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Suter-Huon Comp Morph

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    ________________________________________________________ Comparative Morphology of the Huon Peninsula Languages (Papua New Guinea)  ________________________________________________________ Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Philosophischen Fakultät der Universität zu Köln im Fach Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft vorgelegt von Edgar Suter geboren am 21. April 1965 in Baden AG, Schweiz 13. Dezember 2018   ii Erster Referent: Prof. Dr. Nikolaus P. Himmelmann Zweiter Referent: Prof. Dr. Eugen Hill Datum der mündlichen Prüfung: 5. Dezember 2018   iii Preface This dissertation has been long in the making. I presented a paper on "the history of object verbs in Huon Peninsula languages" at the annual meeting of the Australian Linguistic Society in 1995 while being a research scholar at the ANU. Twelve years elapsed before I returned to that paper and found that it needed more research. I started collecting data, contacting a number of people studying a Huon Peninsula language. The idea grew of writing a book on the history of the Huon Peninsula languages. Eventually, I got enrolled as a PhD student at the University of Cologne with the intention of writing that book. As it turns out, the project will require more time than initially thought. When I got in touch with Ken McElhanon, a flood of new data forced me to go back to square one. Two years ago, when my supervisor asked how far work had progressed, I realized that completion of the whole book was not imminent and that I needed to scale the project down. We agreed that I would submit the comparative morphology part as a dissertation. The other parts of the book, the lexical etymologies and the comparative phonology, still await completion. What I present here, I am afraid, is a torso. The Huon Peninsula family is one of the best documented Papuan language families. We owe this to the efforts of Kenneth McElhanon, who conducted surveys on the Huon Peninsula and collected comparable data for all 21 languages. When he had learned of my  book project, he decided to make another trip to Papua New Guinea in order to check his data and fill gaps. What an extraordinary show of support! Ken shared not only his unpublished data with me but also his unrivaled knowledge of the Huon Peninsula languages. Thanks to his advice I avoided a number of errors. I had the good fortune to meet Ken and his wife  Noreen on the occasion of their trips to Europe. I fondly remember these visits and our exchange of thoughts. Thank you so much for all you did for me! Some of the SIL teams active on the Huon Peninsula not only shared their data with me but went out of their way to collect additional data. Thus, Sune Ceder elicited a Dedua word list for me and Steve McEvoy collected texts in Momare. I profited from the email conversations with all of them. I gratefully acknowledge the unpublished manuscripts I received from Thomas and Penny Phinnemore (Ono), Alan and Ritva Brown (Kovai), Steve and Debbie McEvoy (Migabac), Sune and Britt Ceder (Dedua), Yongseop and Hyunsook Lee (Mongi), Soini and Kaija Olkkonen (Somba-Siawari, Borong), Neil and Kathy Vanaria (Mesem), Neville and Gwyneth Southwell (Komba), and Michael and Margaret Foster (Timbe). Equal thanks go out to Chad and Janeene Mankins and their team from Ethnos 360 (Tobo). In the academic world, I was fortunate to have a mentor in Andy Pawley, who kept in touch through the years when I was unable to do linguistics and then encouraged me to come  back. Nikolaus Himmelmann accepted me as a PhD student and steadfastly steered me toward the goal, past more than one obstacle. He made it possible that I did the course without moving to Cologne, which required the creative interpretation of some rules. Thanks for your  patience and your trust, Nikolaus. My thanks also go to Eugen Hill, who reviewed the chapters of my dissertation, the last one on short notice. My deepest gratitude goes to my wife, whose gainful employment kept the family afloat and made it possible for me to devote so much time to linguistics. Merci, Helen.   iv Contents  Preface  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii Contents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv  Abbreviations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi 0 Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0.1 Previous research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0.2 The Huon Peninsula languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 0.3 Scope and aims of this study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1 Object verbs   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.1.1 Object indexation in Ono and Kâte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.1.2 Benefactive objects in Somba-Siawari . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.1.3 Multiple object inflections in Selepet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.1.4 Object prefixes and suffixes in Nabak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.1.5 Survey of the object verbs in Huon Peninsula languages . . 21 1.2 Variation and change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1.3 Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 1.3.1 Kalasa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 1.3.2 Huon Tip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 1.3.3 Eastern Huon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 1.3.4 Pindiu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1.3.5 Sankwep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 1.3.6 Rawlinson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 1.3.7 Dallman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 1.3.8 Kabwum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 1.3.9 Cromwell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 1.3.10 Western Huon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 1.3.11 Huon Peninsula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 1.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 2 Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 2.2 Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 2.2.1 Pronominal object prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 2.2.2 Basic personal pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 2.2.3 Trans-Vitiaz ergative pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 2.2.4 Huon Tip emphatic personal pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 2.2.5 Huon Peninsula emphatic personal pronouns . . . . . . . . . 107 2.2.6 Pronominal possessive suffixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 2.2.7 Nominal number suffixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 2.2.8 Demonstratives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 2.2.9 Interrogatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 2.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134   v 3 Subject-tense endings of the verb  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 3.1.1 Final verb tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 3.1.2 Final verb moods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 3.1.3 Medial verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 3.1.4 Aspectual formations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 3.2 Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 3.2.1 Kalasa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 3.2.2 Huon Tip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 3.2.3 Trans-Vitiaz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 3.2.4 Eastern Huon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 3.2.5 Pindiu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 3.2.6 Sankwep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 3.2.7 Rawlinson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 3.2.8 Dallman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 3.2.9 Kabwum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 3.2.10 Cromwell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 3.2.11 Western Huon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 3.2.12 Huon Peninsula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 3.2.13 Same subject medial verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 3.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 4 Case enclitics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 4.1.1 Grammatical cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 4.1.2 Local cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 4.1.3 Kovai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 4.2 Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 4.2.1 Huon Peninsula and subfamilies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 4.2.2 Origin of case enclitics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 4.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Appendix A: Object verbs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Appendix B: Personal pronouns  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Appendix C: Subject-tense endings of the verb  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
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