Violence on the Net: How Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence is Treated in Virtual Communities

People who are victims of intimate partner violence often find themselves isolated, with restrictions on their movement and their ability to seek and access help. The internet has the potential to be an aid for such victims but people in the social
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  1 DOMESTIC AND INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES Violence on the net: how domestic and intimate patne !iolence is teated in !it"al comm"nities#essica Le!$Reseach %: SS& '(%D) *adden+all ,-%.  2 DOMESTIC AND INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES A !ictim o/ domestic !iolence calls a se!ice a0enc$ /o a le0al cons"ltation and case mana0ement) She is in a DV shelte in 1"eens2 3"t he case is in 4oo5l$n and she needs ad!ocac$ in the 6in0s Co"nt$ Distict Attone$ ’ s o//ice) She has thee childen "nde ( and is a/aid to ta!el to downtown 4oo5l$n 3eca"se the a3"se wo5s at a /ood stoe nea 4oo"0h *all) +o" adolescent 3o$s ae ta5in0 t"ns loo5in0 at a pict"e o/ one o/ the 3o$s ecei!in0 a  3low7o3 /om his e890il/iend) The$ pess thei phones to0ethe and the pict"e is tansmitted /om one de!ice to anothe) The$ ta5e a pict"e o/ themsel!es holdin0 "p thei Andoids and send it2 !ia Snapchat2 to the 0il) Then the$ post it to IsAn$OneUp)com)Two $o"n0 women in thei ,-s2 in colle0e in di//eent pats o/ the U)S) ae S5$pin0 deep into the ni0ht) The$ ae scollin0 tho"0h online cele3it$ sites and commentin0 on pict"es o/ Chis 4own and Rihanna ) “… i/ I was him and I was with he I wo"ld do the same thin0 he did Ihate he shes a /i00in ;;;;;; ” <sic= The$ 0i00le) “… i/ this was happenin0 3e/oe how was the  3"ises not shown especiall$ since she ne!e 5new what clothes wee well Chis I dont 3lame $o" Sl"tss ae st"pid and pathetic) ” 1 <sic=A >'9$ea9old woman who li!es alone on a /am in Noth Da5ota2 two ho"s awa$ /om the neaest mental health se!ice po!ide2 7"st ecei!ed an email /om he theapist) She has 3een ma5in0 the /o"9ho" di!e once a wee5 /o months to attend a D4T 0o"p /o s"!i!os o/ DV) The email eminds he to wo5 on the “ DEAR MAN ”  s5ills the$ ’ d tal5ed a3o"t the wee5 3e/oe and is pomptin0 he to t$pe the contents o/ he distess toleance cad into the online wo5sheet) A ten9$ea9old 3o$ has 3een sent to the school co"nselo /o actin0 o"t in class and /o showin0 "p to school with an an0$ ed ma5 on his chee5) *e will not tal5 to the co"nselo /o /ea that he will 0et his mom in to"3le2 3"t she 0i!es him a lin5 to a we3site that e8plains what domestic !iolence is and that it ’ s not his /a"lt) *e ta5es a !it"al to" o/ a DV shelte)A %?9$ea9old E0$ptian woman who too5 pat in the potests in Tahi S@"ae2 as an e8"3eant epote2 connected with n"meo"s /eminists and sec"laists ao"nd the 0lo3e) Now shesees he own cic"mcision in a di//eent li0ht and is eachin0 o"t to he /iends o!eseas to see i/ the$ can help he lea!e E0$pt /o the U)S) with he %, $ea old siste who is a3o"t to 3e /oced into the poced"e) %   Actual quotes from comments sections on TMZ website.  3 DOMESTIC AND INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES ;;;  Introduction People who ae !ictims o/ intimate patne !iolence o/ten /ind themsel!es isolated2 with estictions on thei mo!ement and thei a3ilit$ to see5 and access help) The intenet has the  potential to 3e an aid /o s"ch !ictims 3"t people in the social se!ice and mental health /ields ha!e to 3in0 themsel!es to wo5 with  the technolo0$ instead o/ wo5in0 around   it) The ma7oit$ o/ online eso"ces a!aila3le to !ictims ae little moe than online pamphlets: s"00estions /o sa/et$ plans2 access to le0al in/omation and doc"ments2 and ed"cational mateials on the nat"e o/ a3"se) This is all 0ood in/omation to ha!e2 3"t thei /omats and thei tone /ail to /it in with the technolo0$: some ae onl$ a!aila3le as c"m3esome pd/s2 othes come in the /om o/ o!ewhelmin0 we3sites that ae di//ic"lt to access /om ine8pensi!e smat phone and ae /"the hindeed 3$ con/"sin0 lan0"a0e that pes"pposes a /amiliait$ with !aio"s s$stems) This2 I wo"ld a0"e2 is a es"lt o/ the c"ent aim o/ these we3sites which is to 0et people to come into the a0enc$ ’ s ph$sical location to meet with a case9wo5e o co"nselo) No do"3t2 thee ae temendo"s 3ene/its /o some people to ha!e that /ace9to9/ace contact and it ma$ 3e that this is a c"cial step in the eha3ilitation pocess <tho"0h this pape in no wa$ attempts to addess that @"estion=2 3"t /o man$ othe !ictims2 the$ ae eithe not at a sta0e whee the$ ae pepaed /o anin9peson meetin02 o it is simpl$ "n/easi3le /o them to 0o to an a0enc$ d"e to wo52 childcae2 /inancial2 tanspotation2 o sa/et$ iss"es) Reso"ces2 then2 m"st 3e made a!aila3le to meet  people whee the$ ae2 and the intenet mi0ht 3e the most pomisin0 place to stat) ;;;Thee ae tho"sands o/ pee9to9pee s"ppot 0o"ps that can 3e /o"nd online /o a !aiet$ o/ health and mental health conditions <E$sen3ach2 Powell2 En0lesa5is2 Rio2 Sten2 ,--.=) +o those who s"//e /om depession2 PTSD2 social pho3ias2 d"0 a3"se2 and an8iet$ thee ha!e 3eententati!e /oa$s into intenet9s"ppoted mental health co"nselin0 especiall$ /o po0ams that /ollow co0niti!e 3eha!ioal theap$ mod"les <Mellin02 *o"0o"et9Pincham2 ,-%%= <Sheldon2 ,-%>= <P"0h2 ,-%>=<Andesson2 ,-%-= <Da!ies2 Moiss2 Blae3oo52 ,-%.=) Un/ot"natel$2 thee has 3een nothin0 compaa3le set "p /o IPV <!an Rosmalen9Nooi7ens et al) ,-%>  )  ( Bhan3apo"2 ,-%%= <Co5e2 Pai0e2 Thompson2 Mc6eown2 4ethea2 Da!is2 ,--,= < Ramie2 Pai52 Sancha0in2 *eime2 ,-%%=) In ecent $eas2 se!eal “ online hotlines ” ha!e popped "p the two most nota3le ae the Rape A3"se Incest National Netwo5 <RAINN= hotline and the National Domestic Violence *otline2 3oth o/ which host li!e chats and then ma5e e/eals to the client ’ s nea3$ se!ice a0encies) These ae e8cellent additions to the asenal o/ in/omation to help !ictims /ee  4 DOMESTIC AND INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES themsel!es /om a3"si!e sit"ations 3"t 7"st the othe da$ I had an e8peience that spo5e to the  po3lem o/ ma5in0 e/eals to someone who is not ead$ eithe to meet with someone /ace to /ace o to stat ma5in0 the 5ind o/ commitments that m"st 3e made once the wheels o/ the s$stem 3e0in to otate) This indi!id"al had called the National Domestic Violence *otline <she /o"nd thei n"m3e online= 3eca"se she wanted someone to tal5 to) She had neithe the time no the eso"ces to 3e0in a le0al 3attle2 attend co"nselin02 3e a!aila3le /o meetin0s with p"3lic assistance o//ices2 o mana0e these mo!in0 pats with a case wo5e) She tal5ed /o almost , ho"s stai0ht and I let he 5now that se!ices wee a!aila3le when she is ead$2 3"t she had not called /o e/eals: she had called to tal5) This is a se!ice we sho"ld 3e a3le to po!ide to indi!id"als tho"0h !ideo o te8t chats as well) It seems that i/ incedi3le se!ices li5e “ As5 A Li3aian ” e8ist2 we can cetainl$ set "p a simila se!ice and call it “ Spea5 with a Social &o5e  ” "sin0 an almost identical model) ;;;4"t this is a di0ession) This pape is a liteat"e e!iew o/ what has 3een st"died2 and what we thin5 we 5now2 and "n/ot"natel$ a s"!e$ o/ the liteat"e on how intenet93ased inte!entions /o 0eneal mental and ph$sical health s"ppot 9 and IPV in patic"la9 e!eal /i!e ma7o 0aps in eseach and concept"aliation: %= eseach on Intenet93ased 3est pactices2 ,= eseach into how ta0et pop"lations access and "se the intenet2 >= eseach into how social netwo5s online di//e o coincide with social netwo5s o//line .= how social wo5es and othe mental health po!ides mi0ht inte0ate online eso"ces into pactice (= the impotance o/ applications o “ apps ” ) This last one2 no do"3t2 is a es"lt o/ the technolo0$ 3ein0  so  new2 and apps 0eaed towad social well9 3ein0 ae onl$ 7"st this past $ea 3ein0 consideed /o "se as possi3le inte!entions < Dept) o/ *ealth and *"man Se!ices2 ,-%.=)   Conside this pape2 then2 a call to waste no time in 0ettin0 social wo5es2 social se!ice "ses2 and po0ammes to0ethe to ma5e the apps and do the eseach) Since the a3o!e disc"ssions ae la0el$ a3sent2 the liteat"e in this e!iew instead /oc"ses attention on pee9to9pee online co"nselin0 <Anthe"nis2 Val5en3"02 Pete2 ,-%,= <E$sen3ach2 Powell2 En0lesa5is2 Rio2 Sten2 ,--.= <Da!ies2 Moiss2 Blae3oo52 ,-%.= <Tanis2 ,--= Mellin02 ,-%%= <Beshon2 ,-%%= <*alli0an2 6no82 4in5le$2 ,-%>= <!anRosmalen9Nooi7ens2Pins2 Ve0ee2 Lo +o &on02 La0o9#anssen2 ,-%>= <Sheldon2 ,-%>= <Se ç 5     n2 ,--?=2 social netwo5s <Anthe"nis2 Val5en3"02 Pete2 ,-%,= <Co5e2 Pai0e2 Thompson2 Mc6eown2 4ethea2 Da!is2 ,--,= <Do"0las2 *ines2  McCath$2 ,-%,= <E$sen3ach2 Powell2 En0lesa5is2 Rio2 Sten2 ,--.= <+oshee2 4ene/ield2 McNa"0hton Re$es2 Ennett2 +ais2 Chan02 *"sson02 S"chindan2 ,-%>=<Bhan3apo"2 ,-%%= <*alli0an2 6no82 4in5le$2 ,-%>= <6atendahl2 4"0e2 +ee2 4echo2 &ood2  ! DOMESTIC AND INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES ,-%>= <Ramie2 Paid52 Sancha0in2 *eime2 ,-%,= <Sheldon2 ,-%>= <S"!a52 Ta/t2 Boodman2 D"tton2 ,-%>=2 and how !ictims and pepetatos o/ intimate patne !iolence act"all$ "se !aio"s /omal and in/omal eso"ces <Co5e2 Pai0e2 Thompson2 Mc6eown2 4ethea2 Da!is2 ,--,= <Do"0las2 *ines2  McCath$2 ,-%,= <+oshee2 et al) ,-%>= <Bhan3apo"2 ,-%%= <*alli0an2 6no82 4in5le$2 ,-%>= <6atendahl2 4"0e2 +ee2 4echo2 &ood2 ,-%>= <Ramie2 Paid52 Sancha0in2 *eime2 ,-%,= <S"!a52 Ta/t2 Boodman2 D"tton2 ,-%>= <T7aden2 Thoennes2 ,---= <!anRosmalen9 Nooi7ens2 Pins2 Ve0ee2 Lo +o &on02 La0o9#anssen2 ,-%>=) Online networks, social networks: definitions and terms Thee ae man$ wods s"o"ndin0 intenet "se that ha!e /amo"sl$ and in/amo"sl$ enteed the le8icon) Some o/ these tems ae 3ased in st"ct"al and codin0 /eat"es that wee ele!ant in the eal$ $eas o/ the intenet2 3"t ha!e since come to 3e intechan0ea3le andFo o"tdated in contempoa$ "sa0e) Othe tems ooted in sociolo0ical o anthopolo0ical st"d$ ma$ seem intechan0ea3le to the la$peson2 3"t ae2 in /act2 !e$ di//eent) So the /ist ode o/  3"siness is to 0et wo5in0 de/initions o/ these tems) This is not a simple tas5) Comp"te technolo0$ "nde0oes a patic"lal$ apid e!ol"tion and as new sol"tions and techni@"es eme0e the old ones ae "nsentimentall$ a3andoned e8cept /o "se 3$ a hand/"l o/ eal$ adoptes) &ith that ca!eat in mind2 let ’ s poceed) +ist a note a3o"t the capitaliation o/ the wod “ intenet: ” in this pape2 I will spell “ intenet ”  with a lowecase “ i ” ) E!en tho"0h the Ameican Ps$cholo0ical Association e@"ies capitaliation2 this insistence spea5s to some o/ the po3lems this pape identi/ies: namel$ a stod0$ dise0ad /o how the intenet is act"all$ "sed2 what it co"ld 3e "sed /o2 and 7"st how inte0al it is in people ’ s li!es <moe on that late=) The second distinction that m"st 3e made /o this pape is the di//eence 3etween chat-rooms/online chats  and we393ased disc"ssion /o"ms o2 simpl$2  forums ) In online chats2 the con!esation is happenin0 in eal time: an indi!id"al posts a comment o @"estion2 and an$one who happens to 3e paticipatin0 in the chat at the same time can espond i0ht awa$) These can 3esomewhat /ast9paced and ha!e thee/oe de!eloped a shothand that has 3led into othe comm"nication plat/oms: 332 lol2 $olo2 smh2 t3h2 om0 etc) +o"ms2 on the othe hand2 do not e8pect indi!id"al paticipants to 3e online at the same time2 tho"0h the$ can 3e) +o"ms ae o/ten modeated 3$ a well9in/omed indi!id"al: eithe a tained po/essional o someone who has a  patic"la 5nowled0e o/ a s"37ect 3ased on thei own e8peience o inteest <E$sen3ach2 Powell2 En0lesa5is2 Rio2 Sten2 ,--.= <Tanis2 ,--=) An indi!id"al paticipatin0 in a /o"m can lea!e thei postin0 /o othe paticipants to espond to at thei leis"e) These tend to in!ol!e la0e
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