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Utilization of optical satellite data for measuring carbon dioxide at Felda Maokil

Utilization of optical satellite data for measuring carbon dioxide at Felda Maokil
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   UTILIZATION OF OPTICAL SATELLITE DATA FOR MEASURINGCARBON DIOXIDE AT FELDA MAOKILMUHAMMAD NOOR HAZWAN BIN JUSOHA project report submitted in partial fulfillment of therequirement for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Civil - Environmental Management)Faculty of Civil EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi Malaysia NOVEMBER 2009  iii  To my beloved mother and father JUSOH JAAFAR KAMARIAH CHE SOH&  My loving brothers and sisters MUHAMMAD NOOR HISYAMMUHAMMAD NOR HANIF NUR MADIHAH NUR NADIAH SABIHAHMUHAMMAD NOOR BAIHAQI NUR HABIBAH SAFIAHMUHAMMAD NOOR SUFFIAN  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS “In the Mighty Name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful” Firstly, I would like to express my sincere gratitude and love to my dear parentsJusoh Jaafar and Kamariah Che Soh and also my cherished brothers and sisters for theconsistent support, guidance and encouragement during my study.Secondly, a lot of thanks to my supervisor Dr. Mohd Badruddin Mohd Yusof for his attention and advice in order to ensure this thesis are completed. Not to forget sincereappreciation to my co-supervisor, PM. Dr. Ab. Latif Ibrahim from whom I received thenecessary guidance throughout my final project. Thank you so much to both of you.Lastly, I express very thankful to my friends who had shared ideas and knowledge that contributed on my writing. I also wish to thank all staffs of Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; Pak Usop, Mr.Azrin and Mr. Suhaimi because of their passionate and helpful I’m manage to make thisMaster’s project much easier.Thank you so much for all of you which I’m not mention here. Your contributiondirectly or indirectly I always keep in my heart.Thank you…  v  ABSTRACT Currently there are many developments especially in construction’s sectorswhere a lot of air pollutants have been produced and resulted in the degradation of theenvironment. The issue has grown in importance in light of recent global warming.This study is based on a short term observation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) released due toa road construction at Felda Maokil in Segamat. The method that has currently beenused to determine Net Primary Productivity (NPP) at global scale using satellite dataknown as Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiometer (MODIS). The purpose of thisstudy is to measure the amount carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that may be absorbed by oil palmtree for an area of about 450 hectares in Oil Palm plantation with low resolution MODISsatellite data. Several objectives have been carried out such as to determine the amountof Net Primary Productivity (NPP) in Felda Maokil, to assess the accuracy of MODISdata by validation process with in-situ data and lastly, to assess the correlation of NPPvalue from 2001, 2005 and 2009. The data were obtained through two sources whichare in-situ as primary source and satellite data as secondary source. Data from four year interval had been chosen to insure more variations during the study period. Thereforethe study was verified by the NPP values for year 2001, 2005 and 2009. The resulted acquired presented the mean NPP values for the three years processed were 468.169 gCm 2 /y(2001), 560.685 g Cm 2 /y (2005) and 541.781 g Cm 2 /y(2009). Meanwhile, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis had gave the resulted as 0.696(2001), 0.863 (2005) and 0.716 (2009). As a conclusion, the mean NPP values for threeyears of MODIS images processed have shown similarities and road development had gave some impacts on these results.  vi  ABSTRAK  Pada masa kini terdapat banyak aktiviti pembangunan yang melibatkan sektor  pembinaan telah menyebabkan pembebasan udara tercemar ke atmosfera. Fenomena pencemaran ini secara tidak langsung telah membawa kepada berlakunya pemanasanglobal. Oleh itu, kajian ini dijalankan di Felda Maokil, Segamat bagi menentukankandungan karbon dioksida (CO 2 ) yang disebabkan oleh pembinaan jalan. Kaedah yangdigunapakai adalah data satelit yang turut dikenali sebagai Moderate Resolution ImagingRadiometer (MODIS). Selain itu, pengukuran CO 2 dapat diketahui bilangannya berpandukan terma Net Primary Productivity (NPP). Tujuan kajian ini dijalankanadalah untuk mendapatkan kandungan CO 2 yang mampu diserap oleh pokok kelapasawit di dalam kawasan ladang kelapa sawit berkeluasan 450 hektar. Kajian inimengandungi beberapa objektif iaitu menentukan jumlah kandungan NPP di FeldaMaokil, menilai ketepatan data MODIS dengan melakukan proses pengesahan data daritapak kajian dan menilai hubungan bagi data NPP untuk tahun 2001, 2005 dan 2009.Terdapat dua kaedah dalam mendapatkan data kajian iaitu persampelan data di tapak kajian (sumber utama) dan data satelit ( sumber kedua). Perbezaan 4 tahun bagi tahunkajian dipilih supaya banyak perubahan dapat dilihat bagi tempoh kajian dijalankan.Keputusan kajian akan disahkan berdasarkan nilai NPP bagi tahun 2001, 2005 dan 2009. NPP bagi tiga tahun data proses ialah 468.169 g C m 2 /y(2001), 560.685 g C m 2 /y(2005) dan 541.781 g Cm 2 /y(2009). Sementara itu, analisis untuk Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) memberikan keputusan 0.696 (2001), 0.863(2005) dan 0.716 (2009). Sebagai kesimpulan, nilai purata NPP telah menunjukkan persamaan untuk tiga tahun data MODIS. Disamping itu, aktiviti pembinaan jalan turutmemberi impak terhadap keputusan kajian.
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