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Wiegmann & Rose v NL Industries 735 F Supp 957 (ND Cal 1990)

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Wiegmann & Rose v NL Industries 735 F Supp 957, 58 USLW 2655, 20 Envtl. L. Rep. 21, 140(ND Cal 1990)
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    ]nlb 0<62 A)Vr}}) ;2<# 2: RVC\ 0122# 0= Biqtc) C) Pb}) 0>#>4=   *Fktb nv5 <62 A)Vr}}) ;2<+   Riktbd Vtntbv Dkvtpkft Fgrpt#   I)D) Fnckagpikn)   \KBLONII ! PGVB KITBPINTKGINC FGP])#n Vgrtj Fnpgckin fgp}gpntkgi# ]cnkitkaa#   q)   ICKIDRVTPKBV # n Ib| Ebpvb{ fgp}gpntkgi# nidBvvbctb ]bidnacbz Fgp}gpntkgi# n Ib| [gph fgp}gpn/tkgi# Dbabidnitv)   Ig) F/::/4:>< AOV)   N}pkc >;# >;;=)   ]rpfjnvbp ga }pg}bpt{ fgitnokintbd `{ jnunpdgrv|nvtb `pgrljt nftkgi nlnkivt# kitbp nckn# qbidgp# ridbpFgo}pbjbivkqb Biqkpgiobitnc Pbv}givb# Fgo}bi/vntkgi# nid Ckn`kckt{ Nft *FBPFCN+# vbbhkil tg pb/fgqbp fgvtv ga fcbnikil r} }pg}bpt{) Gi qbidgp,v og/tkgi agp vroonp{ erdlobit# tjb Dkvtpkft Fgrpt#AbpiO) Voktj# E)# jbcd tjnt }pgqkvkgiv ga FBPFCN# kidb/}bidbitc{ ga vtntb cn|# }pbfcrdb }npt{ apgo nqgkdkilvtpkft ckn`kckt{ agp pbv}givb fgvtv ridbp FBPFCN `{pbc{kil gi –nv kv‟ }pgqkvkgi fgitnkibd ki dbbd tpniv/abppkil fgitnokintbd cnid)   Ogtkgi dbikbd)   \bvt Jbndigtbv   Biqkpgiobitnc Cn| >4;B 442*>+   >4;BBiqkpgiobitnc Cn|   >4;BKZJnunpdgrv \nvtb gp Ontbpkncv   >4;Bh461Pbv}givb nid Fcbnir}8 Ckn`kckt{   >4;Bh442]bpvgiv Pbv}givk`cb   >4;Bh442*>+h) Ki Lbibpnc)Ogvt FktbdFnvbv*Agpobpc{ >;;h02)2*2)2+ Jbnctj nid Biqkpgi/obit+   ]pgqkvkgiv ga Fgo}pbjbivkqb Biqkpgiobitnc Pb/v}givb# Fgo}bivntkgi# nid Ckn`kckt{ Nft *FBPFCN+#kidb}bidbitc{ ga vtntb cn|# }pbfcrdb }npt{ apgonqgkdkil vtpkft ckn`kckt{ agp pbv}givb fgvtv ridbpFBPFCN `{ pbc{kil gi –nv kv‟ }pgqkvkgi fgitnkibdki dbbd tpnivabppkil fgitnokintbd cnid) Fgo}pbjbi/vkqb Biqkpgiobitnc Pbv}givb# Fgo}bivntkgi# nidCkn`kckt{ Nft ga >;:=# ¬ >=<*n# `+#40 R)V)F)N) ¬;1=<*n# `+)   %;2< Pg`bpt D) \{nttnidCn|pbifb V) @nubc# @pg`bfh# ]jcblbp ! Jnppkvgi# Vni Apnifkvfg# Fnc)#agp }cnkitkaa)   %;2: Dkph O) Vfjbihhni#Jg|npd# Pkfb# Ib/obpgqvh{# Fnind{# Pg`bptvgi ! Anch# Vni Apnifkvfg#Fnc)# agp ICKidrvtpkbv # Kif)   Agclbp ! Cbqki#Okfjnbc N) Hnji#Onplnpbt P) Dgcc/ `nronidLpblgp{ D) Fncc# Vni Apnifkvfg# Fnc)# agp Bvvbctb ]bidnacbz Fgp})   GPDBP DBI[KIL VROONP[ ERDLOBIT   ABPI O) VOKTJ# Dkvtpkft Erdlb)   Tjkv kv ni nftkgi npkvkil ridbp tjb Fgo}pbjbivkqbBiqkpgiobitnc Pbv}givb# Fgo}bivntkgi# nid Ckn`kc/kt{ Nft#40 R)V)F) ¬ ;1=> bt vb~) *–FBPFCN‟+ ki|jkfj tjb }cnkitkaa vbbhv tg jgcd tjb dbabidnitv ckn`cbagp tjb fgvtv ga fcbnikil r} }pg}bpt{ fgitnokintbd|ktj jnunpdgrv |nvtbv) Tjb onttbp kv frppbitc{ `bagpbtjb Fgrpt gi dbabidnit ICKidrvtpkbv , ogtkgi agpvroonp{ erdlobit) Agp tjb pbnvgiv dkvfrvvbd jbpbki#tjb Fgrpt jbpb`{ DBIKBV tjb ogtkgi agp vroonp{ erdlobit)   ANFTRNC @NFHLPGRID   Gi On{ 06# >;<2# ICKidrvtpkbv # Kif)# *–IC‟+# vgcd06 nfpbv ga }pg}bpt{ cgfntbd nt 0:=> Lpnit Pgnd#Pkfjogid# Fnckagpikn tg \kblonii ! Pgvb Onfjkib\gphv) Ki Vb}tbo`bp ga >;<2# \kblonii ! Pgvb  Onfjkib \gphv vgcd ncc ga ktv vtgfh tg \kblonii ! Pgvb Kitbpintkginc Fgp}) *–\kblonii ! Pgvb ‟+# tjb}cnkitkaa ki tjkv cn|vrkt) Kt kv ridkv}rtbd tjnt n }gptkgiga tjb Lpnit Pgnd }pg}bpt{# dbvklintbd –Vktb P‟ `{tjb }cnkitkaav# kv fgitnokintbd |ktj jnunpdgrv |nvtbv)   Tjbpb npb t|g dkaabpbit hkidv ga jnunpdgrv |nvtbv gitjb }pg}bpt{# bnfj ga |jkfj kv apgo n dkaabpbit vgrpfb)Ki >;:=# tjb Fnckagpikn Db}nptobit ga Jbnctj Vbp/qkfbv kiqbvtklntbd tjb vktb nid dkvfgqbpbd tjnt kt |nvfgitnokintbd |ktj jbnq{ obtncv) Tjb vgrpfb ga tjbvbjbnq{ obtncv jnv `bbi dbtbpokibd tg `b rvbd agridp{« 0=>= Tjgovgi Pbrtbpv) Ig Fcnko tg Gpkl) RV Lgq) \gphv)    ]nlb 6<62 A)Vr}}) ;2<# 2: RVC\ 0122# 0= Biqtc) C) Pb}) 0>#>4=   *Fktb nv5 <62 A)Vr}}) ;2<+   vnidv dro}bd gi tjb }pg}bpt{ ki tjb bnpc{ >;<=v)\jbi tjb jbnq{ obtncv |bpb dkvfgqbpbd# tjb Db/}nptobit ga Jbnctj Vbpqkfbv gpdbpbd \kblonii ! Pgvb tg `blki ni bztbivkqb pbobdknc kiqbvtklntkgi ga tjb vktb) ]rpvrnit tg tjkv dkpbftkqb# \kblonii ! Pgvb  kivtnccbd lpgrid|ntbp ogiktgpkil |bccv# ninc{ubd vgkc`gpkilv# nid }pb}npbd }pg}gvncv nid pb}gptv pblnpdkiltjb fcbnir} ga tjb vktb)   Ki >;:<# `nvbd gi bqkdbifb ga }gvvk`cb nddktkgincfgitnokintkgi# tjb Db}nptobit ga Jbnctj Vbpqkfbvdkpbftbd \kblonii ! Pgvb tg kiqbvtklntb |jbtjbptjbpb |bpb `rpkbd obtnc dprov gi tjb vktb) \kblonii! Pgvb bzfnqntbd n }gptkgi ga tjb vktb ki Nrlrvt ga >;:: nid dkd kidbbd dkvfgqbp `rpkbd obtnc dprov)Tjbvb dprov jnd `bbi cbnhkil gqbp tjb {bnpv nid jndfgitnokintbd tjb vktb |ktj rvbd kidrvtpknc vgcqbitvhig|i nv –qgcntkcb gplnikf fnp`giv‟ *–QGFV‟+)Tjbpb kv bqkdbifb ki tjb pbfgpd tjnt tjbvb dprov |bpb`rpkbd gi tjb vktb ki >;<6 gp >;<4) * Vbb# Apgoo Dbf/cnpntkgi nt 0# ± 4)+ \kblonii ! Pgvb jnv v}bit gqbp$2==#===)== tjrv anp ki kiqbvtklntkil tjb fgitnokin/tkgi nid }cniikil agp pbobdknc nftkgi gi tjb vktb)   Ki Dbfbo`bp ga >;::# \kblonii ! Pgvb akcbd tjkvnftkgi nlnkivt ICKidrvtpkbv nid Bvvbctb ]bidnacbzFgp}gpntkgi vbbhkil tg pbfgqbp tjb pbv}givb fgvtv ktjnv ncpbnd{ kifrppbd# nid tjgvb kt |kcc kifrp ki tjbartrpb# ki tjb fcbnir} ga tjb vktb) \kblonii ! Pgvb  fgitbidv tjnt ICKidrvtpkbv g|ibd tjb cnid drpkiltjb tkob kt |nv fgitnokintbd |ktj jnunpdgrv |nvtbv#nid tjnt Bvvbctb ]bidnacbz *–Bvvbctb‟+ kv tjb vrffbv/vgp tg tjb fgp}gpntkgi tjnt `rpkbd tjb obtnc dprov gitjb vktb) Tjb fgo}cnkit fgitnkiv agrp fnrvbv ga nf/tkgi/t|g npkvkil ridbp tjb FBPFCN vtntrtb nidt|g npkvkil ridbp tjb vtntb cn| ga b~rktn`cb kidboikt{) AI>   AI>)Nctjgrlj tjbpb npb t|g dkaabpbit `nvbvga ckn`kckt{ nccblbd# tjb }nptkbv jnqb nplrbdgic{ tjb kvvrb ga FBPFCN ckn`kckt{ gi tjkvogtkgi) Nffgpdkilc{# tjb Fgrpt |kcc igt nd/dpbvv tjb fnrvbv ga nftkgi agp b~rktn`cb ki/dboikt{)   Tjb onttbp kv ig| `bagpb tjb Fgrpt gi dbabidnit ICKidrvtpkbv , ogtkgi agp vroonp{ erdlobit) Tjb`nvkv agp IC,v ogtkgi kv vko}cb) Nffgpdkil tg IC#|jbi kt vgcd tjb }pg}bpt{ tg \kblonii ! Pgvb ki>;<2# `gtj tjb cnid nid tjb `rkcdkilv gi kt |bpb fgi/qb{bd ki ni –nv kv‟ fgidktkgi) AI0 %;2; IC fgitbidvtjnt tjkv –nv kv‟ fcnrvb fgitnkibd ki tjb dbbd fgiqb{/kil tjb }pg}bpt{ pbcbnvbv kt apgo ni{ ckn`kckt{ tg\kblonii ! Pgvb ridbp FBPFCN agp fgvtv ga pb/ogqkil tjb jnunpdgrv |nvtbv apgo tjb }pg}bpt{) Kig}}gvktkgi# \kblonii ! Pgvb nplrbv tjnt# nv n ont/tbp ga cn|# tjb –nv kv‟ fcnrvb dgbv igt pbcbnvb ICapgo vtpkft ckn`kckt{ ridbp FBPFCN) Dbabidnit Bv/vbctb jnv egkibd ki tjb }cnkitkaa,v g}}gvktkgi tg tjbogtkgi)   AI0)Tjkv anft kv ki dkv}rtb) \kblonii ! Pgvb fgitbidv tjnt gic{ tjb `rkcdkilv# igttjb cnid# |bpb fgiqb{bd –nv kv)‟   NINC[VKV   Tjb kvvrb tg `b dbfkdbd `{ tjkv Fgrpt kv |jbtjbp ni–nv kv‟ fcnrvb# fgitnkibd ki n dbbd fgiqb{kil }pg}/bpt{ }pkgp tg tjb binftobit ga FBPFCN# g}bpntbv nv npbcbnvb ga FBPFCN ckn`kckt{ agp n }npt{ |jg |grcdgtjbp|kvb `b vtpkftc{ ckn`cb ridbp tjb vtntrtb) Agp tjbpbnvgiv dkvfrvvbd `bcg|# tjb Fgrpt jgcdv tjnt vrfj n}pgqkvkgi dgbv igt nft nv n lbibpnc pbcbnvb ga FBPFCN ckn`kckt{)   K) FBPFCN)   Fgilpbvv }nvvbd tjb Fgo}pbjbivkqb BiqkpgiobitncPbv}givb# Fgo}bivntkgi# nid Ckn`kckt{ Nft*–FBPFCN‟+#40 R)V)F) ¬ ;1=> bt vb~)# ki >;:= tganfkcktntb tjb fcbnir} ga jnunpdgrv |nvtb dkv}gvncvktbv)  Bzzgi Fgp}) q) Jrit# 4<2 R)V) 622# 62;/61=#>=1 V)Ft) >>=6# >>=</>>=:# :; C)Bd)0d 614 *>;:1+)Tjb Nft |nv n pbv}givb `{ Fgilpbvv tg tjb tjpbnt tg}r`ckf jbnctj }gvbd `{ tjb |kdbv}pbnd rvb nid dkv/}gvnc ga tgzkf ontbpkncv) Ktv }rp}gvb |nv –tg bivrpbtjb }pgo}t nid baabftkqb fcbnir} ga |nvtb dkv}gvncvktbv# nid tg nvvrpb tjnt }nptkbv pbv}givk`cb agp jnu/npdgrv vr`vtnifbv `gpb tjb fgvt ga pbobd{kil tjbfgidktkgiv tjb{ fpbntbd)‟  Onpdni Fgp}) q) F)L)F) Orvkf# Ctd)# :=4 A)0d >424# >422 *;tj Fkp)>;:1+#fktkil >01 Fgil) Pbfgpd 6>;14 *vtntbobit ga Pb})Acgpkg+) Ki gpdbp tg baabftrntb tjbvb }rp}gvbv# ki Vbf/tkgi >=<*n+ ga tjb vtntrtb# Fgilpbvv fpbntbd n }pkqntbfnrvb ga nftkgi agp pbfgqbp{ ga –pbv}givb fgvtv‟nlnkivt ni{ }bpvgi |jg g|ibd gp g}bpntbd n anfkckt{nt tjb tkob jnunpdgrv vr`vtnifbv |bpb dkv}gvbd ga nttjb anfkckt{ gp |jg gtjbp|kvb fgitpk`rtbd tg tjbdro}kil ga jnunpdgrv |nvtbv nt tjb anfkckt{) Vbb# 40R)V)F) ¬ ;1=<*n+8  Nvfgi ]pg}bptkbv# Kif) q) Og`kc GkcFg)# :11 A)0d >>4;# >>20 *;tj Fkp)>;:;+8 FndkccnfAnkpqkb|'Fnckagpikn q) Dg| Fjbokfnc Fg)# :4= A)0d« 0=>= Tjgovgi Pbrtbpv) Ig Fcnko tg Gpkl) RV Lgq) \gphv)    ]nlb 4<62 A)Vr}}) ;2<# 2: RVC\ 0122# 0= Biqtc) C) Pb}) 0>#>4=   *Fktb nv5 <62 A)Vr}}) ;2<+   1;># 1;6 *;tj Fkp)>;::+8  Onpdni# :=4 A)0d nt >422)   Tg vtntb n fcnko ridbp Vbftkgi >=<*n+# n }cnkitkaa orvt nccblb *>+ tjnt tjb |nvtb dkv}gvnc vktb kv n –anfkc/kt{‟ |ktjki tjb obnikil ga 40 R)V)F) ¬ ;1=>*;+8 *0+tjnt n –pbcbnvb‟ gp –tjpbntbibd pbcbnvb‟ ga n –jnunpd/grv vr`vtnifb‟ jnv gffrppbd8 nid *6+ tjnt vrfj pbcbnvbjnv fnrvbd tjb }cnkitkaa tg kifrp pbv}givb fgvtv tjntnpb –fgivkvtbit |ktj tjb intkginc fgitkilbif{ }cni)‟40 R)V)F) ¬ ;1=<*n+8  Nvfgi ]pg}bptkbv# vr}pn# :11A)0d nt >>20) Ki nddktkgi# tjb dbabidnitv orvt ancc|ktjki gib ga tjb agrp fntblgpkbv ga }nptkbv ckn`cb ri/dbp tjb vtntrtb nv vbt agptj ki Vbftkgi >=<*n+*>+/*4+)Tjnt vbftkgi }pgqkdbv ki }bptkibit }npt nv agccg|v5    Igt|ktjvtnidkil ni{ gtjbp }pgqkvkgi gp prcb ga cn|#nid vr`ebft gic{ tg tjb dbabivbv vbt agptj ki vr`vbf/tkgi *`+ ga tjkv vbftkgi/   *>+ tjb g|ibp nid g}bpntgp ga n qbvvbc ))) gp n anfkckt{#   *0+ ni{ }bpvgi |jg nt tjb tkob ga dkv}gvnc ga ni{jnunpdgrv vr`vtnifb g|ibd gp g}bpntbd ni{ anfkckt{nt |jkfj vrfj jnunpdgrv vr`vtnifbv |bpb dkv}gvbd ga#   *6+ ni{ }bpvgi |jg `{ fgitpnft# nlpbbobit# gp gtjbp/|kvb nppnilbd agp dkv}gvnc gp tpbntobit# gp nppnilbd|ktj n tpniv}gptbp agp tpniv}gpt agp dkv}gvnc gp tpbnt/obit# ga jnunpdgrv vr`vtnifbv )))   *4+ ni{ }bpvgi |jg nffb}tv gp nffb}tbd ni{ jnunpd/grv vr`vtnifbv agp tpniv}gpt tg dkv}gvnc gp tpbntobitanfkcktkbv gp vktbv vbcbftbd `{ vrfj }bpvgi#  apgo |jkfjtjbpb kv n pbcbnvb# gp n tjpbntbibd pbcbnvb |jkfjfnrvbv tjb kifrppbifb ga pbv}givb fgvtv# ga n jnunpd/grv vr`vtnifb# vjncc `b ckn`cb agp  /   % % % % % %   *@+ ni{ gtjbp ibfbvvnp{ fgvtv ga pbv}givb kifrppbd `{ni{ gtjbp }bpvgi fgivkvtbit %;1= |ktj tjb intkgincfgitkilbif{ }cni8 ))))   40 R)V)F) ¬ ;1=<*n+*bo}jnvkv nddbd+)   Tjb gic{ dbabivbv nqnkcn`cb tg n }npt{ gtjbp|kvb ck/n`cb ridbp tjkv vbftkgi npb vbt agptj ki Vbftkgi >=<*`+#|jkfj }pgqkdbv ki }bptkibit }npt5   Tjbpb vjncc `b ig ckn`kckt{ ridbp vr`vbftkgi *n+ ga tjkvvbftkgi agp n }bpvgi gtjbp|kvb ckn`cb |jg fni bvtn`/ckvj `{ n }pb}gidbpnifb ga tjb bqkdbifb tjnt tjb pb/cbnvb ))) nid tjb dnonlbv pbvrctkil tjbpbapgo |bpbfnrvbd vgcbc{ `{/   *>+ ni nft ga Lgd8   *0+ ni nft ga |np8   *6+ ni nft gp gokvvkgi ga n tjkpd }npt{ ))) ka tjb dbabi/dnit bvtn`ckvjbv `{ n }pb}gidbpnifb ga tjb bqkdbifbtjnt *n+ jb bzbpfkvbd drb fnpb |ktj pbv}bft tg tjb jnu/npdgrv vr`vtnifb fgifbpibd# ))) nid *`+ jb tggh }pb/fnrtkgiv nlnkivt agpbvbbn`cb nftv gp gokvvkgiv ga ni{vrfj tjkpd }npt{ nid tjb fgivb~rbifbv tjnt fgrcdagpbvbbn`c{ pbvrct apgo vrfj nftv gp gokvvkgiv8 ))))   40 R)V)F) ¬ ;1=<*`+) Agp ni{ vtntrtgpkc{/dbakibd pb/v}givk`cb }npt{# tjbpbagpb# ckn`kckt{ agp pbv}givb fgvtvridbp FBPFCN# kv vtpkft# igt|ktjvtnidkil ni{ gtjbp}pgqkvkgi ga cn|# n`vbit }pgga ga gib ga tjb tjpbbbirobpntbd dbabivbv)   Ki tjkv fnvb# tjbpb kv bqkdbifb ki tjb pbfgpd tjnt `gtjtjb agridp{ vnidv nid tjb obtnc dprov |bpb dkv}gvbdga gi tjb Lpnit Pgnd }pg}bpt{ drpkil tjb tkob ICKi/drvtpkbv g|ibd tjb }pg}bpt{) Tjrv# nvvrokil \kbl/onii ! Pgvb fni }pgqb tjb gtjbp pb~rkvktb bcbobitvga n Vbftkgi >=<*n+ fnrvb ga nftkgi# IC |kcc `bvtpkftc{ ckn`cb tg \kblonii ! Pgvb agp ni{ pbv}givbfgvtv kifrppbd ki fcbnikil r} tjb vktb# vr`ebft gic{ tgtjb –tjkpd }npt{ dbabivb‟ ga Vbftkgi >=<*`+*6+ *~rgtbdn`gqb+) Ibqbptjbcbvv# IC jnv nplrbd ki tjkv ogtkgitjnt kt |nv pbcbnvbd apgo ncc ckn`kckt{ tg \kblonii ! Pgvb npkvkil grt ga tjb fgidktkgi ga tjb }pg}bpt{#kifcrdkil ckn`kckt{ ridbp FBPFCN# `{ tjb –nv kv‟fcnrvb ki tjb dbbd tg tjb }pg}bpt{)   KK) Tjb –Nv Kv‟ Fcnrvb)   Tjb lpnit dbbd fgiqb{kil tjb }pg}bpt{ apgo ICKi/drvtpkbv tg \kblonii ! Pgvb ki >;<2 vtntbv tjnt tjbdbvfpk`bd }pg}bpt{# tglbtjbp |ktj tjb `rkcdkilv nidn}}rptbinifbv tjbpbgi# kv fgiqb{bd –ncc ki ni ‚nv kv,fgidktkgi)‟ IC gaabpv n t|g/}npt nplrobit ki vr}}gptga ktv fgitbitkgi tjnt tjb fcnrvb pbcbnvbd kt apgoFBPFCN ckn`kckt{) Akpvt# IC fgitbidv tjnt tjb fcnrvbkv tg `b kitbp}pbtbd nffgpdkil tg vtntb cn|# pntjbp tjniabdbpnc cn|) Vbfgid# IC nplrbv tjnt# ridbp Fnckagpikn« 0=>= Tjgovgi Pbrtbpv) Ig Fcnko tg Gpkl) RV Lgq) \gphv)    ]nlb 2<62 A)Vr}}) ;2<# 2: RVC\ 0122# 0= Biqtc) C) Pb}) 0>#>4=   *Fktb nv5 <62 A)Vr}}) ;2<+   cn|# tjb –nv kv‟ fcnrvb ki tjb dbbd pbcbnvbd IC apgockn`kckt{ agp ncc rihig|i dbabftv# kifcrdkil tjb }pbv/bifb ga jnunpdgrv |nvtb fgitnokintkgi# tjrv pbcbnv/kil kt apgo ckn`kckt{ npkvkil ridbp FBPFCN) TjkvFgrpt dkvnlpbbv# nid jgcdv tjnt tjb baabft ga tjb –nvkv‟ fcnrvb fni `b dbtbpokibd apgo tjb FBPFCN vtnt/rtb ncgib# |ktjgrt pbvgpt tg n}}ckfntkgi ga Fnckagpikncn|)   IC pbckbv r}gi  Onpdni q) F)L)F) Orvkf# Ctd)# :=4A)0d >424 *;tj Fkp)>;:1+agp tjb }pg}gvktkgi tjnt vtntbcn| rctkontbc{ dbtbpokibv |jbtjbp ni nlpbbobit pb/cbnvbv FBPFCN ckn`kckt{) Ki tjb  Onpdni fnvb# tjb}cnkitkaa# Onpdni Fgp}gpntkgi# }rpfjnvbd n orvkfnckivtprobit oniranftrpkil }cnit apgo tjb dbabidnit#Onfokccni# Kif)# ki >;:=) Agp vbqbpnc {bnpv }pkgp tgtjb vncb ga tjb }cnit# Onfokccni jnd dro}bd jnunpd/grv |nvtbv kitg n vbttckil }gid gi tjb }cnit }pg}bpt{)\jbi Onpdni nf~rkpbd tjb }cnit# kt fgitkirbd tg rvbtjb vbttckil }gid agp tjb vnob }rp}gvb) @gtj Onpdninid Onfokccni |bpb n|npb nt tjb tkob ga tjb vncb tjnttjb vbttckil }gid fgitnkibd jnunpdgrv |nvtbv# nidtjnt kt |nv vr`ebft tg tjb pblrcntgp{ nftkqkt{ ga tjbBiqkpgiobitnc ]pgtbftkgi Nlbif{ nid cn|v lgqbpi/kil tjb dkv}gvnc ga jnunpdgrv |nvtbv)  Onpdni nt>421)   Ki >;:># natbp n vbpkbv ga dkv}rtbv jnd npkvbi# tjb }np/tkbv bitbpbd kitg ni –Nlpbbobit ga Lbibpnc Vbttcb/obit nid Pbcbnvb#‟ ridbp |jkfj Onfokccni }nkdOnpdni $;;2#=== ki vbttcbobit ga ncc fcnkov npkvkilgrt ga tjb }rpfjnvb nlpbbobit)  Onpdni# :=4 A)0d nt>421) T|g {bnpv cntbp ki >;:6# tjb B]N `pgrljt nindokikvtpntkqb biagpfbobit nftkgi nlnkivt Onpdni|jkfj pb~rkpbd %;1> Onpdni tg fcbni r} nid fcgvbtjb vbttckil }gid) Onpdni tjbi vrbd Onfokccni ridbpVbftkgi >=< ga FBPFCN vbbhkil tg pbfgqbp }npt ga tjb fgvtv ga tjb fcbnir}) Onfokccni dbikbd ckn`kckt{#fcnkokil tjnt tjb vbttcbobit nlpbbobit vklibd t|g{bnpv bnpckbp jnd kifcrdbd n pbcbnvb ga FBPFCN ck/n`kckt{) Onpdni dbikbd tjnt tjb }nptkbv jnd kitbidbdtjb nlpbbobit tg kifcrdb vrfj n pbcbnvb)   Gi n}}bnc# tjb Ikitj Fkpfrkt |nv fnccbd r}gi tg db/tbpokib |jbtjbp tjb vbttcbobit nlpbbobit fgivtktrtbdni nlpbbobit –tg kivrpb# jgcd jnpocbvv# gp kidboika{n }npt{‟ agp ckn`kckt{ ridbp Vbftkgi >=<*n+# nv nccg|bd`{ Vbftkgi >=<*b+) AI6 Ki onhkil tjkv dbtbpokintkgi#tjb fgrpt nddpbvvbd tjb kvvrb ga |jbtjbp vtntb gp abd/bpnc cn| vjgrcd lgqbpi tjb kitbp}pbtntkgi ga tjbnlpbbobit) –Apgo tjb grtvbt# |b orvt `b fcbnp tjntabdbpnc cn| lgqbpiv tjb kvvrb# agp abdbpnc cn| nc|n{vlgqbpiv tjb qnckdkt{ ga pbcbnvbv ga abdbpnc fnrvbv ga nftkgi)‟  Onpdni nt >42<# fktkil  Dkfb q) Nhpgi# Fni/tgi ! [grilvtg|i P)P) Fg)# 640 R)V) 62;# 61># <0V)Ft) 6>0# 6>4# ;1 C)Bd) 6;: *>;20+8 Vncobpgi q)Riktbd Vtntbv# <04 A)0d >62<# >61> *;tj Fkp)>;:6+)Tjb fgrpt |bit gi tg fgifcrdb# jg|bqbp# tjnt ki ki/tbp}pbtkil tjb obnikil nid vfg}b ga tjb nlpbbobit nvkitbidbd `{ tjb }nptkbv# –vtntb cn| vjgrcd }pgqkdb tjblbibpnc fgitbit ga abdbpnc cn| gi tjb qnckdkt{ ga pb/cbnvbv ga fcnkov agp fgvt/pbfgqbp{ ridbp FBPFCN)‟  Kd) nt >41=) Tjb fgrpt ~rnckakbd ktv jgcdkil `{ igtkiltjnt# bqbi ka vtntb cn| kv kifgp}gpntbd nv n lbibpnconttbp# fgrptv vjgrcd pbebft v}bfkakf vtntb prcbv tjntnpb n`bppnit gp jgvtkcb tg abdbpnc kitbpbvtv)  Kd) nt >42:)   AI6)Vbftkgi >=<*b+ ga tjb vtntrtb#40 R)V)F)¬ ;1=<*b+# nccg|v }pkqntb }nptkbv tg kivrpb#jgcd jnpocbvv# gp kidboika{ n }npt{ agp ak/inifknc pbv}givk`kckt{ npkvkil grt ga FBPFCN ckn`kckt{) Tjkv vbftkgi ga tjb vtnt/rtb ncvg }pgqkdbv# jg|bqbp# tjnt –Xi_g ki/dboikakfntkgi# jgcd jnpocbvv# gp vkokcnpnlpbbobit gp fgiqb{nifb vjncc `b baabftkqbtg tpnivabp apgo tjb g|ibp gp g}bpntgp ga ni{qbvvbc gp anfkckt{ ))) tg ni{ gtjbp }bpvgi tjbckn`kckt{ ko}gvbd ridbp tjkv vbftkgi)‟¬;1=<*b+*>+*bo}jnvkv nddbd+)   N}}c{kil Ib| [gph cn|# tjb fgrpt fgifcrdbd tjnt tjb}nptkbv jnd fcbnpc{ kitbidbd tjb vbttcbobit nlpbbobittg kifcrdb ncc }gvvk`cb fcnkov pbcntbd tg tjb }pg}bpt{#kifcrdkil }gvvk`cb fcnkov ridbp FBPFCN)  Kd) nt>41>) Ki pbnfjkil tjkv fgifcrvkgi# tjb fgrpt bo}jn/vkubd tjb ko}gptnifb ga tjb }nptkbv, hig|cbdlb ga tjbvbttckil }gid nid ktv tgzkf fgitbitv# tjb anft tjnt tjb}nptkbv v}bfkakfncc{ nddpbvvbd tjb }gvvk`kckt{ tjnt fgp/pbftkqb nftkgi |grcd `b pb~rkpbd# nid tjb anft tjntFBPFCN jnd `bbi ki bzkvtbifb agp gqbp n {bnp nt tjbtkob tjb vbttcbobit nlpbbobit |nv bzbfrtbd)  Kd)   Tjb anftv ki tjb  Onpdni fnvb dkaabp apgo tjb anftv kitjkv fnvb ki t|g vklikakfnit |n{v) Akpvt# tjb }nptkbv tgtjb vbttcbobit nlpbbobit ki tjb  Onpdni fnvb igt gic{hib| tjnt tjb }pg}bpt{ fgitnkibd n jnunpdgrv |nvtbdro}# `rt ncvg |bpb n|npb ga nid dkvfrvvbd tjb }gv/vk`kckt{ ga B]N biagpfbobit nftkgi) Ki tjkv fnvb# tjb}rpfjnvbpv ga tjb fgitnokintbd }pg}bpt{ jnd ighig|cbdlb# nftrnc gp fgivtprftkqb# ga tjb }pbvbifb ga jnunpdgrv |nvtb) Arptjbpogpb# ibktjbp ga tjb }nptkbvfgrcd jnqb nitkfk}ntbd tjb }gvvk`kckt{ ga ckn`kckt{ agp« 0=>= Tjgovgi Pbrtbpv) Ig Fcnko tg Gpkl) RV Lgq) \gphv)  
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