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What is TBE? TBE is a program model that is defined by the state of Illinois as required for groups of 20 or more children from the same language group who have been identified as needing second language services based upon their scores on the state language proficiency test (see entrance criteria below). The children identified must be in the same attendance area. The goal of this model is to help children acquire the English skills required to succeed in an English-only program. It pro
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  What is TBE? TBE is a program model that is defined by the state of Illinois as required for groups of 20 or more children from the same language group who have been identified as needing second language services based upon their scores on the state language proficiency test (see entrance criteria below). The children identified must be in the same attendance area. The goal of this model is to help children acquire the English skills required to succeed in an English-only  program. It provides initial instruction in the students’ native language and gradually phases in the use of all English for instruction. Who teaches in a TBE program?   Teachers who hold a valid teaching certificate and the required bilingual language certificates or approvals teach in the TBE programs. Transitional Bilingual Education    Transitional bilingual programs are known for teaching some subjects in the students' native language in the beginning of their education and then switching the language of instruction to English after some years. There are two different kinds of programs: early transition and late transition programs. These programs focus on helping children acquire the English proficiency required to succeed in an English-only mainstream classroom. Early transitional programs teach ELL's (English-Language-Learners) students in their first language during kindergarten and first-grade. The transition to English occurs in second and third grades. Late transition programs lengthen instruction in the ELLs' native language through elementary school and begin transitioning to English in late elementary and early middle school.    These programs provide instruction in the ELL's first language, building literacy and achievement in other content areas while teaching English. This method is most common in the early elementary grades, with instruction in the native language usually phased out after two or three years in the program (Gersten, R., & Woodward, 1995). Based on a very sophisticated four-year, longitudinal study of 2,000 Spanish-speaking students in five states, conducted by Ramirez et al in 1991, late-exit programs were found to be better than the early-exit ones. The children on late-exit programs performed better in all subjects than students in the early-exit programs. Based on this result we can infer that the longer students were taught in their native language the better their overall academic performance was even after they were no longer been taught in their native language. Students in this program were able to perform at the level of English proficient students or better.   These findings prove that students who are taught in languages other than English do not delay their acquisition of English as the oponents of bilingual education might argue. Also students who develop good writing and reading skills in their native language are more likely to succeed academically (Ramirez et al., 1991).    According to Robert Slavin in his book Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice , the transitional method is a common bilingual program, but it is declining because of the proven usefulness of other programs that are easier to be implemented in school settings.      Calderon, M. (2001). Curricula and methodologies used to teach Spanish-speaking limited English proficient students to read English. In R.E. Slavin & M. Calderon (Eds.), Effective programs for Latino students. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.   Cummins, Jim. 1989. Empowering Minority Students.   Sacramento, Calif.: California Association for Bilingual Education.   Gersten, R., & Woodward, J. (1995). A longitudinal study of transitional and immersion bilingual education programs in one district. The Elementary School Journal, 95 (3), 223-239.   Kaufman, M. (1968). Will instruction in reading Spanish affect ability in reading English? Journal of Reading, 11, 521-527.   Huzar, H. (1973). The effects of an English-Spanish primary grade reading program on second and third grade students. M.Ed. thesis, Rutgers University.   Ramirez, J. David; Yuen, Sandra D.; and Ramey, Dena R. 1991. Final Report: Longitudinal Study of Structured Immersion Strategy, Early-Exit, and Late-Exit Transitional Bilingual Education Programs for Language-Minority Children.   San Mateo, Calif.: Aguirre International.  
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