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Volume 116 Series Editors

Nanoelectronic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications This book presents synthesis techniques for the preparation of low-dimensional nanomaterials including 0D (quantum dots), 1D (nanowires, nanotubes) and 2D (thin films, few layers), as well as
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  Advanced Structured Materials Volume 116 Series Editors Andreas  Ö chsner, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Esslingen University of Applied Sciences, Esslingen, GermanyLucas F. M. da Silva, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto, PortugalHolm Altenbach, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,Otto-von-Guericke-Universit  ä t Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany  Common engineering materials reach in many applications their limits and newdevelopments are required to ful fi l increasing demands on engineering materials.The performance of materials can be increased by combining different materials toachieve better properties than a single constituent or by shaping the material or constituents in a speci fi c structure. The interaction between material and structuremay arise on different length scales, such as micro-, meso- or macroscale, and offerspossible applications in quite diverse  fi elds.This book series addresses the fundamental relationship between materials and their structure on the overall properties (e.g. mechanical, thermal, chemical or magneticetc) and applications.The topics of   Advanced Structured Materials  include but are not limited to •  classical  fi bre-reinforced composites (e.g. glass, carbon or Aramid reinforcedplastics) •  metal matrix composites (MMCs) •  micro porous composites •  micro channel materials •  multilayered materials •  cellular materials (e.g., metallic or polymer foams, sponges, hollow spherestructures) •  porous materials •  truss structures •  nanocomposite materials •  biomaterials •  nanoporous metals •  concrete •  coated materials •  smart materialsAdvanced Structured Materials is indexed in Google Scholar and Scopus.More information about this series at  Loutfy H. Madkour  Nanoelectronic Materials Fundamentals and Applications  1 3  Loutfy H. Madkour Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department Al Baha UniversityBaljarashi, Saudi ArabiaISSN 1869-8433 ISSN 1869-8441 (electronic)Advanced Structured MaterialsISBN 978-3-030-21620-7 ISBN 978-3-030-21621-4 (eBook) ©  Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, speci fi cally the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations,recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on micro fi lms or in any other physical way, and transmissionor information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed.The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in thispublication does not imply, even in the absence of a speci fi c statement, that such names are exempt fromthe relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in thisbook are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor theauthors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material containedherein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regardto jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional af  fi liations.This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AGThe registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland  Preface Nanoscience and nanotechnology have become highly popular in the last few years.The nanoobjects of importance include quantum dots and nanocrystals of metals,semiconductors, oxides and other materials as well as one-dimensional nanos-tructures such as nanotubes and nanowires. Synthesis, characterization and appli-cations of these nanomaterials are being explored widely. Typical of the novelapplications of nanomaterials that are emerging include single molecule electronicsbased on nanotubes and nanowires, nanocatalysis and biological sensors usingnanocrystals or nanotubes. One-dimensional nanostructures of materials havereceived great attention since the discovery of the carbon nanotubes.Nanomedicine involves utilization of nanotechnology for the bene fi t of humanhealth and well being. The use of nanotechnology in various sectors of therapeuticshas revolutionized the  fi eld of medicine where nanoparticles of dimensions rangingbetween 1 – 100 nm are designed and used for diagnostics, therapeutics and asbiomedical tools for research. It is now possible to provide therapy at a molecular level with the help of these tools, thus treating the disease and assisting in studyof the pathogenesis of disease.Nanotechnology is an inherently interdisciplinary  fi eld that has generated sig-ni fi cant scienti fi c and engineering interest in recent years. Nanomaterials can befound everywhere in nature and have been part of the environment since our planet was created about 4.5 billion years ago.The impact of nanotechnology in all areas of science and technology is evident.Nanotechnology increases the strengths of many materials and devices, as well asenhances ef  fi ciencies of monitoring devices, remediation of environmental pollutionand renewable energy production. While these are considered as the positive effect of nanotechnology, there are certain negative impacts of nanotechnology onenvironment in many ways, such as increased toxicological pollution on theenvironment due to the uncertain shape, size and chemical compositions of someof the nanotechnology products (or nanomaterials). It can be vital to understand therisks of using nanomaterials, and cost of the resulting damage. It is required toconduct a risk assessment and full life-cycle analysis for nanotechnology productsat all stages of products to understand the hazards of nanoproducts and the resultant  v
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