Business

Writing to Learn: L2 writing as a gateway to effective implicit vocabulary learning and language acquisition via CALL

Description
For more than forty years, researchers investigating ESL and EFL programs across North America (Sartain, 1960) and around the world (Elley & Mangubhai, 1983), have reported on the positive impact of open-ended activities such as free reading on
Categories
Published
of 6
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  2012 CALL Conference 510 www.cs.pu.edu.tw/~2012call www.antwerpcall.be Justin Olmanson, Chung-Kai Huang, Woonhee Sung & Yu-Hui Chen University of Illinois Urbana Champaign - University of Texas at Austin - Columbia University - San Min Junior High School olmansju@gmail.com Writing to Learn: L2 Writing as a Gateway to Effective Implicit Vocabulary Learning and Language Acquisition via CALL Bio data Justin Olmanson, Chung-Kai Huang, Woonhee Sung, and Yu-Hui Chen are members of the Language Learning and Technology Research and Design Group (LLTR&D). Started in 2007 on the campus of the University of Texas at Austin, the LLTR&D is an experiment in sustainable, affinity-based, collaborative educational technology research, design, and development. Currently moving from alpha to beta, FunWritr is the first project undertaken by the group. For more information visit http://funwritr.com . Abstract For more than forty years, researchers investigating ESL and EFL programs across North America (Sartain, 1960) and around the world (Elley & Mangubhai, 1983), have reported on the positive impact of open-ended activities such as free reading on literacy and language development. Despite this, concerns about the fragility of contextual guessing in an L2 (Hulstijn, 1991; Ma & Kelly, 2006; Wesche & Paribakht, 2000) have limited the use of open-ended reading and writing activities. Consequently, instructed approaches to SLA often rely primarily on explicit vocabulary learning tasks. In this presentation and paper we describe the tensions between explicit and implicit learning in an L2 and demonstrate how a CALL application we created might mitigate some of the obstacles L2 language learners face in open-ended, learner-directed, implicit SLA. FunWritr (Olmanson, Farchy, & Day, 2010) is a literacy playground and language learning mashup application designed to reduce the amount of contextual guessing typically required of learners in open-ended implicit L2 learning settings. The application does this by using the learner's L2 written output as a catalyst for language exploration, opening up a gateway to less familiar language anchored in the initial learner output and conveyed through multimodality (Jewitt, 2006) and multiplicity. Keywords implicit vocabulary acquisition, invisible mashup, L2, ESL, NLP, CALL   Short paper Introduction Since the early years of CALL, vocabulary learning has been an area of intense study. From the text reconstruction, cloze exercises, fluency drills, simulations, and word games (Levy, 1997) of the 1980s and early 1990s to the computational linguistics-based applications (Heift & Schulze, 2007) such as courseware, dictionaries (CD-ROM or Web-based), corpora-based concordancing, and computer-mediated communication (CMC) (Stockwell, 2007) of the late 1990s and early 2000s, the learning and acquisition of  2012 CALL Conference 511 www.cs.pu.edu.tw/~2012call www.antwerpcall.be lexical items has held a high profile position in CALL. Today, CALL systems are typically deeply pedagogical and steeped in theories of SLA (Kim & Gilman, 2008; Nakata, 2008; Zapata & Sagarra, 2007). These systems are also highly interactive, designed to dynamically adapt to meet learner preferences and ability levels. Ma and Kelly (2006), organize vocabulary learning into explicit and implicit categories. Throughout CALL’s storied history, most designs have adopted an explicit structured, instructional approach to vocabulary learning (e.g., Joseph, Watanabe, Shiung, Choi, & Robbins, 2009; Spiri, 2008). The explicit approach requires overt mental focus and effort applied to word meaning, usage, and form. Designs based on this approach hypothesize that learners thrive within a systematic, sequenced, minimally contextualized environment that realizes vocabulary acquisition through   repetitive, varied exposure to words, their definitions, and thumbnail contextualization (Olmanson, 2007). The implicit approach refers to holistic, serendipitous, environmental, language acquisition while engaging in meaning-focused activities. While implicit approaches to vocabulary acquisition have been shown to be empirically viable for L1 vocabulary learning (Krashen, 2004), the implicit approach is held up as problematic for L2 learning due to three interrelated obstacles. Firstly, it requires significant amounts of contextual guessing within contexts that may or may not be supportive. Secondly, the serendipitous nature of growth associated with contextual guessing limits and renders unpredictable, the pace of measurable learning (Hulstijn, 1992). Thirdly, due to sparse exposure over modest periods of time implicitly acquired vocabulary is often available to the learner only via receptive channels (Wesche & Paribakht, 2000).  Designing a Bridge to L2 Implicit Vocabulary Acquisition When designing FunWritr, we sought to address the obstacles to L2 implicit vocabulary acquisition mentioned in the previous paragraph in several distinct ways. In response to L2 issues with contextual guessing (Hulstijn, 1992), we took two steps. First, we positioned the open-ended writing space within the application as the initial catalyst for interaction. This decision created an environment that anchored optional word meaning disambiguation and language exploration trajectories to the learner’s productive vocabulary. In other words if the learner entered the sentence into the text box displayed in figure 1, exploring different meanings of any of the words as well their ontologically related lexical items as seen in figures 2 and 3 would be semantically linked to words they wrote themselves. Figure 2 FunWritr Composition Space  2012 CALL Conference 512 www.cs.pu.edu.tw/~2012call www.antwerpcall.be Secondly, in addition to learner-produced semantic anchoring, each noun, verb, adjective, and adverb that is accompanied by three to ten images which further improve the accuracy of contextual guessing (see Figures 1-3). Text-to-speech pronunciations are also used as support. Figure 3 Clicking 'cat' in figure 1 yields a word meaning disambiguation carousel Finally, the inquiry-driven, open-ended nature of the interaction with language supports anticipated longitudinal gains in vocabulary akin to those enjoyed by ESL and EFL student participation in silent sustained or free reading programs (Krashen, 2003). Figure 4 Clicking 'Map Word' in figure 2 yields an interactive ontological map Discussion and Implications Many factors play a role in vocabulary acquisition and development. Some factors are related to input, namely the way in which vocabulary is presented to learners, other factors are related to organizing, storing, and building vocabulary as well as retrieval or recall. By anchoring and contextualizing vocabulary learning, FunWritr provides an implicit exploratory learning playground supported by natural language processing tools and online content repositories (Bird, Klein, & Loper, 2009). By displaying lexical items in a way that visually, linguistically, and contextually maps onto the structure of language while leaving the pathways through the content up to the users, learners can gain an appreciation for the inherent beauty and complexity of language while building their vocabulary repertoire based on their interests and existing vocabulary. Although exposure, attention, reflection and practice are all potentially important elements in  2012 CALL Conference 513 www.cs.pu.edu.tw/~2012call www.antwerpcall.be successful vocabulary learning, CALL applications that support learners in taking responsibility for their own vocabulary development in an engaging, affective way hold exciting possibilities for the future of L2 literacy development, language acquisition, and vocabulary acquisition. In this paper we described the tensions between explicit and implicit learning in an L2 and demonstrated how a CALL application we created might mitigate some of the obstacles L2 language learners face in open-ended, learner-directed, implicit SLA. FunWritr (Olmanson, Farchy, & Day, 2010) is a literacy playground and language acquisition application designed to reduce the amount of contextual guessing typically required of learners in open-ended implicit L2 learning settings. Sometimes called an invisible mashup, the application reduces contextual guessing by anchoring the learner's L2 exploration in their written output. In doing so this output serves as a catalyst for language exploration, opening up comprehensible gateways to less familiar yet connected language. Moreover this semantic anchoring is further supported through multimodality (Jewitt, 2006) in the form of multiple word and meaning-specific images as well as text-to-speech pronunciations. References Bird, S., Klein, E., & Loper, E. (2009). Natural language processing with Python. Beijing: O’Reilly. Elley, W. B., & Mangubhai, F. (1983). The Impact of Reading on Second Language Learning. Reading Research Quarterly, 19(1), 53-67. Heift, T., & Schulze, M. (2007). Errors and intelligence in computer-assisted language learning : parsers and pedagogues. New York: Routledge. Hulstijn, J. H. (1992). Retention of inferred and given word meanings: Experiments in incidental vocabulary learning. In P. J. Arnaud & H. Bejoint (Eds.), Vocabulary and applied linguistics (pp. 113-125). London: MacmillanAcademic and Professional, LTD. Jewitt, C. (2006). Technology, literacy and learning: a multimodal approach. London: Routledge. Joseph, S., Watanabe, Y., Shiung, Y.-J., Choi, B., & Robbins, C. (2009). Key aspects of computer assisted vocabulary learning (CAVL): Combined effects of media, sequencing and task type Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 4(2), 133-168. Kim, D., & Gilman, D. A. (2008). Effects of text, audio, and graphic aids in multimedia instruction for vocabulary learning. Educational Technology & Society, 11(3), 114-126. Krashen, S. D. (2004). The Power of Reading: Insights from the Research. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Levy, M. (1997). Computer-assisted language learning: Context and conceptualization. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Ma, Q., & Kelly, P. (2006). Computer assisted vocabulary learning: Design and evaluation. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 19(1), 15-45. doi: 10.1080/09588220600803 998 Nakata, T. (2008). English vocabulary learning with word lists, word cards and computers: Implications from cognitive psychology research for optimal spaced learning. ReCALL, 20(01), 3-20. doi: 10.1017/S0958344008000219  2012 CALL Conference 514 www.cs.pu.edu.tw/~2012call www.antwerpcall.be Olmanson, J. (2007). Review of eSpindle vocabulary & spelling program online. Language, Learning & Technology, 11(3), 18-28. Retrieved from http://llt.msu.edu/vol11num3/ review1/ Olmanson, J., Farchy, A., & Day, P. (2010). FunWritr. Austin, TX. Retrieved from http://fun writr.com/ Sartain, H. W. (1960). A Bibliography on Individualized Reading. The Reading Teacher, 13 (4), 262-270. Spiri, J. (2008). Online study of frequency list vocabulary with the WordChamp website. Reflections on English Language Teaching, 7(1), 21-36. Stockwell, G. (2007). A review of technology choice for teaching language skills and areas in the CALL literature. ReCALL, 19(02), 105-120. doi: 10.1017/S0958344007000225 Wesche, M. B., & Paribakht, T. S. (2000). Reading-based exercises in second language vocabulary learning: An introspective study. The Modern Language Journal, 84(2), 196-213. doi:10.1111/0026-7902.00062 Zapata, G., & Sagarra, N. (2007). CALL on hold: The delayed benefits of an online workbook on L2 vocabulary learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 20(2), 153-171. doi: 10.1080/09588220701331352
Search
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x