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Yes Journalism, Yet Millions without Journalism Eye; Rethinking Development Journalism for the Marginalized Communities

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Yes Journalism, Yet Millions without Journalism Eye; Rethinking Development Journalism for the Marginalized Communities
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  Yes Journalism, Yet Millions without Journalism Eye; Rethinking Development Journalism for the Marginalized Communities Author: Kwizela Aristide Basebya, Institution Affiliation:  Communication University of China, Faculty of Journalism and Communication,   Institute of Communication Studies  Contacts: e-mail: arisreality@gmail.com, WhatsApp No. +255756700496, Mobile Phone: +8615910527512 Abstract This paper asserts that previous scholarships to deplore and back development journalism were confined in either attacking the model to uphold liberal values or dominated by extreme nationalism and regionalism, elitism and political authoritarianism respectively. Furthermore, efforts to advance the journalism were hindered by coining it inside liberal media setup or lauding individual development programs and far-off programming and funding hence misaligned with reality needs of marginalized communities globally due to what Lewis (2011) stipulates the world’s poor and margi nalized are forcibly absorbed into the knowledge systems and desire economy through the shared global culture of pleasure. As a result, the world is lacking ‘ glo calized’  development media set up with resources devotion for guaranteed and inclusive development journalism. As Lewis (2011) reiterates, there is a new kind of capitalism, a new kind of economy, a new kind of global order, a new kind of personal life coming into being, all of which differ from earlier phases of social development hence he calls for  sociologically and politically, a new frame of reference. Qualitative library research was used to generate secondary data for this paper. After vigorous analysis and critical review approach of more than 100 purposely sampled scholarly contributions on development journalism and communication at large also current global distresses, the paper suggests re-institutionalization and resource devotion approach to development journalism and also creation of ecological development proximity between development journalists, extension officers and the marginalized communities. It further introduces media dualism system within a state which accommodates discretely both liberal and development journalism while restrict political, market and corporate forces to deter the later. Key Words; Media, Development Journalism, Institutional, reconstruction, Marginalized Communities Introduction The sense of media misrepresentation and bias has been circulating in the academia for quiet long time. Scholars from Global South or developing countries from Asia, Africa, South Americas and the Arab world have been arguing on how liberal media and journalism misrepresents their regions as much attention is paid on negative coverage such as wars, hunger, diseases, political turmoil and so forth leaving behind development related news. Indeed, the construct of misrepresentations and biases created a common ground for solidarity between scholars of these regions backed with similar historical upheavals evolved as a result of colonialism and imperialism. Together they brought to academic and research attention the need to rebalance global media, journalism and information transactions in order to enact appropriate  media policies and establish proper institutions to realize balance and fairness in global media and journalism. One of the remarkable successes was the New World Information and Communication Order debates (NWICO debates) sponsored by UNESCO in 1970’s and 1980’s to demand rebalance of global media and information flows but also the birth of development communication and later development journalism. Motivated by Alan Chalkley (Ogan 1980: 11), continental Asia and later other global south countries, thought there was a real need of reflection on new type of  journalism specifically designed to function in their cultural and political structures hence the birth of development communication and journalism. According to Vilanilam (2016)  development journalism refers to news related to administrative reforms, agricultural development and food production, economic activity, education, employment and labor welfare, family planning, health, hygiene and medicine, housing, scientific and technological development, mass communications, national integration, rural and urban development, social reforms, telecommunication, tourism and transport development. However, while this paper admits that researchers have extensively proved the needs for development communication and journalism in covering various development related issues, it however argues that there are erroneous in institutional construction of development media and  journalism. As a consequence, there is improper institutionalization of this journalism model hence continuous misrepresentation and lack of media and journalism attention to the marginalized, underprivileged and poor rural and urban communities. In addition, with the current social-economic classes and struggles evolved due to capitalism distresses, life styles and human diversity, the problem have grown tremendously.  The key argument of this paper is that; while development media and journalism was intended to  pay attention on development distresses and bring them to policy and decision makers’ attention, this research paper suggest that not much have been achieved in alleviating the situation even after the evolving of different branches of journalism such as environment journalism, crisis  journalism, war journalism, health journalism and so forth. Most scholarships focused inwardly with more of anti ‘W estern ism’  due to imperialism records hence as argued by Odhiambo (1991), early development journalism adapters from developing countries especially political leaders used these intellects to subject development journalism into extreme nationalism, elitism and lack of strong institutional and resource devotion for covering marginalized communities. For instance, various studies reveal that the State Owned Media (SOM) systems which intend to cover development news, in most cases continue to serve political ends of incumbent politicians and their closest. Also, the advent of Community Media and Communication for Change schemes have always pinned under donations, international organizations funding and programming but also individual NGOs uptakes. This not only limits sustainability of development journalism but also it compels the model into short living programming with specific scoping and geography. In addition, there is wrong narration and general assumption that both liberal and development journalists collectively self guarantee the balance of the content they produce and reflect a balance of issues proportionate to the significance, objective and relevance in the community which in practical sense isn’t applicable and realized. Therefore the paper argues that the foundation and practices of Development Journalism neither pay attention the integration of marginalized and underprivileged communities across the world to the media sight, nor develop a media; and journalistic institutions which would mandatorily and proximately devote resources. The paper recommends re-institutionalization process of  development journalism while evading the trap of political authoritarianism and powerful forces centrism. It recommends creation of sovereign and none corporate state media scheme which establishes autonomous state agencies that oversee the guaranteed media coverage and information transactions in lighting marginalized communities and boosting rural economic productivity for national development. The major focus is to create the ecological proximity of development extension officers, journalists and the designated marginalized communities in which development journalism will neither strive depending on the will of media reporters and gate keepers nor coated within elements of commoditization and other powerful market forces. Accordingly, the paper introduces a Journalism hybrid within a state or country which accommodates discretely both liberal and development journalism under clear structural of media constructions. The basis is that; taking the existing liberal media model as a carrier of development journalism cannot guarantee a full accommodation of development agenda hence majority of rural and urban marginalized communities and their development initiatives will still be underrepresented to the media. Likewise, bending liberal media set up and journalism in order to promote development news cannot function in the existence of current global structures and also pluralized political, social and corporate interests.  Reflection on methodologies and instruments This qualitative paper uses library research to generate secondary data as it purposely and randomly selected more than 100 publications by researchers and scholars on both development  journalism (communication) in the global south and alternative journalism in the global north respectively in order to globalize framing of development journalism for marginalized communities. The selected articles and literatures range from the early constructivist approaches of development journalism, the uptake of UNESCO and other International organization in
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