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TEACHERS QUESTIONING BEHAVIOR: A CASE STUDY

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Classroom interaction has been an interesting field of research for years since it deals with how teaching and learning process takes place. Questions are part of classroom interaction that is said to have a significant roles since it develops
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  Seminar Tahunan Linguistik 2018 1 TEACHERS QUESTIONING BEHAVIOR: A CASE STUDY Mariana Ulfah Hoesny State Polytechnic of Malang marianahoesny99@gmail.com ABSTRACT Classroom interaction has been an interesting field of research for years since it deals with how teaching and learning process takes place. Questions are part of classroom interaction that is said to have a significant roles since it develops teachers-students communication which later comes into interaction. Questions isn’t only used to stimulate students in instructional proces s, but also used to check how well students learn a topic. This study is aimed at observing teachers’ questioning behavior in two departments in State Polytechnic of Malang, namely: Accounting Department and Electro Department. The research design is case study with qualitatitive approach and the data is descriptive. This study focuses mainly on the types of teachers questions asked in the English classes.the result shows that most questions asked are  probing types of questions, specifically question to clarify and increase critical awareness. Some structuring questions are also found, it is usually aimed at ensuring whether instructions given are clear enough for students. However, this type of question doesn’t stimulate students to reply with long answer some higher order type of questions are also found. This type of question stimulate students to analyze based on previous information that was presented. It is concluded that this question was succesfull since student responsed the question with an answer that shows he analyzed. Student also used his prior knowledge to answer the question. It stimulated the students to use more English as well so it improves speaking ability. This study imply that teacher need to be more concern on what questions are asked to students during interaction, since different type of questions impact students ability to speak English as well as critical thinking.   Keywords: classroom interaction, teachers’ questions   INTRODUCTION According to Cotton (1988) a question is any sentence which has an interrogative form or function. In classroom settings, teacher questions are defined as instructional cues or stimuli that convey to students the content elements to be learned and directions for what they are to do and how they are to do it. Therefore, questioning is seen as an important strategy used in classroom since it can be used as a media to bridge learning. According to Ellis (1993, 4) Questioning is by far the most common communication  behavior used in teaching. Teachers’ questioning  is very important to stimulate, motivate and invite students to talk. In addition, teachers ask questions to check students learning, to build classroom interaction as well as to review. In line with this, Dillon (1988) says that a question can stimulate students’ motivation, focus their attention, and help students learn and think better, and also help the teacher know how well a student’s learning is. In addition, teachers ask questions for a variety of purpose such as to actively involve students in the lesson, to increase motivation or interest, to evaluate students’ preparation, to check on completion of work, to develop critical thinking skill, to nurture insight and to review previous lessons. Referring to those purposes, it is logical to state that questioning is the single most influential teaching act (Taba, Levine and Elzey, 1964). In reference to the statement, it is important to study about the types of teachers questions asked in English classroom. As stated above, teachers questions can lead students to actively participate in teaching learning activity, develop critical thinking as well as evaluate students preparation, therefore the type of questions asked by teachers have to be analyzed. The result of the analysis can be used to improve teaching learning process and finally it can also be used to improve classroom interaction, mainly in English class in State Polytechnic of Malang. It can also be used to evaluate the teaching of English, thus updates, more research and development can be proposed.  Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, 5-6 Mei 2018 2 THEORY Classroom Interaction According to Rhalmi (2016), interaction is made up of two morphemes, inter and action which is defined as a mutual or reciprocal action or influence. Thus, classroom interaction can be defined as a practice that enhances the development of the two very important language skills which are speaking and listening among the learners (www.scribd.com). In English language teaching, interaction is used to indicate the language (or action) used to maintain conversation, teach or interact with participants involved in teaching and learning in the classroom. It can be concluded that classroom interaction in English teaching, is a mutual or reciprocal action or influence that involve speaking and listening skills to converse among learners, teachers or other participants in learning. In addition to the previous definition, classroom interaction can be defined from different perspectives. According to behaviorism, classroom interaction is modeling, repetition and drills (Rhalmi, 2016). The focus of behaviorist model on classroom interaction is to transfer the correct behavior, which lead the interaction into teacher centered model. Another perspective on classroom interaction is cognitivist model. The cognitive model of classroom interaction is based on the learner processing of what’s happening in the classroom to make sense of the world (Rhalmi, 2016). Thus, in this model learners actively participate in the classroom process which is known as assimilation and accommodation. Learners assimilate his/her awareness of the outside world to his/her prior knowledge. Learners actively involve by making questions and sense about the world. Questions According to Cotton (1998) a question is any sentence which has an interrogative form or function. According to Webster (www.merriam-webster.com definition of question accessed July 2017) question is an interrogative expression often used to test knowledge; an interrogative sentence or clause. Blosser (1975) divides teachers questions into the following types; the first is probing questions. It is a series of questions which require students to go beyond the first response. Subsequent teacher questions are formed on the basis of the student's response. The second type is factual questions which is defined as questions which require the student to recall specific information s(he) has previously learned. Often these use who, what, when, where, etc. the third type is divergent questions. It is a question with no right or wrong answers, but which encourage exploration of possibilities. Requires both concrete and abstract thinking to arrive at an appropriate response. The fourth type is higher order questions. This is a type of questions which require students to figure out answers rather than remember them. Requires generalizations related to facts in meaningful patterns.The fifth type is called affective questions which is defined as questions which elicit expressions of attitude, values, or feelings of the student. Finally, the last type is structuring questions. This type of question related to the setting in which learning is occurring. The examples of these type are: "Are there any questions? Or "Any further comments?" .   METHODOLOGY This research is a case study in which the types of teachers’ questions in EFL classroom are analyzed. There are six meetings that were recorded and will be used as the data in this research. This research is designed to describe the types of teachers’ questions asked in English class; therefore it is a qualitative research. Classroom observation will be employed as the main instrument to collect data. Classroom observation can provide the opportunity to record information as it occurs in a setting and it is fruitful and workable to reveal the classroom teaching and learning strategies (Creswell, 2005). The participants of this research were two EFL teachers from Accounting and Electro Department. The teachers have master degree and doctor degree in English Teaching. The students from Accounting Department are 24 students who are mostly females. While the students of GMF are 24 students, with 3 females and 21 males. In both Accounting and GMF class, English is given twice  Seminar Tahunan Linguistik 2018 3 a week. Each meeting lasts 90 minutes. The data will be analyzed based on the transcription from the recording. The analysis is based on the types of questions as proposed in theory. The data in the form of dialogues between teachers and students when teachers were asking questions is presented in findings and discussion. In this chapter it will be discussed the type of questions asked by teachers in the classroom. The data will be analyzed based on the transcription from the recording. The analysis is based on the types of questions as proposed in chapter 2. The data in the form of dialogues between teachers and students when teachers were asking questions is presented in chapter 4. In this chapter it will be discussed the type of questions asked by teachers in the classroom. FINDING & DISCUSSION This chapter discusses the findings of this study. As explained previously, there are six types of questions that may be asked in a classroom setting. Some types of questions that appear in this study are; probing, structuring, factual and higher order questions. Structuring questions are asked at the beginning of a lesson or to end a class. The examples are as follows; ‘How was your task? Is it difficult?   ‘Is there any questions?   ‘is it clear or you need more examples?’  Teachers use this type of questions to ensure that information being explained is clear to the students. However, this type of question doesn’t invite long responses. Students only answer with yes or no. The second type of question is probing, specifically question to clarify and increase critical awareness. The example is as follow; T: Why it got bankrupt? Pre2: because the musical is speedles to make a song? T: because? Pre2: the musical Indonesia speedless to make song. T: what is that? Because the Indonesian musician? Pre1: Gimana ya? Intinya itu sudah jarang menulis lagu. T: sudah jarang menulis lagu The dialogue shows that teacher asks a reason why the company that produce the guitars got bankrupt. Teacher stimulate students to response more. When students still use Bahasa in their response, teacher ask for a clarification, perhaps to make students use English to response. Most of questions used in Accounting class are probing questions, especially clarification and increasing critical awareness type. This occur, perhaps because the class is the first grade and the students ability in English is still low. Teacher asks a lot of clarification in this class, since students tend to use Bahasa Indonesia and some sentences produced by students are not well constructed. Higher order question is used in Electro class, the example is as follows; T: yes/ I just know that those aircraft that are so cool produced by French ya/ what make the products of Dassault/ I think they are also used by America/ is that correct? By American Armed Forces/ what make them so popular? T: how long it can fly with 220 liters of fuel? Pre2: this one question from Ms Ulfa/ capacity of Cesna is 220 liters and consume at 50 liters per hour/ so/ I think it can fly for 4 hours/ so I think it can fly four hours/ T: just 4 hours This question was asked after students finished presenting about Dassault, aircraft produced by French. Teacher asked students why this aircraft is so popular because it isn’t only used by French, but by America and some other countries. This type of question stimulate students to analyze based on previous information that was presented. It is concluded that this question was succesfull since student responsed the question with an answer that shows he analyzed. Student also used his prior knowledge to answer the question. It stimulated the students to use more English as well so it improves speaking ability. The second example is also higher order type of question. It was asked after a student presented about Cesna, a brand of aircraft that is usually used for flying practice. The student mentioned that it had  Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, 5-6 Mei 2018 4 220 liters of fuel, thus teacher asked how long it can fly with that fuel. Student responsed to the question very well. From his answer it can be found out that he used his inductive ability. Factual question was also found in Accounting class. The question appeared when teacher asked about why student choose certain title of song as the most popular song in 90s. this question was asked after students presented about Whitney Houston, a popular singer in 90s. this question require students to recall specific information as well as state his/her opinion about the topic being asked. Some questions regarding to affective also appear both in Electro and Accounting classes. Teachers sometimes raised question to ask about students’ feeling toward something. For example, when a student said that Whitney Houston died, teacher asked question about how was their feeling about that. Teacher also asked about whether a brand of aircraft is important or not to students. CONCLUSION & SUGGESTION From the findings and discussion it can be concluded that teachers tend to use probing, factual and structuring questions in the classroom. Only few higher order questions are found during the observation. However, it is impossible to use only one type of questions, therefore teachers sometimes combine two or more types of questions. The observation and transcript show that asking questions is effective since students talks and have opinion on something to response to the questions. In addition, students also do analysis in responding to the questions. However, teachers have to consider the types of questions that are going to be used. It seems, different class have to be asked different questions. Finally, more researches have to be done, especially to explore reasons why teachers tend to use certain type of questions. Furthermore, both students and teachers have to learn more on how to develop questions in a classroom setting, thus better classroom interaction can be achieved. BIBLIOGRAPHY Blosser, P.E.1975.  How To Ask the Right Questions  in www.lamission.edu accessed August 2017 Cotton, Kathleen.(1989). Classroom Questioning . School Improvement Research Series .Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.Retrieved on9th November 2014,from:(http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/3/cu5.html)  Davis, Barbara Gross. 1993. Tools for Teaching . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Dillon,J. T. (1988). Questioning and Teaching: A Manual of Practice . New York: Teachers College Press.(Chapter 3). Ellis, Kathleen. 1993. Teacher Questioning Behaviour and Students Learning: What Research Says to Teachers. New Mexico: University of Colorado Fakeye, David O& Evelyn Ayede.2013.   Teachers’ Questioning Behaviour and Instructional Organisation as Correlates of Students’ Achievement in English Language. Global Journal of HUMAN SOCIAL SCIENCES Linguistics & EducationVolume 13Issue 2Version 1.0Year2013 in https://globaljournals.org/GJHSS_Volume13/3-Teachers-Questioning-Behaviour.pdf accessed August 2017 Rhalmi, Mohammed. 2016. Classroom Interaction  in www.myenglishpage.com accessed November 2017 Taba, H., Levine, S., & Elzey, F.1964. Thinking in Elementary School Children . U.S. Office of Education, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Cooperative Research Project No. 1574, San Francisco State College.  Seminar Tahunan Linguistik 2018 5 RIWAYAT HIDUP/CURRICULUM VITAE Nama Lengkap/ Complete Name Institusi/ Institution Pendidikan/ Education Minat Penelitian/ Research Interests Mariana Ulfah Hoesny Politeknik Negeri Malang S2 Communication Strategies, TEFL, Project Based Learning, ICT language teaching, classroom language Hilda Cahyani Politeknik Negeri Malang S3 Billingualism, Code Switching, ICT language teaching, classroom language Format tabel digunakan jika Pemakalah lebih dari satu orang  
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