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Thallus and Cell Wall

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  l10al)L ? ~. s1 )vrtvre, /~ oJ~k? ve n· t c v f 201 · lc-u«fr- ' 0 v , Iv Cfl } / Y c fi1l . 0 1  XJ 1-H 0Yi ,rult v e t/ -1 . \ ND PHYTOPATHOLOGY J:, , T R U IO TO U , / -/;_ 'I lee fU~ frW ' .__ /-( ~-9---4-l~'rfr'Y li~vr-Y-r---riv ' Tt-t}(~Y-:f-t9-4   -- ~c.Yl) he group are aqu a tic in osts and cause va rious po re s, conidia etc . iment due to their larg e r, some members ar e '.) btain th ei r nutritional phs and their mode of TI th e growing habitats ( ri tion. On th e basis of 1utrients by their body :nts through the body I ,ccur on th e surface of 1 dy/ ce\\ s or t\ssues a nd I 3 itahle host and cannot 1 I but can be a par:is it e I : but c an live on dead 1 rg :1nisrm especia ll y nhi osis . Th e common 1gu s). occurs on th e surface ingi ex hi bit a di ve rse \:productive feuwres: groups of fungi. In 1ak~d amoeboid ma ss \eat~ prntoplast) or a I Olpidium Yeast Non myceli al , un ice llular A Pseudomycelium B Coenocytic hyphae Septate hyphae -   ~c~   ~0 ______ _ __ FIG . 1.1. A-D . Different kinds of thalli in fungi 1 .,· 11dop asm 1di_ m (, 111 aggreg uti on of . ,, 1   y ~r.ull unrnucleatc proto pla sts Protoplasmic / membrane l J ,,ã 1.111\ln g their individuality). In the membe rs th e hi gher f un gi ca ll ed 1, 11 1 yc ot:.1 . the thallus i~ we ll de ve loped 1 1 i rcproJu,~tive structures. 'l1 >me rnc:mbas I ike yea . ~t and ã1/  11 10 /die la. t he th:i llus is unicellular 111 ,: li beh: 1Ves a.  both vegetative and l   duetivc cell. But in other forms the , d l11; conuin . a network of much he<. thi1 ~ filaments cal kJ hy pha e. 1 ' 1.11: gbJ mas .~ of lzyplwe is known as 11 11,· l li11m . Th e hy ph ae are aseptate in the ã · ·1 groups (1 \L1 stigomycotina & ·11 1 J y cotin:.1 ) where as septa are found /11 ã: lier form ~. When th e hyphae are ,, 1 1: (h aving sep tu m). there is pore in I C ;- -- ------ -  §> t -- ---- -~ Simple pore A /  . . ',, ~ Pora cap Septum ,' \ ( parenthesome ) l l l ' ' ,  __ _____ : __ ·._ : : -  ~ ,------ ::- -, ,': ·, , ;-· _ , : -, '. : , \ \ \ / , \ I \ . I I \ I \ ã ', \ ' ' · ' \ ' ' o li por e \ ,' Protoolasm1c ', / membrane B ,· p1 un1 t h;- ough wh ich cyto plasmic 1   1 11,rn ic ation between ce ll s are FIG .1.2. Septal poras in fungi. A-simple pore ; , ,lãi,·,hcJ. B asidio mycctac ha ve Jolipore B-dolipore in many Basidiomycetes _ A after Talbot 1971 ; B after Burnett 1968 1   1 1 . (F ig. 1. 2) I r l I. I l t I'    . -~ 4 MYCOLOGY AND PHYTOPATHOt:-. .. The asept:ltc th; il J,. , or hyph,.,· 0 . .1. ,; ,. ' ' nuc /c ; i the cytop/ ,.,n , an,  t w., . rn lsd i t·m nm: yt ic hyph~1tã. I 11 I I. >llJ ) '(I I  - hol o,.:arã}ic or cu c arpic dl. p c; n din g, qn th l 1 r 111 v,_ l· 1, .:rm;n\ m T/l c; r 1:i rr::tv .,<.: :; ( c; . ã ã ã , pr,,d,r c l: 1< >1l ,,, . n.: pr- odti c: tivc -; rruc: 1.1:, -...: \,Vhen t l: .: t hal us as a wh ok 1 -; v_;g 1 .: t,tt1ã, 1.: a  . , w· :I\ a., ,· q, ,ã 0 uucr: ivc.: ,,, fu n c: r:i nn . it is ca   d ho locarp 1c. H owev er , w hen a p ortio n of· the hyphac or r ll< .: 1h:1J111 s r::i J_~~s p: trr in rt: prn du ct i1> n thallus in called u ar pi c ( Fi g. l 3 J It may be n,.,n, ,ccn nc 1 1 only one) or polyc en rnc tf mo re s porangia are fou nd . I -   Th al/us converted i nto zoosporang i um Host cell Monocentric endobi ot ic Eucarpic B ~-_,_ Z oosp or es . 1 t Holocarpic A Re produc ti ve part Vegetative pa rt (r hrzoi ds ) - p art Thal lus Repr oduct ive  :::::~t.:t ã j ;ii~  ___ ~ Rh1z·   , ds . Monocentric ep ,biotic Eucarpic C ..J - Hes: c  = :/ Po ly cen tr ic Eucarpic FIG 1 3  A Ha  o ca r pic and eucarpic thalli in fungi 7 I I I Th e h yphae a re of two type s- subst ra te hyph e th t grow in si de the substrate and aerial h yph e that grow on t he s ub strate. Bo th hyphae are normally branched. The s ub strate hyphae ab so rb nutri e nt s where as aerial h yph ae bear re productive st ru ctures. The aerial hyphae very often look bl a ck , r ed , blu e, green. gr ey or b row n etc . in co lour due to the spores they produ ce or du e to pigments on th ei r hyphae walls.  nPATHOLOGY 1;. this is called as volvement in ·1 e as we ll as the hyphae or 1 -- \ .ã . J; it ' .. , e aerial Jstrate hy phae h yphae very they produce lNTRODU TION TO FUNGI Th~ growth of the hyphae is apical. 5 t s _ MODIFICATION OF MYCEL1UM: fig. 1.4 Nor~a\\y the fungal hyphae are loosely inte rw ov b . . . . . l 'il irm;   tea.tures is found for so . · en ut in some fungi mod1f1cat1on to the . . . me s pec1 ic purpose or due to -. ii u HI i i cat1o ns are discussed below· com pact grow th . fhc diff erent I I_ Prosenchyma J I t is a loosely interwoven hyphal i i The hyphae f th mass , o e mas s ret a in th eir individualit ,ii) They run more or less parallel to one another y, iv) The cell s are enlongated . It is al so called as ;lectenchyma. ( , Pscudoparenchyma i) [n higher fungi. the hypha e are interwined to form a very compact mass, ii) They loose their identity and the walls of the hyphae get fused, I i ii The y ap · ·t p ea r to be a um orm str~cture, con sisting of isodiametric or ova l cells rri vino t ap~earance of _ ~are~chy ma ~1 ssue fo r which it is ca ll ed as pse udopar enc hym :. It i o und m the fruct1f1cat1ons of higher fu n gi . i .- ) Rhizomorph \i Rhizomorph s are interwoven hyphae to form rope like structures , which are dark brown in colour . ii) The hypha e are tightly packed. iii) The rizh omorp hs are thick and gelatinous in which the hyphae grow para\\e\ to each other and losse their individuality. \ :) The outer hard black external layer of the rhizomorph is ca l\ed th e rincl. t 1' ) Each rhizomorph co ntains a growing tip. 1 ,· i) Rhizomorph s are perennating structures of the fungus to withstand adverse conci.\.tton-::, a nd can survive for several years even. ,. 1'11 ) They give ri se to new mycelia on return of fav ourable environmenta\ conc htton s. 1, l i Sdcrotia , , ) Sclerotia are specially mod ified fo r sto ra ge , pere nnati. on and vegetatwe \Yrn\Ya g ;a tic , 11) A scleroti um is a compact, rounded, cu s hi on, shaped, cy\i.ndrica\ or in:eg,u\ar o  o~ ec , :   J It contains dense mass of thick walled short h yi) hae which g\ve a \) Se pare nch yrnatu s appearance. 1 ,1·) Cells are polyhe dral in sh ape . , 1ã) The outer surface of the scleroti.um become s dark brown or black and crust like. 11 ·11 T he size of the sclerotia may vary from a pin he ad to \arge size havin g several i tn <hameter.  yTOP THOLOGY MYCOLOGY NO pt I -, Pro s en c hyrna Perithecia Ps eudopa re nc hyma , 8 '· Stalked perithe   al stroma C D F (i) F (ii) m C C C r I I I F iii) FIG. 1. 4. A-F . Various leve ls of organisation of plectenchyma in fungi. A prosenchyma, B-pseudoparenchyma, C-perithecial stroma , D-sclerotia , E mycelial strand , F-rhizomorph , {Fi)-. L.S. rhizomorph , ( Fii -T.S. diagrammaUc , (Fiii) -LS. show in g details of ce lls, r-rl nd , c- corte x, m- medu\\a . \ r , -   G- ; ' ; f  ,,-- 1 i
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