and they are far increasing day by day. It is the duty of an Estate Surveyor and Valuer i.e. a property manager to select the desirable tenant based on some policies and  procedures. Policy on tenant selection may vary depending on the category of property, the objective of the property owner and the facilities provided. Residential property generally delivers the most balanced income, because no matter what the economic dictate, people are always in search of places to live. The need for housing by tenants has allowed the property owners to arbitrarily review rent upward, making the residential  property market to be more competitive and only the high income earners would be able to go for it. Despite the competitiveness of the residential market, there are still provisions for the middle-income earners and low-income earners in getting houses they can afford especially in Akure residential property market. In Australia, Queensland to be precise, The Anti-Discrimination Act (1991) says that it is against the law to discriminate against people because of their: family responsibilities, sexuality, gender identity, sex, relationship or parental status, race, age, impairment, religious belief or activity,  political belief or activity, trade union activity, pregnancy or breastfeeding association with or relation to someone who has any of these attributes or personal characteristics. Studies have shown that every nation of the world has a problem of housing discrimination. In recent years; discrimination in selecting tenants has become a norm in the property market especially in Nigerian residential property market. The discrepancy between the rich and the  poor, also considering the ethnic, religion, age and income of tenants has created a great vacuum and menace in the Nigeria residential property market. This has equally degenerated to informal negotiation and renegotiation. The renegotiating power stimulates the economic climate (French and Jones, 2010; Rasila, 2010) which consequently result to discrimination in tenant selection to fill vacancies in Akure residential property market. This study will examine the presence of discrimination in Akure residential property market and the relationship between the likelihood of discrimination among property managers/landlords and their prospective tenants.  5 2.0 REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE 2.1 Definitions of the Concept of Residential Property Discrimination Discrimination arises when people are singled out or excluded at a cultural or systematic level on the basis of race, class, gender, sexual orientation or another group identity, regardless of their individual merit. Discrimination is a timeless phenomenon, ancient as mankind, and some form of it lies at the heart of most human conflict. In residential property market, discrimination is when an individual or family is treated unequally when trying to buy, rent, lease, sell or finance a home based on certain characteristics, such as race, class, sex, religion, national srcin, and familiar status. The U.S Fair Housing Act (Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968). 2.2 The Review of Relevant Literature on the   Concept of Housing Discrimination The competitive atmosphere in the housing market spread rapidly, element of discrimination. Yet, accommodation is a primary necessity for any life worth living and its lack is one of the main causes of social exclusion (Baldni and Federici, 2011). Several field experiments have been conducted in relation to rental housing discrimination in developed countries. For instance in the USA, Italy and Spain, Carpusor and Loges (2006) confirmed that Afro-Americans and Arab sounding names are the most discriminated. The adopted approach was by sending e-mail to  property owners (la ndlords). In Italy, Baldini and Federici’s (2011) study revealed that there is significant degree of discrimination against people coming from Arab and European countries. The most discriminated are the names of Arab srcin and within the same ethnic group. The study conducted by Ahmed and Hammarstedt (2008) shows that there is both gender and ethnic discrimination in Sweden. All these studies, however, focused on inter-ethnic groups in relation to immigrants in the developed countries. Ondrich, Stricker, and Yinger (1989) use the 1989 Housing Discrimination Study (HDS) to analyze discriminatory actions of real estate agents. The authors propose three main types of  behaviors agents can use to discriminate against minority clientele: information given about which units are available, facilitating the sale of a unit, and the geographic location of housing units shown or recommended. They quantify the acts of discrimination by likelihood of brokers doing various actions calling back, asking about income, follow-up calls, asking about needs,
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x