Psychology

Trends and Challenges in Agricultural Extension - Policies and Strategies for Reform

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Trends and Challenges in Agricultural Extension - Policies and Strategies for Reform
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  Trends and Challenges in Agricultural Extension – Policies and Strategies for Reform by Magdalena L. BLUM,FAO Rome,Research and Extension Division Building Partnerships for Technology Generation, Assessment and Sharing in Agriculture among West Balkan Countries, Workshop, Skopje 27-29 June 2007  Introduction  –  Extension is a function with multiple purposes: commodity production and productivity, processing, marketing, NRM, producer organization, health information (HIV/AIDS)  –  Extension and advisory services refer to different models/concepts  –  Various stakeholders involved in extension and advisory services: public, private, civil society  –  Need for decentralized pluralistic extension / advisory systems Magdalena L. Blum, Trends and Challenges in Agricultural Extension – Policies and Strategies for Reform, Skopje, 27 June 2007   Various ‘extension’ models (1) by M. L. Blum -Learning by doing -Farmer(s) to Farmer(s) learning-Asking for advice-Taking management decisionsAdoption of recommended technologies FARMER’S ROLE FacilitatorAdvisorExtensionist PROMOTER’S ROLE Local knowledge and innovationsOutside innovations and by farm managerOutside innovations SOURCE OF INNOVATION Empowerment & ownershipHolistic approach to farm entrepreneurshipProduction Increase through transfer of technologiesGovernment Policies PURPOSEFacilitationModelAdvisoryModelLinear Model MODELS Magdalena L. Blum, Trends and Challenges in Agricultural Extension – Policies and Strategies for Reform, Skopje, 27 June 2007   Various ‘extension’ models (2) by M. L. Blum Groups and organisations, interaction of stake-holders, networkingIndividualsGroups with common problemsIndividualsContact farmer model (T&V) ‘Target’ ProcessClientTechnology ORIENTATION DemandDemandSupply SUPPLY/DEMAND Active roleProblem-solvingOwnership of processActive roleProblem-solving‘Passive’ roleOthers know, what is best for him FARMER’S ROLE Willingness to learn to interact and to take over ownership Farmer knows what advisory services he needsResearch corresponds to farmer’s problem ASSUMPTIONSFacilitation modelAdvisory modelLinear model Models Magdalena L. Blum, Trends and Challenges in Agricultural Extension – Policies and Strategies for Reform, Skopje, 27 June 2007   Why reform of extension?  Globalization (shaping and shifting agriculture)  Trade pressures to compete  In 1990s agricultural extension services (T & V system) were attacked for being inefficient, irrelevant, ineffective, & poorly targeted  Need for linkages and partnerships to support agricultural innovations and development  Need for pluralistic extension system (public, private, civil society)  –  Specialization of services required, rapid change of advisory requirements, …  Redefined roles of stakeholders with changed, but continuing role of government in extension  –  Principle of subsidiarityand comparative advantage Magdalena L. Blum, Trends and Challenges in Agricultural Extension – Policies and Strategies for Reform, Skopje, 27 June 2007 
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