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UNIT 5- SUMMARY .pdf

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SUMMARY-UNIT 5-OUR PLANET SCIENCE – PRIMARY YEAR 4 THE SOLAR SYSTEM  The solar system is made up of all the planets that orbit the Sun.  The Sun is a star and it’s in the centre of the solar system.  Eight planets orbit the Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.  The Earth is the third planet from the Sun.  The moon is the Earth’s satellite and it orbits the Earth.  The Sun, the planets and satellites are called celestial bodies (natural objects in the sky)
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  SUMMARY UNIT5 OUR PL NET SCIENCE–PRIMARYYEAR 4 THE SOLAR SYSTEM  The solar system is made up of all the planets that orbit  the Sun.  The Sun is a star and it’s in the centre of the solar system.  Eight planets orbit the Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.  The Earth is the third planet from the Sun.  The moon is the Earth’s satellite and itorbits the Earth.  The Sun, the planets and satellites are called celestialbodies (natural objects inthe sky). THE EARTH’S MOON  The moon is the Earth’s only natural satellite .  The moon takes about twenty-eight  days to orbitthe Earth and it rotates on its axis at the sametime.  The bright part of the moon is the part that theSun is shining on.  The moon reflectsthis light from the Sun and thisis what we see from the Earth.  The moon looks as if it’s changing shape and wecall these shapes the phases of the moon.  The six main phases of the moon are:1.New moon2.Crescent moon3.First quarter4.Full moon5.Third quarter6.Crescent moon  A solar eclipse happens when the moon passes between theEarth andthe Sun and the Sun isn’t visible from the Earth. THE EARTH’S ROTATION AND ORBIT  The Earth rotates on its axis.The Earth’s axis is tilted.  This rotation is why we have day and night .  It takes twenty-four hourstocomplete one rotation.  The Sun shines on one half of the Earth, so it’s dayonthe half of the Earth that faces the Sun and it’s night  on the half of the Earth that faces away from the Sun.  When the Earthorbits the Sun , one hemispherereceives more light and heat than the other.  This is why there are different climates and seasons on Earth.  When it’s winter in thenorthern hemisphere, it’ssummer in the southern hemisphere.  OUR PLANET  We use maps and globes to show the Earth.  Maps show the Earth as flat  .  Globes show the Earth as a sphere .  The Earth’s axis goes through the North Pole to the South Pole.  The Earth rotates on its axis.  The Equator is a line that goes horizontally around the Earth. This line divides the Earth intothe northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere .  Lines of latitude go horizontally around the Earth.We use these lines to measure distance from the Equator.  Lines of longitude go vertically around the Earth from the North Pole to the South Pole.We use these lines to measure how far east or west a place is. THEEARTH’S YEAR  SPRING o Spring begins in March in thenorthern hemisphere. o At the start of spring, the daysand nights are about the samelength. o The temperatureincreases. o There is usually a lot of precipitation. o At the end of spring, the days arelonger than the nights. o Plants start to grow flowers andfruit. o Many animals reproduce. SUMMER  o Summer begins in June in thenorthern hemisphere. o At the start of summer,the daysare longer than the nights. o The temperature is high. o There is usually very littleprecipitation. o At the end of summer the daysstart to get shorter. o Lots of fruit is ready to eat. AUTUMN o Autumn begins in September inthe northern hemisphere. o Atthe start of autumn, the daysand nights are about the samelength. o The temperature decreases. o There is usually a lot of precipitation. o At the end of autumn, the daysare shorter than the nights. o Deciduous trees start to lose theirleaves. o Many animals collect food forwinter. WINTER  o Winter begins in December inthe northern hemisphere. o At the start of winter, the daysare shorter than the nights. o The temperature is low. o There is usually someprecipitation. o At the end of winter, the daysstart to getlonger. o Deciduous trees lose their leavesin winter. o Many animals hibernate  CLIMATE ON EARTH  Climate is the usual weather in a place over a long period of time.  Climates on Earth can be hot, cold,humid or dry.  Climate is influenced by latitude.  Different plants and animals live in different climates.  The difference between  climate and   weather  is thatclimateis the usual weather in a placeover a long period of time andweatheris the state of theatmosphere at a certain time in acertain place.  The different climates in Spain are:  §  Atlantic climate:  The temperature is mild in summerand cool in winter.  There is a lot of precipitation allyear.  §  Continental climate:  The temperature is very high insummer and very low in winter.  There is little precipitation.  There can be storms in summer.  §  Mountain climate:  It is cool in summer and thetemperature is very low in winter.  There is a lot of precipitation allyear.  It snows in winter.  §  Mediterranean climate:  The temperature is high in summerand mild during other seasons.  There can be a lot of precipitation inautumn but very little during the otherseasons.  §  Sub-tropical climate:  The temperature is high in summerand this changes little duringotherseasons.  There’s very little precipitation.
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