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The Responsibility Education of Teacher Candidates

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In this study, it was aimed to take the views and suggestions of academicians working at the faculty of education on what can be done about teacher candidates’ responsibility education. This study was designed on the basis of qualitative research
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  273  The Responsibility Education of Teacher Candidates Abstract In this study, it was aimed to take the views and suggestions of academicians working at the faculty of educati-on on what can be done about teacher candidates’ responsibility education. This study was designed on the ba-sis of qualitative research approach and purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected by unstruc-tured interview method from 30 academicians working at Fırat University, Faculty of Education in the 2009–2010academic year. As a result, the views of academicians were classified under four general themes: attitudes to-wards school, voluntary social activities, tolerance education and sharing. For teacher candidates to acquire so-cial sensitivity and responsibility, it was proposed that the related values should be internalized. The participantsview that the rationale behind these values and their meaning for themselves and for the community should beinstilled for these values to be internalized. Key Words Responsibility Education, Social Sensitivity, Empathy, Benevolence. Te Concept of Responsibility  Responsibility is a sense which is peculiar to hu-man beings. As human beings live in societies,they have a responsibility or their behaviors inthe society regarding to “the other.” Responsibility is undertaking the results o one’s own words andactions, or o behaviors in his scope o authority (Pehlivan, 1998). Responsibility is comprised o the principles o one’s considering others’ psycho-logical and emotional needs (Lee & Kotler, 2006),comparing his expectations with those o the so-ciety (Altun, 1999), and regarding social interestin his behaviors (Seyyar, 2003). We can talk aboutresponsibility i one has volition and has the rightto choose (Doğan, 2007; Elibol, 1983). Despite thecommunal sense, some authors question this rela-tionship between reedom and responsibility andclaim that one might be responsible or a thing hehas not done reely (Perring, 2009).Whether people ulll their responsibilities or notmakes them ace some moral descriptions. Tosewho do not ulll their responsibilities as they aresupposed to are blamed morally (Pink, 2009) whilethose who perorm their tasks are described asgood-natured and morally-upright citizens (Romi,Lewis & Katz, 2009). Tese descriptions vary be-cause o the changes that occur in the course o time in the description and the content o the re-sponsibilities. echnological developments in theinormation age brought out dierent dimensionsin the description and the content o the responsi-bility concept because o the dierent social inter-actions in the virtual world today (Dhillon, 2002). Te Source and Development of the Sense of Re-sponsibility  Tere are dierent opinions on the source o thesense o responsibility in the related literature.According to some researchers, the source o thesense o responsibility is mind, intuition, and heart(ozlu, 2008) while according to others, the sourceo responsibility is people’s right o choice (Elibol,1983). Responsibility is a mutable characteristicand it is a process o learning the culture trig-gering it and one’s learning the cultural elements(Güngör, 1993). In this sense, it is possible to say that the sense o responsibility exists in the humanspotentially and it may change depending on theenvironment.Tere are two actors composing the sense o re-sponsibility: socializing and education. Humansare essentially social beings and they develop Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Bilimleri • Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice - 11(1) • Winter • 273-277 © 2011 Eğitim Danışmanlığı ve Araştırmaları İletişim Hizmetleri Tic. Ltd. Şti. a Correspondence:  Assoc. Prof. Fatih TÖREMEN. Zirve University, Faculty of Education, Gaziantep/Turkey. E-mail: ftoremen@yahoo.com. Tel: +90 342 2116755 Fax: +90 342 2116677. Fatih TÖREMEN a Zirve University  EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES: THEORY & PRACTICE 274 this characteristic through learning and the soci-ety. Depending on one’s level o socialization andeducation, responsibility perception area expandsconcerning his surroundings, society, nation andthe humanity. On the basis o many problems ac-ing the amilies, organizations, and governmentslies the irresponsive aults and behaviors (Bozdağ,2008). In the root o many social problems lies one’snot taking the responsibility. Sometimes an indi- vidual’s sel-interests and logical assessments comeup against the requirements o the social responsi-bility, thus one may not undertake the responsibil-ity (Krueger, 2008). Individuals have dierent sens-es o responsibility regarding dierent actors. Aperson growing up in a society has responsibilitiesagainst his amily, riends, environment, govern-ment, other nations, animals and other creations. Responsibility Education As it is stated in the sel-determination theory, inorder or lasting behavior change to occur in an in-dividual and the sense o responsibility to develop,the practices in a topic should be based on one’sree choices and intrinsic motivation. Te total ex-trinsic motivation is thought to cause temporary behavior change (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci,2000). o provide lasting behavior change andraise the conscience o responsibility in individu-als, educators who adopt a more humanistic con-trol ideology instead o a custodial one are moreeective (Hoy, 2001). So when giving responsibility education, an individual’s internalizing the related values (Haji & Cuypers, 2008) and undertaking theresponsibility o his own work and reaching to aconscious level o abiding by these rules should beprovided.  Te Indicators of the Sense of Responsibility  Te individuals having the sense o responsibility are expected to be more helpul, sharing, and tol-erant. Te ones who are open to cooperation andhave the sense o helpulness which has come alongwith the social responsibility leave a better impres-sion and build in trust more easily (Fukuyama,1998). In this respect, cooperation is an essentialtool in helping the social problems reach to a so-lution, the social peace to be long lasting and theindividual to conorm to the society.One o the most important elements o social re-sponsibility is sharing which is realized on both in-dividual and institutional levels. Sharing consists o the help which is non-protable, respectul to thehuman-rights, done voluntarily requiring altruismand the inormation exchange (Birth, Illia, Lurati,& Zamparina, 2008). Sharing helps institutionsovercome the obstacles in perorming their roleseasily (Bertels & Peloza, 2008) and helps individu-als increase their commitment, work perormance,and motivation (Bowd, Bowd, & Haris, 2006).In order or an individual to show helpulness andsharing to the ones he perceive dierent rom him-sel in society, he should look these people toler-antly. So it is necessary that the individuals shouldnot put o by the existence o dierent languages,genders, religions, belies, and understandings(Cevizci, 1999) and they should not be withdrawnand should accept the ideas and thoughts existingout o their environment (Gürsoy, 1991). Educational Organizations and Social Responsi-bility  Responsibility is not restricted to individuals only.It is among the duties o organizations providingservices or the society. While in individual socialresponsibility there are the ethical duties o an in-dividual to himsel and his surroundings, in organi-zational social responsibility there are the duties o realizing the aims o the oundations protecting theshareholders, abiding by the rules, serving and do-ing charity work to his shareholders and the society (Carroll, 1991). Tese actors are among the reasonso existence o the oundations’ cultural extensions.Tus, the organizations composed o the relation-ships among humans and owning more complexstructures have ethical duties to achieve or theirmembers, sectors they serve and generally or thesociety (Eren, 2002). So, the organizations wishingto ulll their social responsibility can increase theirroles to serve their shareholders and the society vol-untarily in addition to their scope o activity.In this issue, the most important social responsibil-ity belongs to educational organizations, as they areopen to dierent and broad sections o the society.Schools are among the rst places that individualsencounter in the process o assuming responsibil-ity besides their amily (Köknel, 1997). Educationalorganizations, in addition to having their studentsgain knowledge and skills, should educate studentsin voluntary work -conducted as a requirement o social responsibility-, cooperation, being open tosharing, and helping those in need (Schlechty, 2005).Responsibility is an individual sense; however, itbecomes signicant within a social context suchas school society (Güngör, 1993). Tus, according  TÖREMEN / The Responsibility Education of Teacher Candidates 275 to Kant’s philosophical view, responsibility is de-scribed as one’s behaving according to the recipro-cal behavioral expectations in the society (Gardner,2007). People mainly learn responsibility throughamilial, cultural, and organizational socializationprocesses. People’s perception o responsibility isexpanding towards their environment, commu-nity, nation and entire people depending on theirsocialization and education levels. In this context,teachers have important roles to teach studentswhy and how to behave responsibly to the con-cerned entities. eachers must have a high sense o responsibility or teaching responsibility eectively and or being good role models. So, training theprospective teachers with a high sense o respon-sibility is important or creating a more peaceulsociety and solving the social problems stemmingrom the lack o the sense o responsibility. Purpose Te aim o this study is taking the views and sug-gestions o academicians working at the aculty o education on how teacher candidates’ responsibil-ity education is improved. Method In this study, which was designed on the basis o qualitative research approach, purposive samplingwas used. In purposive sampling method, the cri-teria that are considered important in choosingare determined and it is thought that the samplingchosen as to these criteria represents all the natureo the research with all its properties (avşancıl & Aslan, 2001).Te work group consists o 50 acad-emicians working at Fırat University, Faculty o Education in the 2009–2010 academic year. Data o the study were collected by unstructured interview method rom 30 academicians at the work group.In an unstructured interview, the interviewees’opinions on a specic issue are tried to be ‘discov-ered’ thoroughly and i any specic topic is discov-ered during the interview, these topics are triedto be scrutinized with more detailed questions.Tis kind o interview is based on open-endedquestions (Miles & Huberman, 1994; Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2005). Results Te views o academicians were classied underour general themes: attitudes towards school, vol-untary social activities, tolerance education, andsharing. At the theme o developing “positive at-titudes towards school,” participants suggest thatteacher candidates more easily develop positiveattitudes towards school, and so, responsibility re-lated values can more easily be instilled i they are;participated in decision making process, providedwith more scholarship opportunities, supported to join in voluntary associations, provided with morecareer education opportunities, acilitated to takepart in various social, cultural and sportive activi-ties, appreciated or their perormed responsibili-ties through perormance evaluation and accom-modated with basic acilities that could meet alltheir needs.At the theme o “voluntary social activities,” partic-ipants view that teacher candidates would developsocial responsibility i they; take part voluntarily in the supervision o non-governmental organiza-tions that make social studies, get involved in so-cial aid activities through voluntary social servicebodies ounded at universities, mentor voluntarily one or more students and so care or their socialand academic problems, help the students in needto provide them with necessary educational mate-rials, and observe the conditions o the individu-als who are socially and physically at risk and helpthem.According to the participants, or teaching “shar-ing” which is an essential part o social responsibil-ity, it would be helpul to; arrange kermises or thepeople in need and encourage teacher candidatesto make contributions, perorm activities -throughsocial clubs- that will develop social sensitivity and encourage them to share, provide teacher can-didates with the opportunity o guiding or somestudents and make them share their knowledge andexperiences with these students, ound a sharingcenter within aculty and stimulate them or help-ing and sharing.At the theme o “tolerance education,” participantssuggest that it acilitate teacher candidates to learnto be tolerant or the dierent kinds o people i;“values education” lessons -in which tolerance andresponsibility would be taught as the core values-are given, various artistic activities are employed asa tool or teacher candidates internalize toleranceand responsibility as signicant values, and dier-ent sorts o activities are arranged to make themeel more tolerant and responsible towards otherpeople.  EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES: THEORY & PRACTICE 276 Discussion Individuals’ positive experiences related to a ocus(school, administrator or teacher) may lead themto develop commitment to this ocus through clas-sical conditioning process (Meyer & Allen, 1997).Individual’s commitment to a ocus creates aninner pressure to perorm obligations which aretacitly and explicitly explained in the relationshipbetween the individual and this ocus, so the in-dividual develops responsibility (Starratt, 2003).Corroboratively, the participants o this researchexplained that teacher candidates’ positive attitudestowards school, school administrators or teacherswould contribute them to develop commitment toschool, and so the endeavors to make them acquireresponsibility would be more eective.Socially responsible people are expected to be morealtruistic and help others. For being socially sen-sitive and eeling socially responsible, one shouldbe empathic and aware o their eelings and cir-cumstances. People having such an empathy andsensitivity eel an inner pressure to be more altru-istic and help or the other people in need (Batson,1991). Corroboratively, according to the partici-pants o this study; or teacher candidates to devel-op a social sensitivity and responsibility which may lead them to display altruistic behaviors in result,they should be aware o the others’ emotional, so-cial and physical circumstances and have empathicconsiderations towards them. Similarly, empathy was ound to be an important antecedent o altru-istic or helping behavior in the related researches(Bierho & Rohmann, 2004; Powell, 2005; Stocks,Lishner, & Decker, 2009)In a democratic society, individuals should learnullling their social responsibilities necessitatedby the society, tolerating the dierences, respect-ing each other’s choices and living together (Bate-laan, 2001). In this sense, the participants in thisresearch state that the teacher-candidates shouldlearn respecting the ones dierent rom them insome ways and tolerating these dierences to havethe sense o social responsibility. It is thought thatit will be benecial to give teacher-candidates valuetraining courses where tolerance and responsibility are to be taught as part o their tolerance educa-tion. For responsibility to be internalized, variousartistic activities should be used as a tool and they should be organized to help the teacher candidates view others more empathically and handle the di-erences more tolerantly.At responsibility education, it is not sucient orstudents to display or imitate responsibility at-titude only in appearance. For the eectiveness o responsibility education, they should adopt ethi-cal rules and internalize their own responsibilities(Giacalone & Tompson, 2006). Because, studentsmay not eel themselves as responsible or the ob-ligations that do not stem rom their own internal-ized values (Haji & Cuypers, 2008). Accordingly, itis among the most prominent results o this study that almost all participants stressed on the mattero importance o teachers’ internalization o therelated values or eeling responsible. According tothem, or teacher candidates to internalize related values; the meaning and importance o these valuesor the individual and or the society, the rationalebehind these values and the implications o these values should be comprehended by them. For thispurpose, verbally expression o them and to getthem comprehended through drama method oremploying educative lms and documentaries aresuggested. References/Kaynakça Altun, S. D. (1999). İşletmelerde sosyal başarı stratejileri veİstanbul boya işletmelerinin sosyal sorumluluk seviyeleriüzerine bir araştırma. Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi,Marmara Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul.Batelaan, P. (2001). Learning to respect. Intercultural Educa-tion , 12 (3), 237-245.Batson, C. D. (1991). Te altruism question: oward a social- psychological answer  . Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Bertels, S., & Peloza, J. (2008). Running Just to Stand Still?Managing CSR Reputation in an Era o Ratcheting Expecta-tions. 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Yönetsel, mesleki ve örgütsel etik . Ankara:PegemA Yayıncılık.Perring, C. (2009). Te place o moral responsibility and men-tal illness. Te American Journal o Bioethics , 9 (9), 32-33.Pink, . (2009). Power and moral responsibility. Philosophical Explorations , 12 (2), 127-149.Powell, A. (2005). Empathy, instrumentality and volunteer motivations: An applied exmination o the empathy-altruismhypothesis . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Te University o Kansas, Kansas.Romi, S., Lewis, R., & Katz, Y. J. (2009). Student responsibility and classroom discipline in Australia, China, and Israel. Com- pare: A Journal o Comparative and International Education , 39  (4), 439-452.Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Sel-determination theory and the acilitation o intrinsic motivation, social development,and well-being.  American Psychologist, 55 , 68-78.Schlechty, P. C. (2005). Okulu yeniden kurmak (çev. Y. Özden).Ankara: Nobel Yayınları.Seyyar, A. (2003).  Ahlak terimleri (Ansiklopedik Sözlüğü) .İstanbul: Beta Yayınları.Starratt, R. J. (2003). Centering educational administration:Cultivating meaning, community, responsibility . New Jersey:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Stocks, E. L., Lishner, D. A., & Decker, S. K. (2009). Altruism orpsychological escape: Why does empathy promote prosocial be-havior? European Journal o Social Psychology , 39 (5), 649-665.avşancıl, E. ve Aslan, E. (2001). İçerik analizi ve uygulamaörnekleri. İstanbul: Epsilon.ozlu, N. (2008). Erdemli toplum yolunda . Ankara: 21. YüzyılYayınları.Yıldırım, A. ve Şimşek, H. (2005). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin.
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