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   Other Notable Scholars on Legal Feminism Ruth Bader Ginsburg Born Ruth Joan Bader March 15, 1933 (age 80)  Brooklyn, New York, US Alma mater: Cornell University Harvard University Columbia University Religion Judaism She is generally viewed as belonging to the liberal wing of the Court. Before becoming a judge, Ginsburg spent a considerable portion of her legal career as an advocate for the advancement of women's rights as a constitutional principle. She advocated as a volunteer lawyer for the American Civil Liberties Union and was a member of its board of directors and one of its general counsel in the 1970s. She was a professor at Rutgers School of Law  – Newark and Columbia Law School. In 1980, President Jimmy Carter appointed her to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.    1971- she established the Women's Rights Project at the American Civil Liberties Union.    1970s Ginsburg acquired a first-hand knowledge of the workings of the Supreme Court as she argued six cases —  all feminist issues —  to the Justices.    Ruth Ginsburg made the same assumption as the rest of the feminist movement. She accepted without question the Marxist claim that women's role as mothers and wives is inherently oppressive. And she believed that equality of opportunity should always translate into identical social roles.    1977, Ginsburg wrote a report for the Commission on Civil Rights titled Sex Bias in the U.S. Code . This report demanded 800 changes to federal laws in order to eliminate any and all distinctions between men and women. The report claims that the Boy Scouts perpetuate stereotyped sex roles, so they must be gender-integrated or abolished. It instructed to clean the speech: manmade must be changed to artificial, midshipman to midshipperson, and so forth. Catharine MacKinnon Born October 7, 1946 (age 66) Minneapolis, Minnesota Fields Legal scholar Institutions University of Michigan (Elizabeth A. Long Professor of Law, 1989  – ) York University (Professor of Law, 1988  – 1989)  various universities (Visiting Professor, 1984  – 1988) University of Minnesota (Assistant Professor of Law, 1982  – 1984) Alma mater Yale University (PhD, political science, 1987) Yale Law School (JD, 1977) Smith College (BA, government, 1969) MacKinnon's ideas may be divided into three central — though overlapping and ongoing — areas of focus: (1) sexual harassment, (2) pornography, and (3) international work. She has also devoted attention to social and political theory and methodology Sexual harassment: MacKinnon first became interested in issues concerning sexual harassment when she heard that an administrative assistant at Cornell University resigned after being refused a transfer when she complained of her supervisor's harassing behavior, and then was denied unemployment benefits because she quit for 'personal' reasons. It was at a consciousness-raising session about this and other women's workplace experiences, organized by Lin Farley as part of a Cornell class on women and work, that the term sexual harassment was first coined. Pornography: MacKinnon, along with late feminist activist Andrea Dworkin, has been active in attempting to change legal postures towards pornography, framing it as a form of sex discrimination and, more recently, a form of human trafficking. Mari J. Matsuda Mari J. Matsuda (born 1956) is an American lawyer, activist, and law professor at the William S. Richardson School of Law. Matsuda returned to Richardson in the fall of 2008. Prior to her return to Hawaii, Matsuda was a professor at Georgetown University Law Center, specializing in the fields of torts, constitutional law, legal history, feminist theory, critical race theory, and civil rights law. She is one of the leading voices in critical race theory since its inception. As a frequent keynote speaker, she has lectured at major universities. As a board member of the Chevron-Texaco Task Force on Equality and Fairness, she coauthored its final report in 2002, and she received the 2003 Society of American Law Teachers Human Rights Award at the Association of American Law Schools Conference. She was recognized by Ms. Magazine as one of the 100 most influential Asian Americans for her representation of Manuel Fragante accent discrimination case, and others. Fundamental Themes in Feminist Legal Philosophy   1 The Rule of Law Many standard accounts of the nature of law hold that law presumes and reflects a world-view in which the goal is to achieve a set of presumptively coherent propositions. And the appearance or illusion of coherence is maintained by requirements of consistency, including following precedent, treating like cases alike, and maintaining judicial impartiality.    Feminist philosophers of law have concluded that law makes systemic bias that are invisible, normal, entrenched, and thus difficult to identify and to oppose.    Such systemic bias may be accepted not only by actors within the legal system such as judges but also by its victims as well as its beneficiaries. A primary task of feminist philosophy of law is conceptual revision to identify such bias wherever it occurs within the legal system    Feminist philosophers of law judge the status quo thus enforced as patriarchal, reflecting ancient and almost universal presumptions of gender inequality. This is not a conceptual necessity; law need not be patriarchal. Law does, however, reflect power relationships within societies. Throughout history, and in virtually every society, men and women have been viewed not only as different, but also as unequal in status and in power. Women were typically cast as opposites to men within an overarching set of dichotomies: men being considered rational, aggressive, competitive, political, dominating leaders; and women being seen as emotional, passive, nurturing, domestic, subordinate followers. Versions of this set of assumptions have been widely and pervasively incorporated in long-standing institutions from politics and economic arrangements to educational and religious institutions, to aesthetic standards and personal relations — and law is no exception. 2. Equality and Difference For many centuries men and women have been viewed as significantly different, and since they are different it has been thought appropriate and justified to treat them differently in law. Indeed, one of the reasons for the entrenchment of sexual inequality is precisely the observation that some differences between men and women are real: only women can become pregnant and bear children. Historically, feminists contend in a variety of ways, such differences were greatly exaggerated, as was their significance and the extent to which they could be attributed to biology rather than being socially constructed.

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Jul 22, 2017
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