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1 - 1 - Lecture 2-1 Kierkegaard, Martensen and Hegelianism (21 min).rtf

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[MUSIC] Hello and welcome to the second lecture of Soren Kierkegaard: Subjectiit! Iron! and the Crisis of Modernit!# In the first lecture we learned that there were a number of im$ortant as$ects of the thought of Socrates that were a great ins$iration for Kierkegaard# %e talked about Socratic iron! the idea of a$oria Socrates& role as the gadfl! of 'thens Socrates& daimon and finall! Socrates& so(called maieutic art# It was useful to see these conce$ts in their original conte)t in *lato&s
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  [MUSIC]Hello and welcome to the second lecture ofSoren Kierkegaard: Subjectiit! Iron! andthe Crisis of Modernit!#In the first lecture we learned thatthere were a number of im$ortantas$ects of the thought of Socrates thatwere a great ins$iration for Kierkegaard#%e talked about Socratic iron! the ideaof a$oria Socrates& role as the gadfl!of 'thens Socrates& daimon and finall! Socrates& so(called maieutic art#It was useful to see these conce$ts intheir srcinal conte)t in *lato&s dialoguessince this will gie us a greatera$$reciation for Kierkegaard&s uni+ue useof them#,ut we still hae one brief errand toattend to before we get to this#Kierkegaard&s understanding of Socrateswas of course based onhis reading of the te)ts of *lato -eno$hon and 'risto$hanes that is the $rimar! .reek sources#,ut it was also largel! sha$ed b! theinter$retation of the famous .erman$hiloso$her Hegel with whom he was in a constant criticaldialogue in /he Conce$t of Iron!#Hegel&s $hiloso$h! was a highl! $o$ulartrend at the Uniersit! of Co$enhagen inthe late 0123s when Kierkegaard was astudent and was writing this work#So in this lecture we&ll e)$lore firstthe $resence of Hegel at the Uniersit! duringKierkegaard&s time and then we&ll go through Hegel&s anal!sisof Socrates treating the sameto$ics that we introduced last time thatis Socratic iron! a$oria thedaimon and so forth#%e&ll see how Kierkegaard is ins$ired andinfluenced b! theim$ortant historical role that Hegelascribes to the $erson of Socrates#%hat does it mean to sa! that we areautonomous45or most $eo$le toda! autonom! is just a  fanc! word for freedom#6iterall! autonom! just means that one isable to gie a law to oneself7in other words one can decide foroneself what one wishes to do#So to sa! that someone is not autonomousmeans that that $ersonis subject to e)ternal laws that oftencontradict what one wants to do#So in this sense we all generall!think that autonom! is a good thing just as we think that freedom is a goodthing#I don&t want someone telling me what to door im$osing arbitrar! rules and regulationson me that limit m! freedom#/oda! autonom! is conceied as auniersall! $ositiething but this was not alwa!s the case#In some societies the main alue was notfor $eo$leto go out and act on their own desires andwishes#Instead the most im$ortant thing was forthemto follow a set of rules that hadbeen agreed u$on b! one&s famil! cultureor societ!#/his includes dressing in a certain wa! oracting in accordance with acce$ted norms#'ccording to this iew to actautonomousl! is asign of arrogance and disregard for one&sfamil! or tradition#/his is often associated with religion#5or e)am$le in religious ceremonieseer!one is e)$ected to do thesame thing to $erform the same ceremon!in the same wa!#It&s im$ossible to be an indiidualist ornon(conformist in a ceremonial conte)t#Moreoer in Christianit! it&s thoughtthat human beings are finite and sinful#/he! are onl! able to gain salation notb! their ownacts alone but b! the grace of .od#It&s therefore considered not justarrogant but een irreligious toact as if one can determine the truth foroneself#In this sense autonom! is conceied as anegatie thing#  To say that someone is not autonomous means that that person is subject to external laws often contradict what  /his issue which is still er! much alietoda! was one that was im$ortant inKierkegaard&s time#It was themati8ed b! a !oung 9anishscholar named Hans 6assen Martensen . %hen Kierkegaard was a student here at theUniersit!of Co$enhagen in the 0123s the $hiloso$h!of the.erman $hiloso$her Hegel became a majortrend among students#/he ke! figure for the $o$ularit! of HegelwasMartensen who was just fie !ears olderthan Kierkegaard#In 012 Martensen returned to Co$enhagenfrom a two(!eartri$ that he took to ,erlin Heidelberg Munich ;ienna and *aris#<n his tri$ Martensen met most of theleading figures in *russia andthe .erman states who were discussingHegel&s $hiloso$h! at this time#%hen he returned to Co$enhagen Martensenimmediatel! began an illustrious academiccareer#<n =ul! 0>th 012? he defended hisdissertationhich was entitled <n the 'utonom! ofHuman Self(Consciousness . In this work he criticall! treated thes!stems of the .ermanthinkers Kant Schleiermacher and Hegel#Martensen argued that these $hiloso$hiesallre$resented s!stems of autonom! that hebelieedfocused one(sidedl! on the $ower of theindiidual#'ccording to Martensen this fails torecogni8ethe $rofound de$endenc! of human beings on.od#%ith this to$ic Martensen can in a sense besaid to antici$ate Kierkegaard&s to$ic ofiron!# In both cases what&s at issue is the role of theindiidual orthe subject is(a(is the objectie order ofthings#,oth Martensen and Kierkegaard seem Danish scholar named Hans Lassen Martensen  to be in agreement that modernsubjectiit!or een relatiism has gone too far#Martensen&s ke! term for this is @modernautonom!@ while Kierkegaard&s is @iron! @but in the end the!&re talking about thesame set of issues#Martensen began lecturing at theUniersit!of Co$enhagen in the fall of 012?#It was here at Aegensen College thathe defended his dissertation in the same!ear#His courses soon became the talk of theentire uniersit!#Students from all disci$lines flocked tohear what he had to sa! since hewas in a sense giing an account of whathe had learned on his tri$about the most recent deelo$ments in$hiloso$h!and theolog! in the .erman(s$eakingstates#/o the consternation and ama8ement of theolder moreconseratie facult! Martensenimmediatel! becamea kind of academic celebrit!#/o the students he was an e)citing !oungscholar who coulds$eak to them in a wa! that the! had note)$erienced before#He $resented to them the basic ideas ofthe $hiloso$h!of Hegel which all of *russia and .erman!was talking about#<ne of Martensen&s students describes hisencounter withthese lectures as his intellectualawakening#He writes and I +uote @/he man who throughhis lectures made such a strong im$ressionon meand man! others was a !oung instructorwho had been a$$ointed to gie lectureson the recent histor! of$hiloso$h! for us first !ear students#It was Hans 6assen Martensen#He brought new life into the newuniersit! building#Martensen for man! !ears filled thelargest auditoriums
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