Documents

The_ancient_metallurgy_in_Azerbaijan

Description
Description:
Categories
Published
of 12
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Share
Transcript
  25 Introduction Ancient metallurgy in the Caucasus area only begins to be better known, notably thanks to Andreas Haupt-mann’s research in Georgia, which started in 2000 (Hauptmann & Gambaschidze 2001; 2006; Hauptmann & Klein 2009; Hauptmann et al.  2010; Hauptmann 2011; Stöllner et al.  2008; 2010). In Azerbaijan, however, both the early cultures and the metallurgy were poorly known until recently. In 2001, Andreas Schachner could write: “Azerbaycan: Eine Terra incognita der Vorderasiatischen  Archäologie “ (Schachner 2001, 251) and it is only through recent excavations that our knowledge of these cultures is improving and that numerous metal artefacts The ancient metallurgy in Azerbaijan from the end of the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age (6 th -3 rd  millennium BCE): an overview in the light of new discoveries and recent archaeometallurgical research Antoine Courcier, Bakhtiyar Jalilov, Idriss Aliyev, Farhad Guliyev, Moritz Jansen, Bertille Lyonnet, Nasib Mukhtarov, Najaf Museibli have been discovered. This is especially the case for the French excavations at Mentesh Tepe in western Azerbaijan, under the direction of Bertille Lyonnet to-gether with Farhad Guliyev. These excavations have srcinally been sponsored by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, then by a joint ANR-DFG project “  Ancient Kura ” and by “ Kura in Motion ” 1  in which I (AC) had a temporary post-doctoral position. Since 2006 a research partnership has been established between CNRS (UMR 7192) and the Section for Material Sciences at Bochum. It is under the direction of Andreas Hauptmann that we performed archaeometallurgical studies on these arte-facts. We also enriched our data on ancient metallurgy in Azerbaijan in 2013 through a “Fernand Braudel Out- Fig. 1: Map of the Southern Caucasus. Key sites mentioned in the text. 1: Kvatskhelebi, 2: Arukhlo, 3: Sakdrisi, 4: Boyuk Kesik, 5: Soyuq Bulaq, 6: Poylu, 7: Hasansu Tepe, 8: Göy Tepe, 9: Mentesh Tepe, 10: Sumakend, 11: Gausa Timbegek, 12: Qarajemirli, 13: Galayeri, 14: Khinaliq, 15: Aratashen, 16: Akhnashen-Khatunakh, 17: Leilatepe.  Antoine Courcier, Bakhtiyar Jalilov, Idriss Aliyev, Farhad Guliyev, Moritz Jansen, Bertille Lyonnet, Nasib Mukhtarov, Najaf Museibli 26 going” fellowship entitled “ The metallurgical develop-ment of the ancient cultures in Azerbaijan (end of the 6 th  /beginning of the 5 th -1 st   millennia BCE) ”. The aim of this article is to present the results of this research which has led to a better understanding of the ancient metallurgy in Azerbaijan. The data is presented from the Neolithic to the end of early Bronze Age. Neolithic: first evidences Some evidence, admittedly not direct, suggest that “me–tallurgy” 2  appeared during the 6 th  millennium BCE. In the Tovuz district, in a sounding made in 2006 during a survey at Göy-Tepe (Fig. 1) before its excavations by F. Guliyev and Y. Nishiaki, a metallurgical waste, i.e. a slag with very small metal prills, was discovered in a level dated to the middle of the 6 th  millennium 3  (Lyonnet & Gulyev 2010, 224 and footnote 5). The slag is mainly composed of a vitrified matrix of alumino-silicate-calcite according to the analyses carried out by Scanning Electron Miscoscope Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) done in the Bochum laboratory. Few small inclusions of ZnS were also detected. The prills were only analysed by Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) in the Baku lab-oratory where some significant amounts of arsenic (2.4%   As) and nickel (0.8%   Ni) have been detected.Still in the Tovuz district, at Mentesh Tepe (Fig. 1), a site characterized by a long period of occupation from the Neolithic to the end of the Early Bronze Age (Lyonnet et al . 2012), a layer of green crushed mineral was dis-covered in a level dated to the first half of the 6 th  mill. 4 . According to ICP-MS analysis, the soil sample contains 200 mg/kg of coppr. This concntration is unusua and higher than those measured outside the layer 5 . We are therefore inclined to suppose that this layer is linked to copper metallurgical activities. Furthermore, a small fragment of azurite, analysed by X Ray Diffraction (XRD), was discord 80 cm 6  below this green layer, in the same house. This second evidence reinforces our hypothesis that metal activities were practiced in this place during the first half of the 6 th  millennium.In still another Neolithic site also dated to the 6 th  mill., at Hasansu Tepe (Fig. 1), in the Agstafa district, N. Mu-seibli found in 2009 half a stone hammer secondly used as a grinding stone (Museibli 2009; 2011; 2012a). It had been used to grind copper ores because some min-eral powder was still trapped in the limestone porosities (Museibli 2012a). The X Ray Fluorescence analysis (XRF) done in the Baku laboratory has detected 0.02-0.064% of copper. The XRF analysis undertaken in the Bochum laboratory on powder collected on the surface of this tool confirms the presence of copper (0.088% Cu), as does, finally, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spec-trometry analyses (ICP-MS) (0.05% Cu). These discoveries made in Azerbaijan confirm a body of evidence discovered earlier in Georgia, at Arukhlo (Hansen & Mirtskhulava 2012), and in Armenia, at Aratashen and Akhnashen-Khatunarkh (Badalyan et al.  2007; 2010; Meliksetian et al . 2011). Considered alto-gether, they suggest that the beginnings of “metallur-gy” in the Southern Caucasus probably date back to the Neolithic, during the 6 th  millennium. Chalcolithic Mentesh Tepe (second half 5 th  millennium) Due to the long absence of 14C dates, the Chalcolithic period has long been unknown in the Caucasus, though a few sites had been excavated, but without clear archi-tecture or material culture (Lyonnet & Gulyev 2010). Likewise, the data related to metallurgy was limited to only a few pieces of evidence (Courcier 2007). The recent excavations made at the site of Mentesh Tepe, however, have yielded exceptional results concerning metallurgy. Among 138 metal evidences found there, 62 are dated to 4350-4200 BCE, or the beginnings of the Late Chal-colithic period (LC0-LC1). Moreover, they represent the different steps of the “chaîne opératoire”, from copper bearing rocks (azurite, digenite, cuprite), to technical ceramics, remains of metal production, semi-manufac-tured objects and, finally, to finished metal objects. How-ever, no specific oven linked only to metallurgical activ-ities has yet been discovered (Courcier 2012; Courcier et al.  forthcoming b). Studies made on the technical ceramics (crucibles, moulds) suggest temperatures above 1050-1100°C. Besides small fragments of semi-manufactured objects, a copper ingot with an ex-cellent state of preservation and of rather large dimen-sions 7  has been discovered under a wall. It is made of pure copper, with traces of silver and lead. A number of artefacts, among which two rectangular-shaped section rings and 34 awls, of which seven are complete, have also been found in these chalcolithic levels. Metallo-graphic analyses have revealed the operational se-quence for their production: casting, cold-working, an-nealing, and, for some of them, a final intensive cold-working. The majority of these objects is made from unalloyed copper while only eight are arsenical copper (1.4-3.2% As). Rings and awls are also characterized by significant traces of lead and silver (Courcier et al.  forth-coming b). Studies on the trace elements as well as lead isotopic analyses help considering the provenance of the copper ores: three areas may have been the sources, i.e. the “volcanogenic massif sulfide” (VMS) deposits lo-cated either in Eastern Armenia (Alaverdi, Vanadzor dis-tricts), in the southern part of Georgia (Madneuli), or in Western Azerbaijan (Gosha, Kedabek districts) (Courcier et al.  forthcoming b). The development of local metal-lurgy at Mentesh Tepe during the second half of the 5 th  millennium is correlated with profound changes in the material culture (ceramic, architecture) linked to contacts between the Caucasus and northern Mesopotamia that have yet to be explained (Lyonnet 2012).   The ancient metallurgy in Azerbaijan from the end of the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age 27    P  e  r   i  o   d   S   i   t  e   O   b   j  e  c   t   A  r  c   h  a  e  o .  n  u  m   b .   D   B   M   l  a   b .  n  u  m   b .   t  r  a  c  e  e   l  e  m  e  n   t  s  m  a   j  o  r  e   l  e  m  e  n   t  s   A  g   S   b   T  e   P   b   B   i   A  u   P   F  e   C  o   N   i   Z  n   S  e   S   S  n   A  s   C  u   L  e   i   l  a   t  e  p  e   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   S  o  y  u  q  -   B  u   l  a  q  a  w   l   A   Z   E  -   0   4   9    4   5   9   2   /   1   2    7   1   0   2   5   0   0   6   9   5   0   6   5   1   5   2   5   1   4   0   4   5   9   0   0   6   2   0   1   9   0   3   1 ,   3   5   8   5 ,   2   L  e   i   l  a   t  e  p  e   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   B  o  y  u   k  -   K  e  s   i   k  a  w   l   A   Z   E  -   0   8   3    4   5   9   7   /   1   2    7   5   0   2   0   3   9   5   5   2   1   7   0 ,   0   4   4   5   1   5   1   0   0   6   5   3   3 ,   8   8   9   2 ,   6   L  e   i   l  a   t  e  p  e   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   B  o  y  u   k  -   K  e  s   i   k   d  a  g  g  e  r   A   Z   E  -   0   8   4    4   5   9   8   /   1   2    8   2   0   5   5   0   2   0   2   4   0   0   2   2   0   9   2   1   5   <   0 ,   0   1   4   0   1   5   1   5   0   2   5   5   2 ,   4   0   8   8 ,   3   L  e   i   l  a   t  e  p  e   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   P  o  y   l  u  a  w   l   A   Z   E  -   0   8   5    4   5   9   9   /   1   2    6   4   0   8   5   9   1   3   0   1   3   0   2   5   3   5   1   5   0   <   0 ,   0   1   7   1   0   2   1   0   8   0   2   3 ,   2   6   8   6 ,   7   L  e   i   l  a   t  e  p  e   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   L  e   i   l  a   t  e  p  e  u  n   d  e   t  e  r  m   i  n  e   d  o   b   j  e  c   t   A   Z   E  -   1   6   1    4   6   8   4   /   1   1    5   0   0   3   7   0   3   5   2   7   0   6   0   2   5   5   2   5   8   8   8   0   0   <   0 .   1   8   0   1   7   0   2   5   3 ,   8   6   8   8 ,   4   M  a  r   t   k  o  p   i  -   B  e   d  e  n   i   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   H  a  s  a  n  s  u  s  p   i  r  a   l  -  s   h  a  p  e   d   h  a   i  r  p  e  n   d  e  n   t   A   Z   E  -   0   8   6    5   0   3   5   /   1   2    1   0   2   0   3   1   2   0   2   2   5   4   0   1   6   0   4   1   4   0   0   3   0   0   3   3   6   0   0   6   5   0   0   0 ,   1   5   7   2 ,   0   M  a  r   t   k  o  p   i  -   B  e   d  e  n   i   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   H  a  s  a  n  s  u   f   l  a   t  a  x  e   A   Z   E  -   0   8   7    4   6   0   0   /   1   2    2   5   0   8   3   0   1   1   0   0   2   2   5   5   1   3   0   0   0 ,   7   9   0   1   5   4   1   0   0   1   4   0   0 ,   9   8   8   5 ,   0   M  a  r   t   k  o  p   i  -   B  e   d  e  n   i   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   H  a  s  a  n  s  u  s  p  e  a  r   h  e  a   d   A   Z   E  -   0   8   8    4   6   0   1   /   1   2    2   7   0   3   3   0   1   7   5   2   1   6   4   0   <   0 ,   0   1   1   6   0   8   <   4   1   4   0   1   5   1 ,   6   3   9   4 ,   2   M  a  r   t   k  o  p   i  -   B  e   d  e  n   i   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   H  a  s  a  n  s  u  g  o  u  g  e   A   Z   E  -   0   8   9    4   6   0   2   /   1   2    3   7   0   5   6   0   <   1   1   0   0   0   1   5   <   1   1   0   1   2   0   1   1   7   0   2   0   <   4   9   5   5   5   0 ,   9   3   9   6 ,   1   M  a  r   t   k  o  p   i  -   B  e   d  e  n   i   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   H  a  s  a  n  s  u  s  p  e  a  r   h  e  a   d   A   Z   E  -   0   9   0    4   6   0   3   /   1   2    3   0   0   2   1   2   0   2   <   1   3   2   7   0   0   1   0   5   0   2   0   <   4   1   0   0   1   0   2 ,   5   4   9   2 ,   9   M  a  r   t   k  o  p   i  -   B  e   d  e  n   i   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   H  a  s  a  n  s  u  s   h  a   f   t  -   h  o   l  e  a  x  e   A   Z   E  -   0   9   1    4   6   0   4   /   1   2    4   2   0   3   7   0   <   1   1   3   0   1   0   1   1   1   0   1   4   0   3   2   0   0   1   2   0   <   4   1   8   0   2   0   1 ,   0   8   9   3 ,   9   M  a  r   t   k  o  p   i  -   B  e   d  e  n   i   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   K   h   i  n  a   l   i  q  s  p  e  a  r   h  e  a   d   A   Z   E  -   1   3   2    4   4   4   4   /   1   3    3   4   0   1   2   0   0   2   3   1   0   7   1   0   4   5   9   0   <   0 ,   0   1   3   4   0   2   0   2   5   <   1   0   3   5   0 ,   4   5   9   9 ,   0   M  a  r   t   k  o  p   i  -   B  e   d  e  n   i   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   K   h   i  n  a   l   i  q  c  u  r  v  e   d  p  e  n   d  e  n   t   A   Z   E  -   1   3   3    4   4   4   5   /   1   3    3   7   0   3   1   0   7   7   5   8   1   0   4   0   2   0   <   0 ,   0   1   8   5   8   3   0   <   1   0   1   5   1 ,   1   1   9   5 ,   7   M  a  r   t   k  o  p   i  -   B  e   d  e  n   i   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   K   h   i  n  a   l   i  q  p  e  n   d  e  n   t   A   Z   E  -   1   3   4    4   6   1   2   /   1   2    4   2   0   3   4   0   4   2   3   0   1   5   1   5   3   4   0   9   5   <   0 ,   0   1   7   0   9   5   4   1   0   8   0   0 ,   3   9   8   8 ,   2   M  a  r   t   k  o  p   i  -   B  e   d  e  n   i   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   K   h   i  n  a   l   i  q  s  p   i  r  a   l  -  s   h  a  p  e   d   h  a   i  r  p  e  n   d  e  n   t   A   Z   E  -   1   3   5    4   6   1   3   /   1   2    8   5   4   6   0   <   1   2   5   0   1   2   9   0   4   0   0 ,   3   4   0   5   9   3   0   2   0   1 ,   7   7   9   7 ,   9   M  a  r   t   k  o  p   i  -   B  e   d  e  n   i   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   Q  a  r  a   j  e  m   i  r   l   i   b  e  a   d   A   Z   E  -   1   4   2    4   6   1   6   /   1   2    8   5   7   5   1   1   2   0   2   1   1   5   0   0   2   4   0   1   0   7   0   2   5   2   2   0   0   1   4   0   0 ,   1   6   6   8 ,   5   M  a  r   t   k  o  p   i  -   B  e   d  e  n   i   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   G  a  u  s  a  -   t   i  m   b  e  g  e   k   d  a  g  g  e  r   A   Z   E  -   1   3   8    4   6   1   5   /   1   2    2   4   0   7   0   0   1   5   2   8   0   1   0   5   0   1   5   1   4   7   0   0   1   2   0   1   3   0   0   3   0   4   0   8   2   0   7   5   0   1 ,   6   1   9   0 ,   3   M  a  r   t   k  o  p   i  -   B  e   d  e  n   i   C  u   l   t  u  r  e   G  a  u  s  a  -   t   i  m   b  e  g  e   k  s   h  a   f   t  -   h  o   l  e  a  x  e   A   Z   E  -   1   3   9    4   4   4   6   /   1   3    4   9   0   1   1   0   0   1   0   1   1   0   0   4   5   3   0   5   4   0   4   0   0   0   1   2   0   3   3   0   0   2   0   2   5   6   6   0   5   1   4   0   0   1 ,   5   1   8   4 ,   4    T  a   b .   1  :   C   h  e  m   i  c  a   l  c  o  m  p  o  s   i   t   i  o  n  s  o   f   t   h  e  a  n  a   l  y  s  e   d  o   b   j  e  c   t  s   i  n  a   l   l  o  y  e   d  c  o  p  p  e  r .   C  o  n  c  e  n   t  r  a   t   i  o  n  s  a  r  e  e  x  p  r  e  s  s  e   d   i  n  m  g   /   k  g   f  o  r   t   h  e   t  r  a  c  e  e   l  e  m  e  n   t  s ,  a  n   d   i  n  w  e   i  g   h   t  p  e  r  c  e  n   t  a  g  e   f  o  r   t   h  e  m  a   j  o  r  e   l  e  m  e  n   t  s .    A  n  a   l  y  s  e  s   d  o  n  e   b  y   I   C   P  -   M   S  w   i   t   h   T   h  e  r  m  o   S  c   i  e  n   t   i   f   i  c   E   l  e  m  e  n   t   X   R .   A  n  a   l  y  s  e  s  c  a  r  r   i  e   d  o  u   t   i  n   t   h  e   S  e  c   t   i  o  n   f  o  r   M  a   t  e  r   i  a   l   S  c   i  e  n  c  e  s  w   i   t   h   i  n   t   h  e   D  e  u   t  s  c   h  e  s   B  e  r  g   b  a  u  -   M  u  s  e  u  m    B  o  c   h  u  m .  Antoine Courcier, Bakhtiyar Jalilov, Idriss Aliyev, Farhad Guliyev, Moritz Jansen, Bertille Lyonnet, Nasib Mukhtarov, Najaf Museibli 28 Sites related to the Leilatepe Culture (LC2-LC4, c. 3900/3800-3500) Around 3800 BC (LC 2), massive intrusions of Mesopo-tamian features are clearly visible in the Caucasus, at least in the ceramics of sites like Leilatepe, Berikldeebi and those of the Majkop Culture (Lyonnet 2007). The nature of this phenomenon is still unknown. The wealth of material found in some of the tombs of the Caucasus, and the apparition in Mesopotamia of imported mate-rial from different regions, suggest that exchanges were playing an important role. It is also at that time that a significant rise in the metallurgy of the Caucasus, Ana-tolia and Iran is discernable (Courcier 2010).In Azerbaijan, in the Karabakh plain (Agdam district), excavations conducted several years ago by I.G. Nari-manov at the site of Leila Tepe have brought to light several metal artifacts: awls, wire, a fragment of a curd pat, tip of a knif/daggr and undtrmind fragments (Narimanov 1985; 1987; Aliev & Narimanov 2001). Moreover, in building 4, prills and remains of melting mixed with ashes and slags suggest the man-ufacturing of metals. During the 90’s Some analyses have been done in the laboratory of the Institute of Conservation   and   Restoration   of Cultural Heritage in Madrid (Aliev & Narimanov 2001, 135, tab. 1). They have shown that the objects were mostly made of un-alloyed copper but that a few were made from arseni-cal copper (1.2-7.3 % As) (Akhundov 2007). Recently, we made ICP-MS analyses in the Bochum laboratory on a sample from an undetermined fragment that showed that it is made from arsenical copper (3.9% As), with significant traces of silver, lead and nickel 8  (Tab. 1).In 2006, several metal objects have been discovered at the settlement of Boyuk-Kesik (Agstafa district) during salvage excavations along the BTC pipeline con-ducted by Museibli: six awls, two daggers with rivets together with metal slag, a stone mould for a shaft-hole axe and a crucible with remains of melting (Museibli 2007). According to the analyses done in Baku, they are made of unalloyed copper. New analyses, made recently at Bochum on two of them, suggest that they consist of arsenical copper (2.4 & 3.9 % As), with sig-nificant traces of silver, lead and antimony (Tab. 1). We also made some metallographical studies on the dag-ger, which show that it was casted, cold worked and annealed (Courcier et al.  in press & forthcoming a).In 2007, close to Boyuk Kesik, kurgans within a cemetery were excavated at Soyuq Bulaq under the direction of B. Lyonnet and T. Akhundov. They have been dated to the first half of the 4 th  mill. 9  (Lyonnet et al.  2008; 2011). An awl, a dagger, two rings, 33 beads of silver and 23 beads of gold were found during these excavations. SEM-EDS were done at the Bochum laboratory (Courcier et al.  2008) and recently, a new sample of the awl was analysed there by ICP-MS. The awl is made of arsenical coppr (1.4% As), with significant tracs of antimon and nickel (Tab. 1). The rings and the 33 beads are silver with important amounts of copper and gold (Courcier et al.  2008). OES analyses were done in par-allel on the same objects at the Baku laboratory and gave rather similar results (Akhundov et al.  2007, tab. 1), though the presence of tin (0.37%   Sn), detected in the dagger, would need to be confirmed by ICP-MS. Unfortunately, no archaeometallurgical studies have yet been done on the gold beads in spite of their un-doubtable interest (see below).A crucible and an awl have also been discovered in 2010 at Poylu, in the Agstafa district, still during the BTC excavations (Museibli 2010b). According to the sample analysed by ICP-MS, the awl is made of arsen- ica coppr (3.3% As), with tracs of sir (Tab. 1). In 2012-2013, Museibli also found numerous artefacts linked to metallurgy (stone tools, crucibles, a dagger and undetermined metal objects) at Galayeri in the Qabala district, a site dated to the early 4 th  millennium 10  (Museibli 2013) and kindly allowed us to sample a lot of them. The analyses are actually in progress at the Bochum laboratory.Lead isotopic analyses were carried out on four metal objects coming from 3 sites (Poylu, Soyuq Bulaq & Boyuk Kesik). According to this study, the copper ores used may have come from the VMS-ores of the Alaverdi and Vanadzor districts in North-western Armenia (Courcier et al.  forthcoming a). However, new samples are need-ed to confirm this hypothesis about their provenance. The gold beads discovered at Soyuq Bulaq raise the question of the provenance of the precious metal. The debate is all the more interesting since an old gold mine has been discovered at Sakdrisi, in South Georgia, lo-cated only 70   km to the west of Soyuq Bulaq as the crow flies. The mine was used since the second half of the 4 th mill. BC, and perhaps even earlier as shown by several 14C cal. dates (Stöllner & Gambaschidze 2011; Stöllner et al.  2014). Only archaeometallurgical and isotopic studies on the gold beads from Soyuq Bulaq could show if the gold also came from the Sakdrisi mine. Early Bronze Age Kura Araxes (2 nd  half of the 4 th  - 1 st  half of the 3 rd millennium) 11 At Mentesh Tepe, two phases at least have been distin-guished within the Kura-Araxes period. The earliest, dated between the second half of the 4 th  and the very beginning of the 3 rd  mill., is characterized by a large collective burial under a kurgan (Lyonnet et al . 2012). A few metal artefacts were found close to the kurgan, but none within it: an awl fragment, a small ring and a pendant. Their typology and chemical composition may date them to this earliest phase of Kura-Araxes occu-pation. Indeed, the pendant presents strong typological similarities with ornaments found in Georgia at Kvatskhelebi - Tulepia, in a Kura-Araxes grave dated to
Search
Tags
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x