The Teaching and Cultivation of the French Language in England During Tudor and Stuart Times

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   The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Teaching and Cultivation of the FrenchLanguage in England during Tudor and Stuart Times, by Kathleen LambleyThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at The Teaching and Cultivation of the French Language in England during Tudor and Stuart Times With an Introductory Chapter on the Preceding PeriodAuthor: Kathleen LambleyRelease Date: August 29, 2012 [EBook #40617]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE TEACHING AND CULTIVATION ***Produced by Ian Deane, Ethan Kent, Eleni Christofaki andthe Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from imagesgenerously made available by The Internet Archive/AmericanLibraries.) Transcriber's Notes:Minor punctuation inconsistencies have been silently corrected. A listof other changes made can be found at the end of the book. Footnoteswere sequentially numbered and placed at the end of each chapter. Thepage headers of the book on the odd numbered pages have been marked as[Header]. For this text version, diacritical marks that cannot berepresented in plain text are shown in the following manner: Ligature [oe] is encoded as oe. p. 87: [O] o with macron above (dOucement). [E] e with macron above (doucemEnt). p. 283: [^] upside down V. Mark up: _italics_  =bold=PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER  FRENCH SERIES No. IIITHE FRENCH LANGUAGE IN ENGLAND Published by the University of Manchester at THE UNIVERSITY PRESS (H. M. McKECHNIE, Secretary) 12 LIME GROVE, OXFORD ROAD, MANCHESTER LONGMANS, GREEN & CO. LONDON: 39 Paternoster Row NEW YORK: 443-449 Fourth Avenue and Thirtieth Street CHICAGO: Prairie Avenue and Thirty-fifth Street BOMBAY: 8 Hornby Road CALCUTTA: 6 Old Court House Street MADRAS: 167 Mount Road THE TEACHING AND CULTIVATION OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE IN ENGLAND DURING TUDOR AND STUART TIMES WITH AN INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER ON THE PRECEDING PERIOD BY KATHLEEN LAMBLEY, M.A. _Lecturer in French in the University of Durham_  _Sometime Assistant Lecturer in French in the University of Manchester_  MANCHESTER AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 12 LIME GROVE, OXFORD ROAD LONGMANS, GREEN & CO. LONDON, NEW YORK, BOMBAY, ETC. 1920 PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER No. CXXIX _All rights reserved._   PREFACEThe present work, begun during the author's tenure of a FaulknerFellowship in the University of Manchester, and completed in subsequentyears, is an endeavour to trace the history of the teaching and use ofFrench in England during a given epoch, ending with the Revocation ofthe Edict of Nantes and the Revolution of 1689, which events mark thebeginning of a new period in the study of the French language in thiscountry. No attempt has been made to treat the wider topic of Frenchinfluence in England in its literary and social aspects (this hasalready been done by competent hands), though this side of the questionis naturally touched upon occasionally by way of reference orillustration.I gladly take this opportunity of expressing my gratitude to ProfessorL. E. Kastner, at whose suggestion this investigation was undertaken,for his generous assistance, and the unfailing interest he has shown inmy work during the whole course of its preparation. I am likewiseconsiderably indebted to Dr. Phoebe Sheavyn for helpful criticism andadvice, to Professor Tout for kindly reading through the introductorychapter, and to Mr. J. Marks for a careful revision of the proofs andmany useful indications. I owe a great deal to my father also, whosesympathetic advice and encouragement did much to lighten my task. Norcan I close this list of acknowledgments without recording my obligationto the Secretary of the Press, Mr. H. M. McKechnie, for the valuableassistance he has so freely given me during the progress of this volumethrough the Press. KATHLEEN LAMBLEY. DURHAM, _January 1920_.TABLE OF CONTENTS PART I INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER I PAGE THE THIRTEENTH AND FOURTEENTH CENTURIES 3 French grammars in mediaeval England--The use of the French language--Latin, French, and English vocabularies--French at the Universities--Popularity of French in the thirteenth century--Ceases to be a vernacular in England--Treatises for teaching French--A treatise on French verbs--The _Orthographia Gallica_--The _Tractatus Orthographiae_--T. H. Parisiis studentis--Walter de Bibbesworth--French in the schools and Universities--The fourteenth century--Treatises on French--The _Nominale_--Model letters--Recovery of English in the second half of the fourteenth century--Deterioration of Anglo-French--English in official documents and correspondence--Decline in use of French.   CHAPTER II THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 26 Triumph of continental French over Anglo-French-- Doux françois de Paris a foreign language--Standard of French taught in England--_Femina_--Treatises on Grammar--Barton's _Donait_--Epistolaries--Books of conversation in French--The Cambridge manuscript in French and English--First printed books for teaching French--Dialogues in French and English--Caxton, Wynkyn de Worde, and Pynson--French by conversation--Approaching improvement in the standard of French taught in England--Palsgrave's Grammar. PART II TUDOR TIMES CHAPTER I THE FRENCH LANGUAGE AT COURT AND AMONG THE NOBILITY 61 French at the Court of the Tudors--English neglected by foreigners--Latin a spoken language--Defective pronunciation of the English--Interest in modern languages awakened--French holds the first place--Its use in correspondence and in official documents--The French of Henry VIII., his courtiers, and the ladies--Of Anne Boleyn and the other Queens--Of the royal family, Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth--French tutors--Bernard André--French Grammars--Alexander Barclay's _Introductory_--Practice and Theory--Pierre Valence, tutor to the Earl of Lincoln--His _Introductions in French_--Fragment of a Grammar at Lambeth--French Humanists as Language masters--Bourbon and Denisot--England and the _Pléiade_. CHAPTER II FRENCH TUTORS AT COURT--GILES DUWES--JOHN PALSGRAVE--JEAN BELLEMAIN 86 French tutors at Court--John Palsgrave and Giles Duwes--Palsgrave's _Esclarcissement_--The pronunciation of French--His second and third books--The vocabulary--The _Introductorie_ of Duwes--His Dialogues--The methods of the two teachers--Dates of composition and editions--Attitude of the two teachers to each other--Duwes on English teachers of French--Palsgrave's claims--Palsgrave's acquaintance with French literature--Incidents in Duwes's career in England--His royal pupils--Palsgrave's teaching career--Mary Tudor his pupil--The Duke of Richmond, Gregory Cromwell, etc.--Palsgrave in the North, at Oxford, and in London--Jean Bellemain, tutor to Edward VI.--The King's French exercises--Intercourse with Calvin--Bellemain on French orthography--French tutor to Elizabeth--Her translations from the French--A. R. Chevallier. CHAPTER III THE INFLUENCE OF RELIGIOUS REFUGEES ON THE TEACHING OF FRENCH IN ENGLAND--OPENINGS FOR THEM AS TEACHERS--DEMAND FOR TEXT-BOOKS--FRENCH SCHOOLS IN ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND 114 Effects of the persecution of the Protestants on the teaching of French in England--Protestant refugees--Registers and returns of
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