Unlocking the potential of admix local dairy cattle populations: The opportunities and frameworks for increased milk production in low input production systems

1. Unlocking the potential of admix local dairy cattle populations: The opportunities and frameworks for increased milk production in low input production systems Okeyo,…
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  • 1. Unlocking the potential of admix local dairy cattle populations: The opportunities and frameworks for increased milk production in low input production systems Okeyo, A.Mwai 28th June, 2013, Nairobi, Kenya Africa Livestock International Conference and Exhibition (ALiCE 2013)
  • 2. Outline • Introduction-the broader contexts • Challenges • Opportunities • Need for smarter strategies • Some way forward • Some conclusions
  • 3. Mixed intensive systems in the developing World are key but under significant pressure • More people for feed by 2030 • Smallholders manage approx. 500 million farms and provide 80% of food consumed in large parts of developing countries • 150 million cattle increasing to almost 200 million by 2030 • 110% predicted demand increase for dairy products by 2030 • Climate change: Severe water constraints already in some places & predicted in many regions (limited forage production & breed/species choices) -- need for resilient & productive breed types • In E. Africa 70 % of milk is produced by smallholders, but productivity remains low (Need for increased efficiency)
  • 4. Globally, most people are (and will be) in mixed crop – livestock systems area ( million km2) 35.2 14 16.9 9.8 agro-pastoral mixed extensive mixed intensive other population (millions) 295.1 1099.2 2674 480.3
  • 5. Figure 1b: Milk production trends - developing country regions Source: FAOSTAT 0 50 100150 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 East and Southeast Asia Latin America and Caribbean Near East and North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa In SSA- production is low & not increasing as much!
  • 6. The challenges and opportunities
  • 7. Some challenges • Low production and productivity • Diseases (ECF & trypanosomosis) highly limit expansion • Smallholder are too fragmented (input and market service delivery costly) • Poor quality input/support services • Less attractive to the youth (low tech!) • Poor supportive rural, financial and technical infrastructure • Still and increasing competition from alternative enterprises (horticulture and real estate) • Not “cheap” for 1st entrants (an in-calf heifer costs US$ 60-1800) • Generally no long term breeding programs in place (camels, cattle)
  • 8. Maximum (dark coloured) and minimum (light coloured) levels of milk production for different genotypes of cattle in Sub-Saharan Africa A. Exotic Cattle 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 MilkYieldperLactation(Kg) Southern Africa West and Central Africa East Africa 208.5% 90.2% 157.0% B. Crossbred Cattle 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 MilkYieldperLactation(Kg) Southern Africa West and Central Africa East Africa 132.0% 65.1% 312.6% C. Indigenous Cattle 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 MilkYieldperLactation(Kg)(Kg) Southern Africa West and Central Africa East Africa 170.1% 236.8% 199.1% Better strategies is needed! Mwacharo et al., 2009 Huge opportunities to increased wealth creation & food security
  • 9. some not good enough • high calf mortality rates • long calving intervals (>>15 months) • low milk production • mainly forage based diets & inadequate
  • 10. Breed can be separated: PC1 vs PC2 Indigenous and hapmap; 566k snp Ankole Nganda SEAZ N’dama Nelore Hol Jer Guern Pure indigenous Xbred classified as indigenous
  • 11. Breed separation now possible: PC1 Vs PC2 DGEA all data + Hapmap; 566k snp Crossbred cows
  • 12. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 [0-50] [51-100] [101-150] [151-200] [301-350] [401-450] [451-500] [501-550] [51-100] [251-300] [351-400] [401-450] [451-500] [501-550] [0-50] [101-150] [151-200] [201-250] [251-300] [401-450] [501-550] [>550] [0-50] [51-100] [151-200] [351-400] [451-500] [0-50] [101-150] [151-200] [201-250] [301-350] [351-400] [101-150] [151-200] [401-450] [501-550] [>550] [0-50] [301-350] [401-450] [451-500] [51-100] AAAAAAAFAAZZFFFFFFFZFFZZJGEEJGZZXXXXAAAAAAAFAAAZAAZZEZZZFFFFFFFZFFZZJGEEJGZZXXXXAAAAAAAZAAZZEZZZFFFFFFFZFFZZJGEEJGZZXXXXAAAAAAAZAAZZEZZZFFFFFFFZFFZZJGEEJGZZXXXXAAAAAAAFAAAZAAZZEZZZFFFFFFFZFFZZJGZZXXXX BUTERE KABRAS KAPTUMO METEITEI SIONGIROI MeanMilkyield LacStage(50) per breed per site Mean milk yield per cow by Site & Breed Yield Most calves are starving, thus permanently limiting their dairy potential Dairy Genetics East Africa Project 2013
  • 13. Opportunities • Huge and increasing demand (SSA is mostly a deficit region and 110% by 2030) is predicted hence offering market opportunities • Large & diverse admix population of cattle exist • New technologies (reproductive, genomic and IT) are available now – New generation of vaccines and enabling policies for their use, – Cell-phone and faster computer technologies allows for new recording & feedback systems – Faster breed improvement and new genetics possible – delivery of new breed can ways of recording and information exchange from which improvement can be made • Increased investment interest and willingness by the public, private sector and NGOs
  • 14. Dairying still compelling as means to better livelihoods for poor smallholders… Mr and Mrs Daniel Munyasia (Kwhisero): 2 dairy cows, 3 calves in 3 years; peak at 18 litres per day. Bought a new farm, healthier children. Now multi-enterprise – bananas, vegetables… Mary Adhiambo Were (Bumala): Initially a desperate widow, with no house: now banks about 10k per week, has built a new house, started poultry unit. 30% of shs will transform
  • 15. Diverse Genetics & systems
  • 16. Large populations of admix & crossbreds of variable genetic merits already exist In Eastern Africa alone there are>26 million milking cows, 55% of which are crosses; Assuming 70% are females, 60% of which are reproductively active, with only 50% AI usage and each cow needing 1.3 inseminations per conception (4 million doses), each charged at rate of US$15 each, then we have an industry worth US$59million annually. Individual animal snp maps from structure analysis
  • 17. Smarter strategies needed
  • 18. Different Environments require different genetics!
  • 19. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Harsh Poor Good Production environment Yield(l) Indigenous X-bred Exotic Better match needed: optimum genotype depends on environment
  • 20. Milk yes, but! Money is not only made from milk sales: – Reduced input costs are important: - forced culling - poor reproduction - purchase of extra replacements - avoid extra vet expenses. 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1S(t) Time= days after birth Europe Kenya South Africa & Israel Survival to Age at 1st calving of Holstein Friesians in a Kenyan Commercial farm 25% and 34% of heifers culled prior to AFC & 4 yrs of age
  • 21. -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Estimatedbreedingvalue(EBV) Years Genetic trend 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 AFC(days) Years Phenotypic Trend Performance evaluation is necessary raw records can be deceptive
  • 22. New opportunities throuh In-Vitro Fertilization & Embryo Transfer Abattoir Lab Contracted Farm(s) Using ovaries from dead cows, female embryo’s can be developed in the lab Embryos then transferred to grow within recipient cows At < 4 yrs of age cow is able to have >800 daughters through OPU & IVEP! OPU IVF & IVM Indigenous donor cows
  • 23. Why focus on admix & crossbreds? • Don’t performance record, hence prone to breeding mistakes made elsewhere (e.g. inbreeding)! • Selected local breeds and crossbreds fit existing systems • Would improve productivity and broaden income base: • Increase calf and cow survival rates • Increase conception rates and shorten CI • Increase cow longevity (reduce replacement costs) • Lower somatic cell counts (lower vet cost) • Better feed utilization • Heavier cull cows and faster growing bull calves Most smallholders are not breeders, but are milk producers so they should use genetics that give them higher profits?
  • 24. Possible way forward
  • 25. Who has the best cow? Use cell phone tech to verify this or near real time basis What is the genetic compositions use genomic technology to determine this Use reproductive tech. (IVEP) to harvest & multiply and ET to deliver Smart use of emerging technologies But good infrastructure and enabling policies are needed
  • 26. Rwanda cow databas e Rwanda cow databas e Cattle Goats Sheep Rwanda cow databas e Internet/Cloud Cattle Goats Sheep Rwanda cow databas e Cattle Goats Sheep Connectivity to multiple country and species databases via MySQL/ODKs Multiple colours represent databases for various participating countries Connectivity via text message and web The National Databases/Gene banks Controller audits and manages inputted from farmers—eg Connectivity to Central Database via web and application platforms Individual farmers in participating countries Governments, NGOs and other interest groups Data server National Databases Controller Directdataentrythroughcollaborativeprojects Regional Genetics and Breeding Platform (PPP)
  • 27. AI-Services Records Health reports Conformation -Milk Adaptability -Body Weights -Fertility Information From Countries Pedigree information Genetic evaluation information Breeding plans Basis for management decisions: Dairy, Sales, Feeds, Health, etc. Feedback to Farmers Centralized Recording Breeding Services Extension Genetic Evaluation Research
  • 28. Livestock breeding platforms and why? • Large pool of admix already exist from which selective breeding would be feasible • Small herds, hence pooling is the logical option • National programs currently too small with inadequate infrastructure & capacity • Allow effective population of purebreds with local and international genetic links to enable genetic evaluation • Technologies (IT & genomic) exist to enable data collection, timely synthesis and feedback across borders • Create incentives for investments in local dairy genetics business • More prudent use of existing international and regional resources and institutional frameworks
  • 29. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year Kg ECM Swedish Red (SRB) Swedish Holstein (SLB) 2% total increase per year 1-1.5% genetic change per year Example: Annual milk yield for SRB & SLB cows 1955-2005 Source: Philipsson, 2010
  • 30. Some conclusions • Productivity of smallholder dairy herds currently too low, improvement in input service, infrastructure, institutional & policy frameworks needed to support sustainable improvements. • Strategies and huge mind set changes needed (e.g. pooling of herds etc.) • Genetic diversity and population of admix & crossbred cattle are high, enough to provide a basis for effective breed improvement , but viable business models & financing systems needed • Development of a locally adapted and productive dual purpose cattle breed-type is technically feasible and economically viable –but enabling institutional & policy frameworks required • Regional genetic improvement platforms to sustainably support implementation of livestock genetic improvement programs is proposed • Strengthening of the local capacity to sustainably manage and deliver/share locally improved cattle genetics needed
  • 31. Thank you
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