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Suggesting Critical-Thinking and Problem-Solving Method into Teaching Enlish Reading to EFL Students in Indonesia

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In this era, English has been the international language for communication in the world in every situation. So, everyone should learn about English and need the teachers to teach them. Teaching activities there is a process of transferring one's
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  Suggesting Critical-Thinking and Problem-Solving Method into Teaching Enlish Readingto EFL Students in Indonesia  Name : Mardiana HarahapAffilliation : North SumateraGmail : mardianaharahap25@gmail.com / mardiana.harahap@uinsu.ac.idIn this era, English has been the international language for communication in the world inevery situation. So, everyone should learn about English and need the teachers to teach them.Teaching activities there is a process of transferring one's knowledge to other individuals orgroups. Every teaching process or activity certainly requires an appropriate and effective methodso that individuals or groups of people who are taught are able to understand what is taught. Aswe know, English is an international language that is used in the world as a language tocommunicate globally. So, English lessons have been taught and applied in Indonesia so thatIndonesian citizens are also able to use English to be able to communicate widely in any field inthe world. One of the English skills is reading, a skill that must be studied carefully. Themethods that can be used are critical thinking and problem solving which are applied so thatstudents are able to think critically about the reading texts they read, and are able to solve theproblems they get from the reading texts and solve them by themselves.This article discusses the suggestions of critical-thinking and problem-solving methodsinto teaching English reading to EFL students in Indonesia. English as the global language thatusing by all of people in this world to communicate each other, in touching the efficient researchin the reading of the comprehensive way through the definition or opinion of expert analysis bypropagating research experts who discuss and review their research and conclude it. Theconclusion is the method applied effectively to apply to students in teaching reading, students areable to think more critically and suggest their ideas in the book of text reading they read, andwhen they find the problems of the reading they have read them, they will be able to solve theproblem with the critical thinking method. Problem solving and critical thinking as the one ofstrategy in teaching English can give the new solution for the teacher to teach the students as thevariant way in teaching and make all of the students be active in the class than before, becauseevery students have another ways to understand the text by themselves to solve the assignmentsthat given by their teacher. So, two strategies of the use of critical-thinking and problem-solvingmethods can help teachers to the skill teaching process reading the students to improve student’sunderstanding in reading, but the teacher should know the way how to using the strategy dependon the situation of the class, so the strategies can be effective to improve students in readingskills.  On statement “This phenomenon can also be observed in Indonesia where English isoffered as the only foreign language mandatorily taught from secondary up to university level inIndonesia” (Fithriani, 2017). I am disagree with this statement, because not just English languagethat teach in Indonesia, I searched on internet, there are some language that teach in the schoolslike Mandarin, Japanese, Spanish, French, German, Arabic, Kanton, Russian, Hindi, and etc. ButEnglish still the important one that we have to learn as the language to communicate in thisworld. Like on http://www.parchain.co.id/id/berita-dan-acara/bertita/keterampilan-bahasa -asing-yang-wajib-dipelajari-di-sekolah told that there are 3 kinds of foreign language that teach in theschool, that is English, Mandarin, and Japanese. Foreign language learning skills to be able toreally master it well is an effort that must be done since I was in school. That way, you will getused to and foreign language skills will be well connected. The advantage that you can getbesides that is being able to take scholarships from abroad to take part in student exchangeprograms. These two things are rare opportunities that can only be obtained by those who arereally serious in the academic field because in addition to learning new things and cultures, theycan be increasingly motivated to continue to develop themselves for success. So, it is mean thatnot just English as the foreign language that teach in Indonesia, another example, I am a collegestudents that learning in University of North Sumatera, I am in English department, but I alsohave Japanese class in 2 semesters, and my friends also learn about French as the foreignlanguage in our university.To its significance, in terms of teaching and learning language, reading comprehensionskill deserves assiduous attention. In that context, reading is regarded as the most prominentconsiderations (Iqbal, Noor, Muhabat, & Kazemian, 2001). It is a good, and I agree with thisstatement,because by reading we can get more information from the text that we read carefully,and in critical thinking we can open up our mind set to receive the true or wrong information thatwe need. Critical reading is the ability to understand the implied meaning of a reading. Becauseof that, we need the ability to think and be critical. In critical reading, the reader processes thereading material critically. (cf. Harris et al.1983; Smith, 1986; Albert in Tarigan, 1988:89). Theability to read critically is the ability of the reader to process reading material critically and findthe overall meaning of the reading material, both explicit and implicit meanings. Critical readingis careful, thorough, thinking, and active reading. Trough reading we can benefit from newinformation about the world around us, about other nations, about past achievements andexperiences or distant places. Reading can provide motives that make our own lives better andhelp us wake up from the pursuit of a mere life to the art of living a truly rich life.In terms of problem-solving as another method to improve reading comprehension skill, the twothings work hand in hand. Problem-solving as a method in teaching reading could be believedhelping students to develop their ability in reading (Li, 2010). It could allow student to advancetheir English competence through reading (Limbach & Waugh, 2010; Zabit, 2010; Li, 2010). Inthis paragraph, I have the same opinion. Beside problem-solving can helping students to developtheir ability in reading, that method can developing the attitude of student’s skill in solving their  problems, as well as in making decisions objectively and independently, make the studentsthinking that in every situation they have to make another alternative way to solve the problemby themselves by individual or in the group. According to some literature, Problem-solvingmethod is a way of teaching that is done by training students to deal with various problems to besolved alone or together (Alipandie, 1984:105). Meanwhile, according to Purwanto (1999:170)Problem-solving is the process using certain strategies, ways, or tecjnique to deal with newsituation, so that situation can be passed as desired. Besides, Zoler (Sutaji, 2002:17) states thatteaching begins with questions that lead to concepts, principles, and laws, ten proceed withproblem-solving activities referred to as teaching that applies problem solving methods. Thusproblem solving is a learning method that activates students and can train students to deal withvarious problems or solutions to those problems. Every opinion raised by experts must have been through research or considerations thatare very complicated and through many processes to get maximum results. The difference or theresults of the definitions made must be different from each literatures, there are those whoapprove it and some who do not agree with it. Comparisons and criticisms are made just to getbetter results, so that other individuals or groups of people can apply them, especially in teachingEnglish. This article that discusses critical-thinking and problem-solving is very useful as areference method or choice of other methods that can be applied in the process of trainingstudents' reading skills.Sudjimat, D.A.1996.  Pembelajaran Pemecahan Masalah. Tinjauan Singkat Berdasar Teori  Kognitif. Jurnal Pendidikan Himaniora dan Sains (1&2) . page.24-25.https://dheameiranin.wordpress.com/silabus/bahasa-indonesia/membaca-kritis/ http://www.parchain.co.id/id/berita-dan-acara/bertita/keterampilan-bahasa -asing-yang-wajib-dipelajari-di-sekolahhttp://lestarysnote.blogspot.com/2013/10/program-model-programming-problem.html?m=1
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