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Quark Confinement and the Nucleus

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A semi-classical model of quark confinement is used which incorporates elements of both the Anti de Sitter model and the MIT Bag model. It serves as a good introduction to these and can be used to explore some of the aspects of string theory for the
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  Quark Confinement and the Nucleus A semi-classical model of quark confinement is used which incorporates elements of boththe Anti de Sitter model and the MIT Bag model. It serves as a good introduction to theseand can be used to explore some of the aspects of string theory for the student andlayperson.The “Bag” that Defines the Area of Confinement.The best place to start is to show how wave energy is both reflected and transmitted whenit encounters a change in energy density. A simple way to show this is with a wave tank where one side is filled with Jell-O, and the other side water. A wave when it hits the boundary of these two, waves are both reflected and transmitted.However if we are talking energy instead of Jell-O, it would quickly reach and averagedensity, just like the Jell-O will as it dissolves. What separates the energy dense region of the Protons and Neutrons from just melting away into space? So the MIT bag modellooks at this boundary between the composite particles of the nucleus and free space.In a semi-classical model we can use a scalar wave, but the scalar wave only defines thedirection, it does not give us much detail as needed when using it to define this boundary.Calculations of energy transmission and reflection as determined by the change in energydensity and the scalar wave larger ignored. Thus the scalar wave is treated as a membrane between the regions.String theory offers another approach where the scalar wave can be modeled as amembrane as well. In string theory this “Membrane” is shortened to “Brane”. However instring theory the properties of the brane can be defined in greater detail. Thus stringtheory can offer a deeper insight from another viewpoint on this process [1].In the Anti de Sitter model, the quarks are considered to be in their own universe. So the boundary of this universe can be defined by this membrane/brane as well. Due to thelarge amount of reflected waves from the boundary, the quarks are largely dependent ontheir waves for their existence. This is called persistence in physics and is one way todetermine how long a particle may last.So from a semi-classical approach, using scalar waves it would appear that the quarkswere in effect in their own universe due to their dependency own their own reflectedenergy. But some energy is lost through the membrane.In the MIT bag model, quark currents do not flow through this membrane. However theMIT model does not forbid it. Thus the MIT bag model would be a stable particlecomposed of quarks in the semi-classical view when the sum of energy lost and gainedthrough the membrane cancel out.  When the gain and loss of energy through the membrane do not cancel out, the particlewill become unstable, and thus a model for radioactive decay can be established based ona membrane/brane that both reflects and transmits energy. At the same time it remainsconsistent with the Anti de Sitter and the MIT Bag models for quark confinement.Source of the Membrane in Quark Confinement.In an earlier work it was shown that the quarks could be modeled as the same waveformthat produces the electron [2]. The proton is classically 1/3 the size of the electron, and if we set the classical size of the Up quark to the size of the Photon, the semi-classicalmodel predicts a mass of 1.533 MeV. This is in agreement with the limits of observationand predictions by other models and a charge of 2/3 of an electron volt. The same processwas applied to the Down quark and a mass of 4.599 and 1/3 electron volt, also inagreement with observation and the predicted mass in other models.So in a semi-classical approach, the standing wave of the Up quark defines the size of thecomposite particles termed Protons and Neutrons. The Down is 1/3 the size of the Upquark which means semi-classically it is the perfect size to benefit from reflected sourcewaves of it and other quarks inside the nucleons.The 3 quarks which make up composite particles like the proton are combining their waves to maintain an area of high energy density around them, and which in turnconfines them to this region.When this process is modeled, the composite particle is only at full classical size for amoment, and its average size over time is slightly less the classical amount. This is inagreement with observations of the Proton being measured at slightly under the classicalsize. The particle also seems to vibrate slightly, even when modeled as standing still, andthis also shows why a purely classical model of the quarks doesn’t work.Classically you could not have 3 particles sharing a region of space like this, the point particles would overlap. Semi-classically we have to take into account the Uncertainty principle and Paulie’s exclusion principle which means the point particle aspect of thestanding waves are not at the exact center, but dancing around each other and the center.This in turn causes the composite particle to vibrate in its extended form as well.This model for confinement can apply to the mesons as well. As the Protons and Neutrons can be considered as a single composite particle grouped together harmonically by source wave activity, they can in turn create an area of confinement for the Nucleus.Having a second “Bag” around the nucleus helps to maintain the Meson Cloud of thenucleus and gives the semi-classical model more depth in describing the interactions of the nucleus. Thus the Anti de Sitter and MIT models can be expanded for a model of thenucleus.  The source waves with the greatest intensity come from outside the nucleus comes fromthe electrons in orbit. So just like the composite particles within the nucleus, It mustmaintain a balance of energy reflected and transmitted at this boundary/membrane aswell.The greatest intensity of source waves from outside the nucleus come from the electronsin orbit around it. Thus the number of electrons in orbit will affect the balance of energywithin the nucleus.Radioactive DecayThis gives a semi-classical model of the nucleus that can be treated in more detail byother disciplines of physics, but is understandable to the undergraduate and below. Theinteraction of the nucleus is very complex. Even this simple model when all the particlesand composite particles are taken into account becomes very complex.Barrier penetration can be treated in either a quantum are classical fashion. This is the laststep needed to explain radioactive decay. When the energy density climbs the probabilityfor pair production increases as well, and the probability of survival goes up as well.Particles can move by barrier penetration between composite particles and the mesoncloud, and between the nucleus and the electrons as in the process known as electroncapture.Semi-classically when a wave moves from one density into another through barrier  penetration, its amplitude is changed just like any other wave would be. In this fashionthe electron becomes a quark. A higher energy density means smaller particles due to theincreased density. Thus high-energy physics is very useful for modeling the earlyuniverse when the energy density was much greater than it is today.A close examination of radioactive decay is probably too complex for the average personat the undergraduate level. Such details are also best left to more accurate models thanthis, but will serve as a good introduction to those fields of study.  [1] Mark Aaron Simpson https://www.facebook.com/home.php?sk=group_160490030648478&view=docs#!/profile.php?id=1178795215 Founder of the “String Theory Development” group. https://www.facebook.com/home.php?sk=group_160490030648478&view=docs#!/home.php?sk=group_183288925052025&ap=1 [2] Little Feather (2011) Simple Logic and Reason Virtualbookworm.com PublishingCollege Station, Texas ISBN 978-1-60264-782-4 and 978-1-60264-783-1 (Ebook)
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