Articles & News Stories

The History And the Age of The Moors in Spain: How The Moors Civilized Europe

Description
According to Ivan Van Sertima. It is generally assumed that the movement of Africans into E
Published
of 27
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  The History And the Age of The Moors in Spain: How TheMoors Civilized Europe  According to Ivan Van Sertima. It is generally assumed that the movement of Africans into Europein significantly large numbers and into positions of real power, did not occur until the Musliminvasion of Spain in 711 A.D. In Al-Makkary's History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain ,however, we learn of a great drought that afflicted Spain about three thousand years ago, acatastrophe that was followed not long afterwards by an invasion from Africa. this, of course, hadnothing to do with the medieval Moors, but it is worth noting here because it actually established anancient African Dynasty in Spain, a fact that is omitted from the 'official histories'.The second major intrusion of an African Army into Spain before the Moors, occurs sometime around700 B.C. during the period of the 25th Dynasty in Egypt, when the Ethiopian Taharka was a younggeneral, but before he had been ceded to the throne by his uncle Shabataka. Africans in generalwere called the Ethiopians; in medieval times most africans were called Moors; in modern timessome Africans were called Negroes. The Ethiopians were named by the Greeks. The Word Ethiopiameans burnt face from the Greek names Ethios+face.This description referred to these dark complexion of these Africans, which the Greeks attributed tosunburn. In the Literature on Africa, Africans are commonly identified in two groups: oneprogressive, the other, backward. The progressive peoples are called the Hamites, Kushites, Moors,etc., whereas the backward ones are called Negroes. The word Negro comes from the Latin wordiger, meaning black. Hamites, Kushites and Moors were also black, but they have been inducted intothe white race. We need to put this history of Spain and Moors in its true perspective. The Historicalaccount below needs some consideration  After the destruction of the old city of Carthage in 146 B.C., the Romans established a group o fiveprovinces in North Africa, which territory was called Africa Romana. The Ancient Libyan inhabitantsof this region, srcinally a branch of the western Ethiopians became intermixed with thePhoenicians, Greeks, and Roman immigrants. The modern obsessions of racial and religiousprejudice were unknown in the ancient wold, and the various ethnic groups intermarried freely. TheRomans called the indigenous dwellers of North Africa 'barbari' (barbarians), from whence we getthe name Berber .So, in medieval and even modern times, the Africans have generally been known as Berbers. TheRomans dubbed these Africans barbarians, not because of any cultural inferiority, but merelybecause certain social customs were different from those of the Romans. The Libyans or Berbers,possessed a matriarchal type of social organization, which was common to all African societies, butwhich seemed quite odd and strange to the Romans of Europe. The Roman Imperialists were able toconquer Carthage only because they were aided by the rulers of Numidia and Mauritania, and, bythe citizens of the Phoenician colony of Utica. The tragic result of this misguided policy of the African brothers of the Carthaginians is well told by Professor J.C. deGraft-Johnson, as follows: The Numidian and Mauritanian kings and chief allied themselves to the Romans because theydesired home rule or self-government, and for that reason they wanted the power of Carthagedestroyed, as Carthaginian influence was already making itself felt in their internal and externalaffairs. But no sooner had the Numidian kings and chiefs assisted Rome to destroy Carthage than  Rome picked a quarrel with them and annexed their country. The Mauritanian kings, who occupiedpart of modern Morocco and Algeria, had hoped to exercise self-determination and enjoy full self-government, but this was not to be. Within the hundred -odd years from the fall of Carthage in 146B.C. to 42 B.C., Rome incorporated or absorbed into her empire the regions equivalent to westernTripolitania, Tunisia, and all the coastal regions of Algeria and Morocco. Rome also annexed the oldGreek colonies of Cyrenaica, and in 30 B.C. added the newly acquired territory of Egypt to theCyrenaican possession in order to form a Roman province. (J.C. deGraft-Johnson) They are nearer to animals than men ... They are by nature unthinking and their manners crude.Their bellies protrude; their color is White and their hair is long. In sharpness and delicacy of of spirit and intellectual perspicacity they are nil. Ignorance, lack of reasoning power and boorishnessare common among them. (Davidson) Eurocentric Historians argue that Europe gave civilization to Africa, which is a complete inversion of the truth. The first civilized Europeans were the Greeks, whowere chiefly civilized by the Africans of the Nile Valley. Davidson in the quote above was describingEurope before the coming of the Africans(Moors)The Greeks transmitted this culture to the Romans, who finally lost it, bringing on a dark age of fivehundred years. Civilization was restored to Europe when another group of Africans, the Moors,brought this dark age in Europe to an end, meanwhile re-civilizing the Christian barbarians of Europe. After the end of the Helenistic culture of Alexandria, the Romans became the newcustodians of civilization. But the Roman system of society was not built to last; for in intellectualacumen, the Romans were greatly inferior to the Greeks. In the fields of pure science and abstractthought the Romans made a sorry showing.Contrariwise, in the industrial arts, and in the applied sciences, their contributions to culture wereof considerable merit. The defects of the Roman system, however, overshadowed its virtues, and indue time led to its disintegration. The main shortcomings of Roman civilization were slavery,militarism, and a bad fiscal system; and these vices gradually led the Empire into the debacle of theDark Ages. As the Roman ruling class tried to postpone the looming crisis, they disestablished theold pagan cults and made Christianity the state religion, but this did not help. In the early part of thefifth century A.D., the Barbarians overran the Western Roman Empire, and by the end of the fifthcentury, the Roman civilization lay wasted in ruins. Sir Charles Oman gave an account of thistransfer of power in the following manner: In the summer of 477 A.D., a band of ambassadors, who claimed to speak the will of the decayedbody, which still called itself the Roman Senate, appeared before the judgement seat of the EmperorZeno, the ruler of Constantinople and the Eastern Empire. They came to announce to him that thearmy of the west had slain the patrician Orestes, and deposed from his throne, the one of Orestes,the boy Emperor Romulus. But they did not then proceed to inform Zeno that another Caesar hadbeen duly elected to replace their late sovereign. Embassies with such news had been common of late years, but this particular deputation, unlike any other which had yet visited the Bosphorus,came to announce to the Eastern Emperor that whose own mighty name sufficed for the protectionof both East and West. They laid at his feet the diadem and purple robe of Romulus, and professed totransfer their homage and loyalty, to his August person. When the fifth century ended, Europe had begun the long night of the Dark Ages, which lasted fivehundred years(500-1000 A.D.). Although the fall of the Roman Empire was attributed to theBarbarians, Professor James Thompson intones: The Dark Ages were at least as much due tocorruption of the church as to the decay of Roman civilization or the Barbarian invasions. A teutonicgroup called the Vandals, who were dwelling by the Baltic Sea and moved southward by way of theUpper Danube into Gaul and then into Northern Spain. By 411 A.D., they had attained an official  status as subjects of the Roman Empire and were ceded grants of land from that body. Then the Visigoths invaded and caused the Vandals to retreat to southern Spain. Through luck they wereinvited to come and to settle in Africa Romana by Count Boniface, a Roman Legate in North Africa.Dr. J.C. deGraft-Johnson tells us some of the reasons why this was the case: When Count Boniface, Roman Legate in Africa , sent an invitation to the Vandals to come over inorder to assist him to govern the five provinces of North Africa, he opened up a new chapter in African history. Boniface sought to protect himself as best as he could, by choosing to betray Romeand rebel against the Imperial might. The reason for all that was that after he was summoned toRome, he learned that Empress Placida was dead set on ruining him. Calling in the Vandals was away of self-preservation, and in the end turned traitor. Count Boniface's wife was a Vandal, and itwas only natural that he should have sought help from that quarter.We do not know what other reasons Boniface had for inviting the Vandals to Africa, but the invitationwas sent, in spite of the eloquent protest from St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo. ... Count Boniface'sinvitation therefore was very welcome, and the Vandals there and then took the serious decision toleave Spain forever. ... This tremendous invasion found Africa unprepared. Count Boniface realizedhis mistake when it was too late - and the irony of the situation was that he found no city in which toseek refuge except Augustine's city of Hippo. Boniface held out in Hippo for fourteen months, but hehad to surrender to the Vandals in the end. ... The city fell in 430 and with its fall began the rule of the Vandals in Africa. King Genseric of the Vandals was recognized as a Vassal ruler by the Roman government in 435 A.D.The African subjects of the Vandal monarch were harshly treated. He seized the wealthiest Africannobles and made them slaves to his sons and to his important followers. The best African land wasseized and parceled out among the Vandals; while the African people were left with land of inferiorquality and were afflicted with exorbitant taxes. They found Africa flourishing and they left itdesolate, with its great buildings thrown down, its people reduced to slavery, and the Church of  Africa - so important in those early days of Christianity - was practically non-existent. (deGraft- Johnson)Before I add on this story, it is important that those readers who detest my writing these FACTS goand read up on some of the stuff I have talked about, and if there is any repudiation to what I amwriting about, present their own facts and historical data. Having said that, we will cite more from Al-Makkary who continues to inform us that these Africans first cast anchor at a place on thewestern shore of Spain and settled at Cadiz. Advancing into the interior of the country, they spreadthemselves about, extended their settlements, built cities and towns and increased their numbers bymarriage.They settled in that part of the country between the place of their landing in the west, and thecountry of the Franks in the east, and appointed kings to rule over them and administer their affairs.They fielded their capital at Talikah (Italica) a city now in ruins, which once belonged to the districtof Isbilah,which is the modern Seville. But after a period of one hundred and fifty seven years,during which eleven kings of the African race reigned over Andalus they were annihilated by theRomans, who invaded and conquered the country. The second major intrusion of an African Army into Spain before the Moors, occurs sometime around700 B.C. during the period of the 25th dynasty in Egypt, when the Ethiopian Taharka was a younggeneral, but before he had been ceded to the throne by his uncle Shabataka.(The Readers can readup on this saga in the Hub I have written titled The Military Leadership of Egyptian Pharaohs: TheCreation of Dynasties .   Africa's Civilizing of SpainThe first Islamic incursion into Africa was in 640 A.D., when General Amru captured Egypt. TheSaracenic conquest was assisted by the Christians of Alexandria, who opposed the tyrant of Byzantium. These Christian heretics paid tribute to the caliph, repaired roads and bridges andsupplied provisions to the invaders. After a siege of fourteen months, Alexandria surrendered to thearmy of Amru in 642 A.D. Soon after the fall of Alexandria, General Abdullah, starting from Memphiswith an army of forty thousand crossed the desert of Barca and laid siege to Tripoli, but the onset of a plague in his forces compelled them to retreat to Egypt.Twenty years later, General Akbah led an army from the Nile River to the Atlantic Ocean. Early inthe eighth century, the caliph of Damascus ordered General Musa to invade Europe by way of Spain.Musa completed the conquest of North Africa in 708 A.D., and he rebuild all of Morocco exceptCeuta, which was ruled by the Byzantine governor. Count Julian Musa was tired and the task wasaccomplished by the Moorish General, Tarik. de Graft-Johnson summarized the salient facts in thefollowing manner: Among the African 'chiefs' converted to the Islamic faith during the Arab invasion of Morocco was agreat General known as Tarik.... Tarikh was given the rank of general in the Arab army by Musa-ib--Nusair. Musa later left Tarik in charge of Tangiers and made him governor or Mauritania.... The African Tarik, now Governor of Mauritania, entered into friendly relations with Count Julian,Governor of Ceuta. It was then that Tarik discovered that Julian was on very bad terms with hismaster Roderic, the Gothic King of Spain.Roderic, a profligate prince, had ravished Julian's daughter, and Julian was looking for a way toavenge the dishonor done to his family. Count Julian urged the African Tarik to invade Spain, but thesuggestion had to be carried out cautiously. Tarik, accordingly, informed Musa-ibn-Nusair who hadappointed him governor that the intended crossing the straights to survey and examine thepossibilities for an invasion. The army, using four boats lent by Count Musa in the town of Tarifa which the Moors levied a tax,and this where we get the term 'tariff'. Tarif and his crew plundered and neighboring towns andreturned to Africa, their boast filled to the brim with spoils of war. Professor deGraft-Johnsoninforms us that in 711 Tarik crossed the straits and landed on the isthmus between the escarpment,then known as Mons Calpes and the continent....Tarik left a garrison at the foot of Mons Calpes (which the Africans renamed, in compliment to theirGeneral, Gebel Tarik- the Hill of Tarik - a name which was subsequently corrupted by the Spaniardsinto Gilbraltar). General Tarik and his African army surprised and captured several Spanish towns,among them Heraclea, which was only four miles from the rock of Gilbraltar. King Roderic soonheard about the invading army and he set about gathering a huge force to oppose Tarik. After aseries of skirmishes, the two armies met near Xeres in Andalusia. The Conflict was a bloody one, butTarik was victorious and soon became Master of Spain. In many of the history books, Islamic culture of the Middle Ages have been referred to as Arabic, butthe Arabs were a minority in the so-called Arabic World, and their chief contribution was the Arabiclanguage. deGraft Johnson explains this issue much more clearly: It was because the conquering army in Spain was largely made up of Africans from Morocco thatwe hear such phrases as the Moorish invasion of Spain, and why Shakespeare's hero, Othello, is aMoor, and why the word Blackamoor exists in the English language, a word which leaves no doubt

56010_2000-2004

Jul 25, 2017

pmi-rmp

Jul 25, 2017
Search
Similar documents
View more...
Tags
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x