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What is the Science of Living Organization?

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It is the contention of the following essay that the problem of overcoming Kantianism set by Kant's immediate heirs has not been properly engaged with. The spectre of Kantianism haunts contemporary science as much as it does philosophy. An inattentiveness to the work done by the more perceptive of Kant's successors to radicalise and invert Kant's critical project has caused some not only to inherit Kant's problems, but even to repeat Kant's mistakes over again.
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  Student No. 07975043 What is the Science of Living Organization?Geran !dea is#s $rst and ost i%ortant gesture is to restate &antianis as a%ro' e to 'e overcoe ()hac*er+ ,0-- -4/!ntroduction!t is the contention of the fo oing essa1 that the %ro' e of overcoing &antianis set '1&ant#s iediate heirs has not 'een %ro%er 1 engaged ith. )he s%ectre of &antianis hauntsconte%orar1 science as uch as it does %hi oso%h1. 2n inattentiveness to the or* done '1the ore %erce%tive of &ant#s successors to radica ise and invert &ant#s critica %roect hascaused soe not on 1 to inherit &ant#s %ro' es 'ut even to re%eat &ant#s ista*es overagain. )o %ro%er 1 do ustice to the 'readth of or* and the start ing inventiveness of the %ost&antians ou d reuire a great dea ore s%ace than the current or* a os. !nstead e%ro%ose a casestud1 co%arison aied at revea ing a sa %art of the necessit1 of engaging%hi oso%hica 1 ith &ant#s egac1. !n conte%orar1 %hi oso%h1 of 'io og1 a ver1 &antianantino1 eerges hich divides freedo fro nature iits the forces of nature one%isteo ogica grounds and 'rings into uestion the unit1 of conce%t hich is the dec ared aiof such or*. !n contrast in the or* of 6.W.. Sche ing an a'itious %rogra of thought is%ro%osed in hich antino1 is o%%osition rooted in u tiate unit1 and a e%irica unities arethe te%orar1 %roducts of the i iita' e forces of a nature hich is %rior to ever1 %roduct. !n Page 1  of 20  Student No. 07975043 %articu ar the organization of iving unities i %rovide our su'ect for co%arison and againstSche ingianis e i e8aine the or* of aturana and :are a on auto%oiesis hich is the self  organization of iving unities. )he centra te8t for &ant#s or* in this area is The Critique of Judgement,  a foundationa te8t for %ost&antianis containing as it does &ant#s on or*to 'ridge the ;iense gu f< (2*. :. -75=-9>7 -4/ that divided and underined his critica %roect. )he antino1 of this or* %resenting as it does the antithetica choice of echanica or te eo ogica causation is not a historico%hi oso%hica oddit1 of &ant#s on or* in -> th centur1 natura science 'ut a concern to conte%orar1 'io ogica theor1. !t is in this conte8tthat e ta*e u% the uestion of ife in the current essa1 the insight of Sche ing#s or* as itre ates to iving science and the forces of nature hich e argue for an i%erative area forfuture stud1.2uto%oiesisu'erto aturana and 6rancisco :are a descri'e their ai as anting to ;disc ose the natureof the iving organization< (-9>0 75/. )he conce%t that the1 deve o% auto%oiesis descri'es theunit1 and se forganization of iving s1stes. )he de$nition of auto%oiesis fro their srcina -973 or* is given as fo os+2n auto%oietic achine is a achine organized (de$ned as a unit1/ as a netor* of %rocesses of %roduction (transforation and destruction/ of co%onents that %roducesthe co%onents hich (i/ through their interactions and transforations continuous 1 Page 2  of 20  Student No. 07975043 regenerate and rea ize the netor* of %rocesses (re ations/ that %roduced the@ and (ii/constitute it (the achine/ as a concrete unit1 in the s%ace in hich the1 (theco%onents/ e8ist '1 s%ecif1ing the to%o ogica doain of its rea ization of such anetor* (-9>0 7>9/2n auto%oietic s1ste is one in hich the %arts or* to %roduce the ho e and the ho eaintains the %arts. )he si% est instantiation of such a s1ste ou d 'e a 'io ogica ce . 2ce e'rane is %roduced and aintained '1 the cheica %rocesses interna to the ce . )hise'rane contains and %rotects the %rocesses %roductive of it and 'ounds the entit1diAerentiating it fro its environent as an autonoous unit1. !t is the relations   of %artho eand ho e%art that de$ne auto%oiesis. 2s such auto%oietic entities are u ti% 1 instantia' ede$ned not '1 %articu ar co%onents or to%o ogies 'ut '1 an organization of re ations hicha1 'e rea ized in u ti% e a1s.6ro this 'rief out ine it shou d 'e c ear that the conce%t of auto%oiesis shares hat ighta ost 'e descri'ed as a genetic re ationshi% ith &ant#s rear*a' 1 %re%erce%tive or* onnatura %ur%oses. &ant sa1s that e a1 regard a 'od1 as 'eing a natura %ur%ose hen+its %arts through their on causa it1 %roduce one another as regards 'oth their forand co'ination and BCD in this a1 the1 %roduce a ho e hose conce%t BCD cou dconverse 1 'e the cause of this 'od1 according to a %rinci% e (2*. :. 373=-9>7 ,5,/&ant#s organic %hi oso%h1 is a %art of his or* on te eo og1 hich is aied at grounding anunderstanding of a%%arent 1 %ur%osive 1 organized iving 'eings. is conce%t of a natura Page 3  of 20  Student No. 07975043 %ur%ose %re$gures that of aturana and :are a#s conce%t of auto%oiesis. Ender 'oth conce%tsthe %arts of a iving 'eing are re ated to one another in a a1 that the1 %roduce a uni$edho e a ho e hich is at the sae tie %roduct and %roducer of the re ations of its %arts.!f aturana and :are a advance a conce%t of organization the genea og1 of hich a1 'etraced to &ant#s or* ore than to hundred ear ier hat conce%tua evo ution has occurredin this tie? )he anser to the uestion de%ends on ho one reads their or*. aturana and:are a are rea ists a'out the conce%t of organization in a a1 that &ant cou d not u tiate 1a o hise f. 2t the sae tie hoever the1 dec are these ves to 'e ta*ing a echanistica%%roach (-9>0 75/ an a%%roach one ou d % ace on the o%%osite side of &ant#s antino1. !tis here that the tension rests. Foes the conce%t of auto%oiesis coe don on one side or theother of the antino1 of udgeent or otherise reso ve it in soe a1?)e eo og1 and )ieFes%ite dec aring that their a%%roach ;i 'e echanistic< (-9>0 75/ aturana and :are anonethe ess s%ea* re%eated 1 of the organization of auto%oietic s1stes as if this ere aconstitutive rather than regu ative idea. 2 though the1 de ineate a ;descri%tive doain< or;doain of o'servation< fro the ;constitutive organization< of auto%oietic unities (-9>0 7/the function of the organizationa ho e in auto%oiesis is re%eated 1 referenced as though it infact ere constitutive. !ndeed Funha et a . have argued against aturana and :are a thatauto%oiesis is 'etter understood as a scienti$c idea is to hich the conce%t of te eo og1 is Page 4  of 20

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Jul 27, 2017

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Jul 27, 2017
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