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    1    2. Uluslararası Rekreasyon ve Spor Yönetimi Kongresi, 10-13 Mayıs, 2019 2 2. ULUSLARARASI REKREASYON ve SPOR YÖNET ! M !  KONGRES !   11 - 14 Nisan 2019 La Blanche Island Otel / BODRUM TAM MET ! N B ! LD ! R  !  K  ! TABI Editörler : Dr. Bülent Gürbüz Dr. Hamdi Alper GÜNGÖRMÜ !      2. Uluslararası Rekreasyon ve Spor Yönetimi Kongresi, 10-13 Mayıs, 2019 325 OA181   Analysis of Attitudes Towards Leisure Activities and Levels of Involvement of Individuals Doing Racket Sports With Recreational Purposes a Hamdi Alper Güngörmü $ ,  b Elvan Deniz Yumuk,  b Cansu Bolat, c Ömür Fatih Karakullukçu a  Manisa Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Manisa b  Manisa Celal Bayar University Graduate School of Social Sciences, Manisa c  Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University, Department For Administrative And Financial Affairs, Ankara Abstract The aim of this study is to determine the attitudes towards leisure activities and levels of involvement of the individuals doing racket sports with recreational purposes, and to compare these to various demographic variables. Sample group of this study in descriptive research model consists of 386 individuals (Medage = 24.96± 8.46) divided as 196 male (Medage = 26.39± 9.56) and 190 female (Medage = 23.48± 6.86) playing tennis, table tennis, badminton and squash. As data collection tool, Leisure Attitude Scale (LAS) developed by Ragheb and Beard (1982) and adapted into Turkish by Akgül and Gürbüz (2011) and Leisure Involvement Scale (LIS) developed by Kyle et.al, (2007) and adapted into Turkish by Gürbüz et.al, (2015) were used. In the assessment of data, descriptive statistics, MANOVA, ANOVA and Pearson Correlation analysis methods were utilized. In order to determine the reliability of the scales, Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficients were measured. MANOVA results show that the independent variable gender has significant base impact on subscales of LAS; however, it does not have a significant base impact on LIS. It is determined that the score in all subscales of LAS (cognitive, affective and behavioral) has statistically significant differences in terms of gender. In the subscales, mean difference scores of female participants are higher than male participants. The analysis results reveal that the employment status variable does not have significant base impact on subscale scores of LAS; on the other hand, it has significant  base impact on subscale scores of LIS. ANOVA results indicates that “attractiveness”, “attaching importance”, “identification” and “social relation” subscale scores of LIS significantly differs in terms of main impact of employment status variable. It is concluded that the most important factor for the participants is “attractiveness”; the mean scores of “behavioral” subscale of the individuals with high “cognitive” attitudes doing regular activities significantly increases.  Keywords:  Involvement, leisure attitude, racket sports 1. Introduction Racket sports have been played for more than 130 years and in this time there have been many developments. The major racket sports include badminton, squash, table tennis and tennis. These games are characterized by a hand-held racket that is used to propel a missile between two (or four) players with the purpose of placing the missile in such a position that one player is unable to return it successfully (Lees, 2003). Today, all around the world, racket sports are played by a growing number of people. Especially in Turkey, a harsh increase can be observed in the number of players. The culture in which an individual lives both shapes his/her attitudes and behaviors as a combination of norms and values and his perceptions and leisure behaviors related to making use of his/her leisure. That the cultural structure of a society has the characteristics of individualistic society or collective society forms differences in every area as well as it forms differences in making use of one’s leisure. When the making use of leisure behavior of an individual is considered, it is understood that there is a strong relationship between life style, attitudes, involvement, education and thought (Aslan, 2018). Ka # ıtçıba $ ı (2019) defined attitude as a tendency which forms thoughts, emotions and behaviors related to a psychological object in a regular way. According to Akgül and Gürbüz (2011) attitude as an abstract concept can be observed through some behaviors which can allow us to understand the leisure attitudes of individuals. As mentioned before, attitudes towards leisure has three components. These components are as follows: cognitive, affective and behavioral. To give an example, cognitive component can explain the sentence; “Leisure activities make people happy”; affective component can explain the sentence; “I enjoy my leisure activities.”; and lastly, behavioral component can explain the sentence; “I often participate in leisure activities.” As Ragheb and Beard (1982) states, “Certainly our predisposition to engage in leisure activities is affected by our knowledge and beliefs about leisure activities and their effects (knowledge); our liking, disliking and other feelings about them (affective); and by our past and current patterns of behavior regarding such activities (behavioral).” On the other hand, leisure involvement led many researchers today to the investigation of the field. The questions concerning leisure can be listed as how? What? When? So the primary objective is to create an active humanity. It is extremely important that  people start making use of their leisure with every inch of benefit of it. Especially, regular activities carried out in leisure have  benefits that increase physiological and psychological health (Plonczynski, 2000; Kilpatrick et.al., 2010). According to Güngörmü $  (2007), recreational activities that individuals participate in their leisure play an important role in coping with physiological and  psychological problems that are inevitable outcomes of today’s world and with keeping the organism fit and healthy.    2. Uluslararası Rekreasyon ve Spor Yönetimi Kongresi, 10-13 Mayıs, 2019 326 Kyle et.al., (2007) indicated that involvement has a mental and behavioral structure; also as they associated cognitive attitude related to leisure activities of the individuals, they pointed out that behavioral dimension must be associated with subject such as time used in leisure activities and time used for provided services. Alexandris et.al., (2012) expressed that the main result of leisure involvement is behavioral and attitude-based loyalty. The individuals, who accept an activity as an opportunity to express oneself and as an important and effective factor for their lives, can become loyal to leisure involvement. As a result of all these benefits, what motivates or constricts individuals when the matter is leisure participation has become a  popular research subject among researchers. In Turkey, these kinds of studies has increased in number for the last ten to fifteen years (Aydın, 2016; Ça # lar et.al., 2009; Demirel & Harmandar, 2009; Güngörmü $ , 2007; Gürbüz, 2006; Gürbüz and Henderson, 2014; Gürbüz et.al., 2010; Gürbüz et.al., 2015; Sarol, 2017). Many studies carried out by researchers such as Henderson and Ainsworth (2002), Torkildsen (2005) revealed that when individuals use their leisure in a positive way, their activities provide them with psychological and mental benefits. Thus, communities and individuals who form these communities are in search of different activities in order to make use of their leisure. This search of human beings put forward the concept of leisure involvement. The aim of this study is to determine the attitudes and involvement levels of racket sports participants with recreational purposes and to compare them to certain variables. The srcinal value of this study is that it determines the attitudes and involvement levels of participant in the basis of racket sports. The importance of this study lies beneath the fact that it is designed to determine factors affecting leisure involvement and leisure attitudes for people searching for a way to cope with daily problems in terms of different leisure activities. 2. Method 2.1. Study Population and Sample This study was designed in the descriptive research model. The sample group of this study consists of 196 male and 190 female 386 participants in total who play tennis, table tennis, badminton and squash with recreational purposes in " zmir and Manisa  provinces. The sample group was gathered via convenience sampling method which is one of the non-random samples. 2.2. Data Collection Tools As data collection tool, Leisure Attitude Scale developed by Ragheb and Beard (1982) and adapted into Turkish language by Akgül and Gürbüz (2010). Leisure Involvement Scale Developed by Kyle et.al (2007) and adapted into Turkish language by Gürbüz et.al (2018) were used along with the demographic information questions prepared by researchers. During data collection, we paid a great attention to voluntary participation in this study. Also before we handed out our survey, we did the necessary explanations about the survey. Also the participants answered the survey questions while they are resting before or after their leisure participation. 2.3. Data Analysis In order to test whether the data meet the perquisite for multivariable tests, the Skewness and Kurtosis values and Levene values were investigated. In the analysis of obtained data descriptive statistics methods, MANOVA, ANOVA and Pearson Correlation analysis were used. In order to determine the reliability of scales, their Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficients were calculated. 3. Findings Table 1. Distribution of Scale Scores Items N Med Sd Skewness Kurtosis C. Alpha Leisure Involvement Scale 15 386 0.924 Attractiveness 3 3.78 0.917 -0.576 0.031 0.875 Centrality 3 3.02 0.982 0.154 -0.745 0.860 Social Bonding 3 3.42 0.892 -0.252 -0.291 0.713 Identity Affirmation 3 3.55 0.922 -0.359 -0.249 0.786 Identity Expression 3 3.41 0.900 -0.247 -0.122 0.789 Leisure Attitude Scale 36 0.955 Cognitive 12 4.34 0.608 -0.825 -0.049 0.926 Affective 12 4.29 0.580 -0.458 -0.783 0.911 Behavioral 12 3.94 0.614 0.003 -0.634 0.873 When the median scores obtained from the participants for five factors of Leisure Involvement Scale are evaluated, it is determined that the first factor is “attractiveness”. Also it can be seen that internal consistency coefficient differs between 0.713 for social bonding and 0.875 for attractiveness. Total scale score for Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficient was calculated as 0.924. When the scores for three factors of Leisure Attitude Scale are evaluated, the first factor appears as “cognitive” and it is followed respectively by “affective” and “behavioral” factors. It can be clearly seen that Cronbach Alpha internal consistency    2. Uluslararası Rekreasyon ve Spor Yönetimi Kongresi, 10-13 Mayıs, 2019 327 coefficient changes between 0.873 for behavioral and 0.926 for cognitive subscales. Total scale score for Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficient was calculated as 0.955. Table 2.  MANOVA Analysis Results According to Gender Variable Female (N=190)   Male (N=196)   F p Med. Sd Med. Sd LIS Attractiveness 3.83 0.848 3.72 0.978 1.444 0.230 Centrality 3.04 1.108 3.01 1.060 0.083 0.773 Social Bonding 3.38 0.913 3.46 0.871 0.779 0.378 Identity Affirmation 3.51 0.929 3.58 0.916 0.600 0.439 Identity Expression 3.36 0.914 3.45 0.887 0.910 0.341 LAS Cognitive 4.41 0.560 4.28 0.645 4.677 0.031* Affective 4.37 0.567 4.21 0.583 7.029 0.008* Behavioral 4.03 0.591 3.86 0.627 7.277 0.007* When the MANOVA analysis results are evaluated, it is understood from the table that gender variable has a significant main impact on subscales of Leisure Attitude Scale [ * =0.935, F (3,382) =4.305, p<0.05], yet it does not have a significant impact on Leisure Involvement Scale [ * =0.984, F (5,380) =1.216, p>0.05]. In terms of main impact of gender variable, the subscale scores of LAS of the  participants significantly differs in “cognitive” [F (1,384) =4.677; p<0.05], “affective” [F (1,384) =7.029; p<0.05] and “behavioral” [F (1,384) =7.277; p<0.05] In the subscales, the median scores of female participants are higher than the male participants. Table 3.  MANOVA Analysis Results According to Marital Status  Single (N=336) Married (N=50) F p Med. Sd Med. Sd LIS Attractiveness 3.72 0.930 4.17 0.713 11.135 0.001* Centrality 3.00 1.086 3.15 1.060 0.755 0.385 Social Bonding 3.40 0.881 3.58 0.956 1.818 0.178 Identity Affirmation 3.53 0.934 3.65 0.842 0.663 0.416 Identity Expression 3.40 0.913 3.47 0.813 0.232 0.630 LAS Cognitive 4.41 0.560 4.28 0.645 14.192 0.000* Affective 4.37 0.567 4.21 0.583 3.149 0.077 Behavioral 4.03 0.591 3.86 0.627 0.268 0.605 According to the analysis results, it is determined that marital status variable has a significant main impact on the subscales of  both Leisure Attitude [ * =0.948, F (3,382) =7.021, p<0.05] and Involvement Scales [ * =0.962, F (5,380) =2.983, p<0.05]. In terms of main impact of marital status variable, it can be seen that there is a statistically significant difference in “cognitive” [F (1,384) =11.135;  p<0.05] subscale of Leisure Attitude Scale. Single participants have higher median scores than married participants in the subscales. In terms of LIS, only “attractiveness” subscale score has a significant difference [F (1,384) =14.192; p<0.05] and it is determined that attractiveness subscale scores of married participants are higher than single participants.
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