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Women Entrepreneurship in India

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Women Entrepreneurship in India- An Overview Abstract Women entrepreneurship development is an essential part of human resource development. The development of women entrepreneurship is very low in India, especially in the rural areas. Entrepreneurship amongst women has been a recent concern. Women have become aware of their existence their rights and their work situation. However, women of middle class are not too eager to alter their role in fear of social backlash. The progress is more visibl
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  Women Entrepreneurship in India- An Overview Abstract Women entrepreneurship development is an essential part of human resourcedevelopment. The development of women entrepreneurship is very low in India,especially in the rural areas. Entrepreneurship amongst women has been a recentconcern. Women have become aware of their existence their rights and their worksituation. However, women of middle class are not too eager to alter their role infear of social backlash. The progress is more visible among upper class families inurban cities.This paper focuses on women entrepreneur. Any understanding of Indian women, of their identity, and especially of their role taking and breaking new paths, will beincomplete without a walk down the corridors of Indian history where women havelived and internalized various role models. The paper talks about the status of women entrepreneurs and the problems faced by them when they ventured out tocarve their own niche in the competitive world of business environment. INTRODUCTION- The Indian economy has been witnessing a drastic change since mid -1991, with newpolicies of economic liberalization, globalization and privatization initiated by theIndian government. India has great entrepreneurial potential. At present, womeninvolvement in economic activities is marked by a low work participation rate,excessive concentration in the unorganized sector and employment in less skilled jobs.Any strategy aimed at economic development will be lop-sided without involvingwomen who constitute half of the world population. Evidence has unequivocallyestablished that entrepreneurial spirit is not a male prerogative. Womenentrepreneurship has gained momentum in the last three decades with the increasein the number of women enterprises and their substantive contribution to economicgrowth. The industrial performance of Asia-Pacific region propelled by Foreign DirectInvestment, technological innovations and manufactured exports has brought a widerange of economic and social opportunities to women entrepreneurs.In this dynamic world, women entrepreneurs are an important part of the globalquest for sustained economic development and social progress. In India, thoughwomen have played a key role in the society, their entrepreneurial ability has notbeen properly tapped due to the lower status of women in the society. It is only fromthe Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-78) onwards that their role has been explicitlyrecognized with a marked shift in the approach from women welfare to womendevelopment and empowerment. The development of women entrepreneurship hasbecome an important aspect of our plan priorities. Several policies and programmesare being implemented for the development of women entrepreneurship in India.There is a need for changing the mindset towards women so as to give equal rightsas enshrined in the constitution. The progress towards gender equality is slow and ispartly due to the failure to attach money to policy commitments. In the words of  1  president APJ Abdul Kalam empowering women is a prerequisite for creating a goodnation, when women are empowered, society with stability is assured. Empowermentof women is essential as their thoughts and their value systems lead to thedevelopment of a good family, good society and ultimately a good nation. When a woman is empowered it does not mean that another individual becomespowerless or is having less power. On the contrary, if a women is empowered hercompetencies towards decision- making will surely influence her family's behavior.In advanced countries, there is a phenomenon of increase in the number of self-employed women after the world war 11. In USA, women own 25% of all business,even though their sales on an average are less than two-fifths of those of other smallbusiness. In Canada, women own one-third of small business and in France it is one-fifth. Concept of Entrepreneur - The word ' entrepreneur' derives from the French word Entreprendre (to undertake) .in the early 16 th Century it was applied to personsengaged in military expeditions, and extend to cover construction and civilengineering activities in the 17 th century, but during the 18 th century , the word'entrepreneur' was used to refer to economic activities. Many authors have defined'entrepreneur' differently. Generally, an entrepreneur is a person who combinescapital and labour for production. According to Cantillion entrepreneur is the agentwho buys means of production at certain prices, in order to sell at prices that arecertain at the moment at which he commits himself to his cost . According to P.FDrucker he is one who always (1) searches for change (2) responds to it (3)exploits it as an opportunity. Concept of women Entrepreneur Enterprise- A small scale industrial unit or industry–related service or business enterprise, managed by one or more womenentrepreneurs in a concern, in which they will individually or jointly have a sharecapital of not less than 51% as shareholders of the private limited company,members of co-operative society . Categories of Women Entrepreneurs ã Women in organized & unorganized sectorã Women in traditional & modern industriesã Women in urban & rural areasã Women in large scale and small scale industries.ã Single women and joint venture. Categories of Women Entrepreneurs in Practice in India ã First Category – Established in big cities– Having higher level technical & professional qualifications– Non traditional Items– Sound financial positionsã Second Category – Established in cities and towns– Having sufficient education 2  – Both traditional and non traditional items– Undertaking women services-kindergarten, crèches, beauty parlors, health clinicetcã Third Category – Illiterate women– Financially week– Involved in family business such as Agriculture, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry,Dairy, Fisheries, Agro Forestry, Handloom, Power loom etc. Supportive Measures for Women's Economic Activities and Entrepreneurship ã Direct & indirect financial supportã Yojna schemes and programmesã Technological training and awardsã Federations and associations Direct & Indirect Financial Support ã Nationalized banksã State finance corporationã State industrial development corporationã District industries centersã Differential rate schemesã Mahila Udyug Needhi schemeã Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI)ã State Small Industrial Development Corporations (SSIDCs) Yojna Schemes and Programme  ã Nehru Rojgar Yojnaã Jacamar Rojgar Yojnaã TRYSEMã DWACRA Technological Training and Awards ã Stree Shakti Package by SBIã Entrepreneurship Development Institute of Indiaã Trade Related Entrepreneurship Assistance and Development (TREAD)ã National Institute of Small Business Extension Training (NSIBET)ã Women's University of Mumbai Federations and Associations ã National Alliance of Young Entrepreneurs (NAYE)ã India Council of Women Entrepreneurs, New Delhiã Self Employed Women's Association (SEWA)ã Association of Women Entrepreneurs of Karnataka (AWEK)ã World Association of Women Entrepreneurs (WAWE)ã Associated Country Women of the World (ACWW) 3  Women Entrepreneurship in India StatesNo of UnitsRegisteredNo. of WomenEntrepreneursPercentageTamil Nadu9618293030.36Uttar Pradesh7980318039.84Kerala5487213538.91Punjab4791161833.77Maharastra4339139432.12Gujrat3872153839.72Karnatka3822102626.84Madhya Pradesh296784228.38Other States & UTS14576418528.71Total57,45218,84832.82 Women Work Participation CountryPercentageIndia (1970-1971)14.2India (1980-1981)19.7India (1990-1991)22.3India (2000-2001)31.6USA45UK43Indonesia40Sri Lanka35Brazil35 Some examples ã Mahila Grih Udyog – 7 ladies started in 1959: Lizzat Pappad ã Lakme – Simon Tata ã Shipping coorporation – Mrs. Sumati Morarji ã Exports – Ms. Nina Mehrotra ã Herbal Heritage – Ms. Shahnaz Hussain 4
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