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Teacher Training - Up to the 1960s

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This is a paper that was handed out in my education class I feel like it will inform you . not mine
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  Teacher training – up to the 1960s Training of elementary school teachers prior to 1900 Early training colleges  The frst training colleges or teachers were set up in the frst hal o the 19 th  century. They were aimed at teachers or elementary schools. By 1850 there were over 30 all !ut 5 o which were associated with the hurch o #ngland. $% the 5& ' were set up !y ongregationalists and 3 !y the non(denominational British )ociety soon ater 1850 a *esleyan and a +oman atholic one were also set up,. +eligious controversy dogged much o the early training as it also did educational provision in general across the nineteenth century and into the twentieth. -any o those who esta!lished the colleges saw the new teachers as ain to hristian missionaries& !ringing enlightenment to the uneducated masses. /lmost all the early colleges were residential and small $with a maimum o 100 students, and conditions & especially or women& were poor. /ndmost courses were relatively short  almost hal o them were a year or less. 2istory was one o a large range o su!ects studied. Pupil-teaching scheme  This was srcinally started !y 4r  6hillips 7ay $ater 7ay()huttleworth, who set up a pupil(teaching scheme in a large 6oor aw school in :orwood. ;n 18<= a national pupil(teacher scheme was launched or careully selected #lementary school pupils& aged 13 or more& who ulflled certain scholastic& moraland physical conditions. They would !e apprenticed to selected head teachers or 5 years. They would teach throughout the school day and !e taught !y the head teacher !eore or ater school hours or at least one and a hal hours per day 5 days a wee. They would !e eamined annually !y 2-;. They would !e paid $>10 pa or !oys during the frst year& with girls receiving a!out two thirds o this,& and head teachers would !e paid or supervising and teaching them $>5 orone pupil(teacher& >9 or ' etc,&dependent on the 2-; eamination !eing satisactory. / head teacher could have one pupil teacher or every '5 pupils on the school roll.%n completion o their apprenticeship the pupil(teacher would receive a certifcate which would ena!le him or her to sit the eamination or the ?ueens@s )cholarship@ which would Aualiy the holder or a place in a training college with a maintenance grant o >'5 or men& >'0 or women. ; they could  'not aord to delay woring& or did not wish to& they could tae up a position in a grant(aided elementary school as an Cncertifcated Teacher@. Training college students who successully completed 1&'& or 3 years o training would !e awarded 1 st  class& ' nd  class or 3 rd  class D:B latter the highestE Teacher@s ertifcate which would entitle them to annual supplements to their salary. Developments in second half of the 19 th  century #conomic depression and cut(!acs and lac o status or the proession meant that training college standards were oten seen as mediocre and inadeAuate. / num!er o men@s training colleges closed during this period. *omen@s were less aected as their colleges were cheaper to run $their conditions were very !asic,& they had ew other occupations to choose rom& and women teachers were in demand as their salaries were lower than men@s. 6upil(teachers@ conditions declined and their num!ers dropped until the stimulus o the 18F0 #lementary #ducation /ct. The decade ater 18F0 saw a near tre!ling $rom 1'&<=F to 31&<'', in the num!er o ertifcated teachers $helped !y an easing o the system o passing the ertifcate, a more than dou!ling $1<&=1' to 3'&1'8, o pupil(teachers and a large proportionate growth in the num!er o /ssistant@ or Cncertifcated teachers $ormer pupil(teachers who did not have a ertifcate, rom 1&'=' to F&=5'.*ithin a ew years the num!er o Cncertifcated teachers was !eginning to eceed the num!er o ertifcated ones in many areas& partly !ecause o the demand or teachers& !ut mainly !ecause many small )chool Boards and Goluntary )chool managers wanted the cheapest teachers they could get. oncern grew a!out the standard o pupil(teachers and ormer pupil(teachers& and two o the larger )chool Boards& ondon and iverpool& !egan to gather theminto eternal classes or their education. This practice spread rapidly and !y the 1890s most pupil(teachers were !eing educated in 6upil(Teacher entres. ondon and iverpool also improved the conditions or their pupil(teachers raising their age o entry& reducing their teaching hours etc. The ommittee o ouncil $predecessor to the Board o #ducation, was reluctantly orced to ollow suit and in 18F8 raised the oHcial age o entry or pupil(teachers to 1<& although not& as ondon had already done& to 15 until 1900.  The ross ommission on #lementary #ducation& pu!lishing its report in 1888& considered the issues o pupil(teaching and elementary school teacher training.  3;ts -aority +eport was !roadly avoura!le to pupil teaching although the -inority +eport elt it needed massive changes and a 4epartmental ommittee was su!seAuently set up& which in 189= proposed reorm not a!olition . /s ar as training colleges were concerned& the ross ommission made the inIuential recommendation that day training colleges !e set up !y universities and university colleges. The Jovernment accepted this proposal and si were openedin 1890& and our more the ollowing year. By 1900 there were 1= with 1&150 students. This was an important development as it increased the supply o trained teachers or elementary schools& ended the isolation o training colleges and the near(monopoly o teacher training !y religious denominations& gave the study o education academic status as the students could study or a degree at the same time as their teacher training& although this was complicated and madethe worload enormous. ;t also raised the prestige o elementary school teachingas a proession. The day colleges were not completely restricted to students living at home  they could live in hostels and halls o residence lie other university students& !ut they did not have to live in the restrictive atmosphere o the isolated denominational training college. Training of Secondary school teachers prior to 1900  There was a vast chasm in prestige and educational eperience !etween elementary and secondary school teachers during the nineteenth century and !eyond. The ormer were usually o woring class srcin and oten seen $somewhat sno!!ishly, as struggling to move out o their class on the !asis o limited academic and social aptitude and training. )econdary school teachers were& !y the nature o their o!& teaching in either endowed grammar schools or pu!lic schools. They would usually have a degree in their su!ect $with the eception sometimes o women teachers in small private girls@ schools in the earlier years o the century, and they would !e epected to !e o a class reasona!ly close to that o their middle or upper class pupils. Throughout most o the nineteenth century there was very little training or teachers in secondary schools it was presumed that a degree in their chosen su!ect would suHce. %!viously as there were relatively so ew secondary schools a large supply o teachers or them was not necessary. Towards the end o the century& as secondary schools or girls were esta!lished& there was a moveto set up training colleges or women teachers -iss Buss and -iss Beale were among those who initiated these. Jradually universities introduced post(  <graduate diplomas in #ducation and some o the day training colleges opened secondary training departments. Teacher training post 1900 eginning of the end for pupil-teachers ;n his history o teacher training in #ngland and *ales 2 4ent saw +o!ert -orant as a crucial fgure in the reorm o teacher training. 2e said o -orantKhis greatest achievement will no dou!t always !e reconed his swit !uild(up o a statutory system o secondary education !ut the changes he made in the education and training o teachers were o undamental importance and it is essential to realise how closely lined the two reorms were. %ne o -orant@s main reasons or developing secondary education was to secure !etter teachers or 6u!lic #lementary schools. 1   The eperience rom the nineteenth century was that to get !etter teachers the frst necessity was to improve their general education. ;n 1900 nearly a Auarter o the teaching orce were pupil(teachers and they were !y ar the largest sourceo recruitment to elementary schools. ; teaching standards were to improve& the training and education o pupil(teachers must improve frst. )tarting in 1900& -orant !egan to tighten up the regulations or pupil(teachers the frst change upped the minimum age to 15 ecept where 2-; authorised an earlier age $usually in rural areas,. To !e accepted& they must !e approved !y an 2-;& pass a medical eam and pass an eamination set !y the Board o #ducation in +eading and +ecitation& #nglish& 2istory& Jeography& /rithmetic& /lge!ra& #uclid $!oys, or :eedlewor $girls,& and Teaching. 6upil(teachers were not allowed to teach more than fve hrs a day or '0 per wee although in some areas $eg ondon, they did less& in others much more. They were eamined annually !y 2-;. *hen their term o service was completed they could sit the ?ueen@s $7ing@s rom 1901, )cholarship eam. / 1 st  or ' nd  class pass in this Aualifed the holder to enter training college although it didn@t guarantee it as applicants were ar more numerous than places  in 1900 !arely <<.5L o eligi!lepupil(teachers were accepted.;n 1903 -orant issued urther regulations. Mrom 1 /ugust 190< new pupil(teachers must !e at least 1=. Mrom 1 /ug 1905 their hours o teaching were cut 1   2 4ent& The Training of Teachers in England and Wales 1800-1975  $2odder and )toughton& ondon 19FF,& p<F.
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