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CONCEPTUALISATIONCONTENTSINTRODUCTION A1. DESIGN FUTURING Case Study One: Cardboard Cathedral Case Study Two: SkyfarmA2. DESIGN COMPUTATION Case Study One: Hangzhou…
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CONCEPTUALISATIONCONTENTSINTRODUCTION A1. DESIGN FUTURING Case Study One: Cardboard Cathedral Case Study Two: SkyfarmA2. DESIGN COMPUTATION Case Study One: Hangzhou Tennis Centre Case Study Two: ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILLION 2010A3: COMPOSITION AND GENERATION Case Study One: Elbphilharmonie Case Study Two: New Balance Nervous SystemA4: CONCLUSIONA5: LEARNING OUTCOMESA6: ALGORITHMIC SKETCHBOOK REFERENCESINTRODUCTION Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m Kelvin Ng, currently a second year student in the Bachelor of Environments and majoring in architecture at The University of Melbourne. From young I have been very interested in design and the visual arts, drawing and painting in my spare time and in class. Over the years, my interest have shifted from abstract and almost thoughtless doodles into an appreciation and fascination for the well designed. This has led me to my current place, studying not only architecture as a way of designing dwellings, but also the principles behind what truly makes a space habitable and comfortable. Digital design has become something integral to the realisation of the ideas that designers manifest, allowing for more and more complex surfaces to be created. I am looking forward to develop my skills even more design studios in the future.11ONE DESIGN FUTURING“We are now at a point when it can we, enmasse, have a future” - Tony FryIn recent years design has created some concerns within the minds of the world, and is published in Tony Fry’s ‘Design Futuring’. He writes that the innovations and advancements in design over the course of the past century have been at the cost of the environment. Fry argues that the modern age with its vices and unsustainable development is in a state of defuturing, and has resulted in panic, asking us a simple question “how can a future be secured by design” This leads to the shift in thinking, proposed by Dunne, that design needs to be critical and provocative, dreaming of the impossible to future design instead of hoping for something possible that only leads them to the expected future.no longer be assumed thatThese two combined in the realm of architecture is something that is quite crucial at this stage, architecture being something that can elicit change, the advances in architecture in the form of the avant garde, reacting to the norm of society. As the mainstream changes so does what we see as normal. This as per Fry and Dunne, must be in regards to our unsustainable way of living, using architecture to change this. The introduction of parametric design and computation are tools that have allowed us to adapt and change our designs to better suit our needs.CASE STUDY ONE: CARDBOARD CATHEDRAL- SHIGERU BAN Shigeru Ban is known for his ingenious use of lightweight and unconventional materials such as bamboo, cardboard and paper, working to build distater relief around the world. He is very citical of his profession, “working for priveledged people , for rich people, for government and developers. They have money and power, and those are invisible, so they hire us to visualize their power and money by making monuments of architecture” and has dedicated himself to the creation of useful buildings1, illustrated by the Cardboard Cathedral.The tubes, developed by Ban from 1986 as a recyclable and budget friendly option have become a signature of his, seen across his many disatser relief projects, showing what simple and cheap materials can do when properly utilised. This idea of simple materials used in an ingenious way is what the future is about, dreaming of the impossible to create change in the world, Ban stating “the strength of the building has nothing to do with the strength of the material... Even concrete buildings can be destroyed by earthquakes very easily, but paper buildings cannot” 3The cardboard cathedral, designed after the 2011 Christchurch earthquake, uses a simple A frame made, being the simplest structure to build2, from 98 equally sized cardboard tubes and 8 shipping containers is a testament to the future of design, the ‘temporary’ church predicted to last around fifty years. Each tube is coated with waterproof polyeurethane and fireproofed, protected by a polycarbonate roof3.It is necessary that projects and ideas like this circulate, pushing the boundaries of materials to future design as a whole. 1. Helen Walters, “Buildings Made From Cardboard Tubes: A Gallery Of Shigeru Ban Architecture”, TED Blog, 2017 <http://blog.ted.com/buildings-made-from-cardboardtubes-a-gallery-of-shigeru-ban-architecture/> [accessed 26 July 2017]. 2. “Cardboard Cathedral By Shigeru Ban In Christchurch, New Zealand”, Architectural Review, 2017 <https://www.architectural-review.com/buildings/shigeru-ban/cardboard-cathedral-by-shigeru-ban-in-christchurch-new-zealand/8654513.article> [accessed 26 July 2017]. 3. “Newly Released Photos Of Shigeru Ban’s Cardboard Cathedral In New Zealand”, Archdaily, 2017 <http://www.archdaily.com/413224/shigeru-ban-completes-cardboard-cathedral-in-new-zealand> [accessed 26 July 2017].Figure 1. Cardboard CathedralFigure 2. SKyfarmCASE STUDY TWO: SKYFARM- ROGERS STIRK HARBOUR + PARTNERS AND ARUP ASSOCIATES The skyfarm project was created in 2014 in response to the question of how countires will produce food for the increasing population of the world at the Milan Expo1. The idea behind the structure is to sustain such an issue in a sustainable manner. It is a hyperboloid bamboo tensegrity structur, multileveled to integrate a range of farming techniques, from traditional to aquaponics2. It is predicted that this structure could be integrated into cities, but is designed for more rural areas where the soil quality is low or land is scarce. It allows the cultivation of crops with short lifespans close to markets all year round reducing the need for transport. The lightweight structure is made of bamboo and showcases its tensile quality, allowing for bending whilst still keeping its considerable strength and lightness. It is also sustainable, bamboo growing faster than traditional wood and requiring much less energy to cultivate than metal. The tensegrity structure are made from prestressed members, the bamboo creating the tight circular frame that enables sun exposure on the farming zone3. The structure of the farm can be scaled up or down to suit a variety of conditions, a 10 metre version constructed in a school or a 80 metre version in a park1. The geometry can also be changed in accordance with the lattitude of the earth and amount of sunlight. In accordance with climate double or single skin enclosures could be applied to create the best conditions for growth. 1. “Skyfarm, Milan”, Design Build Network, 2017 <http://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/skyfarm-milan/> [accessed 29 August 2017]. 2. Amy Frearson, “Rogers Stirk Harbour Tackles Food Crisis With Vertical Farm”, Dezeen <https://www.dezeen.com/2016/03/17/skyfarm-rogers-stirk-harbour-partners-global-food-crisis-vertical-farm-concept-bamboo/> [accessed 29 July 2017]. 3. “Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners - Project - Skyfarm”, Archello.Com <http://www.archello.com/en/project/skyfarm> [accessed 29 July 2017].“This is an age in which digitally informed design c produce a second nature” - Rivka and Robert OxmanTWO DESIGN COMPUTATIONcan actually The introduction of computer aided design in a symbiotic fashion within the realm of design has allowed humans to produce form in response to the claimed “defuturing’ of design by Tony Fry, in response to the environmental conditions that could affect the workings of said form1. The introduction of new digital technologies has defined the design process from form finding to production, evolving as a medium that facilitates the intersection between science, technology, design and architecture2. This introduction of computation in the design process has allowed humans to develop beyond the traditional forms of architecture, the complex algorithms and parametrics of computer calculations enhancing the already considerable skills of a designer, allowing for new forms of logical design thinking, creation of variation and increased capacity for research based experimental design2. As Kalay writes, “computers...never tire, never make silly arithmetical mistakes, and will gladly search through and correlate facts buried in the endless heaps of information... quickly and repeatedly”, and thus is a perfect choice for the precarious position that we sit in, the futuring of design so important to our survival, the dream of the impossible being made real by these methods.Alongside this quick and efficient method that computation brings, it also allows the user to follow a program to view and modify forms in virtual space, the ease of the task being so great that it has created a huge shift in the way architects work. This is due to the commercialisation of new and readily available software that allowed the manipulation of NURBS surfaces, becoming the preferred design environment for a new generation of designers. The new computer aided design has an incredible potential for differentiation3, parametric design allowing for the ability to modulate the number of holes in a surface to control the amount of light in a space among others showing the direction such innovation can push humanity in. It can answer much of our problems in regards to ecological design in response to the environment we are situated in, forming natural design that is not simply imitating the form of the organic, but instead taking ideas and principles behind nature and repurposing them for our own context, offering a solution to the idea of ‘defuturing’. 1. Yehuda E Kalay, Architecture’s New Media (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5-25. 2. Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, Theories Of The Digital In Architecture (London: Routledge, 2014), pp. 1-10. 3. Patrik Schumacher, “Parametricism: A New Global Style For Architecture And Urban Design”, Architectural Design, 79.4 (2009), 14-23 <https://doi.org/10.1002/ad.912>.CASE STUDY ONE: HANGZHOU TENNIS CENTRE- NBBJ 10,000 seat tennis stadium in Hangzhou, China that uses a parametrically driven process to find an innovative skin and to reduce consumption of materials. It is made up of 24 truss modules in a double curve around a circular arc, creating a large scale repetitive pattern which encloses the seating bowl. The resulting shell functions as a shade and rain protection for the bowl. A modular system was defined parametrically by establishing NURBS point cloud system, serving as a control point to define edge curves of the surface1. Parameters for manipulating the point cloud enabled different configurations of exterior surface, the resulting petals were generated in accordance with both the sorting and transforming operations and were judged on the factors of shade, drainage, structure and aesthetics2. The structural truss centreline model is parametrically driven from surface geometry, parameters controlling the spacing and depth of the trusses.Grasshopper allowed automated generation of wireframe compatible with engineering analysis software, allowing for physics testing to simulate gravity loading on the frame. Having this built into the design helped the team engage in more detailed dialogue with the structural engineering team1 NJJB intended to reduce amount of steel needed for the envelope structure to create an efficient shell that provides the spectators with a clear field of vision. Reduced steel consumption by 67% of the intended amount which shows capabilities of successful parametric design. Inventive ways of using parametric design support efficiency in design through the use of computation, contributing to both performance oriented form finding as well as concievable geometries.1. Nathan Miller, “The Hangzhou Tennis Center: A Case Study In Integrated Parametric Design”, Issuu, 2011 <https://issuu.com/nmillerarch/docs/hz tennis issuu> [accessed 1 August 2017]. 2. “Case Study : Computational Design Of Hangzhou Tennis Center - Arch2o.Com”, Arch2o. Com <http://www.arch2o.com/case-study-computational-design-hangzhou-tennis-center/> [accessed 1 August 2017].Figure 3. Hangzhou Tennis CentreFigure 5. Transformation of arc into surfaceStructural diagrams showing the conversion of the arc to a point cloud before being converted into a surface. Figure 6 shows the grasshopper algorithm that produced this shell as well as the structural loads on the truss members within the design.Figure 6. Computation process Figure 7. SectionFigure 8. ICD/ITKE Research Pavillion 2010CASE STUDY TWO: ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILLION 2010- ICD + ITKE Design computation allows us to integrate both the physical properties as well as the behaviour of a certain material into the generation of ideas in the design process, needing to consider form, material and structure side by side. It is common to approach a design through form finding, where an idea is expressed through drawings or modelling, but it can also be defined by the behaviour of a certain material1. The research pavilion designed in 2010 by the Institute for Computational Design (ICD) and the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) at the University of Stuttgart is an example of such definition, the project based on elastic bending. It explores how the simple act of bending can lead to the possibility of structurally effective and versatile systems. The design of the pavilion began with the integration of material behaviour as parameters through a series of tests, both physical and digital, focusing on the bending of plywood. The resulting computational tool allowed the generation of possible systems, allowing for prototyping. The plywood strips are then created as straight sections, bent by a robot to interlock, the force being held in place by its corresponding neighbour. Many factors needed to be considered to allow for this bent system to function and several hundred different partsneeded to be fabricated and thus was included in the computation of the design. The ability to directly generate data allowed the large number of unique parts to be fabricated, a process that would otherwise have taken months2. In comparison to the process of computation, the construction proved to be substantially easier, the parts needing only to be connected to automatically create the desired shape as per the intended design using the behaviour of the material. Along with the exploration of the bending element of architecture, it allowed the comparison of the digital against the physical, suggesting that the integration of computation and construction was no longer only a dream. It showed how the focus of computation on a material system can increase efficiency while exploring new design areas.1. Achim Menges, “Pluripotent Components: An Alternative Approach To Parametric Design”, AA Files, 2005, pp. 63-74. 2. Moritz Fleischmann and others, “Material Behaviour: Embedding Physical Properties In Computational Design Processes”, Architectural Design, 82.2 (2012), 44-51 <https://doi.org/10.1002/ad.1378>.Figure 9. Stress levels on membersFigure 10. Stress levels on members and resulting ffabrication modelFigure 11. Pavilion structureStress and deformation can be simulated as part of the process of computation, structural analysis models allowing engineers and architects to work hand in hand. Figure shows the structural model translated into a fabrication model.THREE COMPOSITION AND GENERATIONComputation is redefining architecture as a whole, creating opportunities across the fields of design, fabrication and construction1. Most architects use computers as a virtual tool to digitalise designs and procedures that are already preconceived in their minds, simply a tool that allows them to more easily edit, copy and draw with more precision than they necessarily would otherwise. However, this is not the definition of computation, but instead what we could term ‘computerisation” 2 Computation is something that allows the extension of ability to cope with situations with a high level of complexity. As Sean Ahlquist and Achim Menges define it, computation is “the processing of information and interactions between elements...providing] a framework for negotiating and influencing the interrelation of datasets...with the capacity to generate complex order, form and structure”3 It means the use of a computer to augment the intellect, allowing complex problems to be solved. It also has the potential to provide further development, modifications able to be made to the algorithm and thus almost infinite explorations able to be generated. The power and availabilities of scripting interfaces such as Rhino and Grasshopper has increased the use of computation in practice. This has created designers who not only use software, but apply algorithmic thinking to take on an interpretive role, understanding the generation of the code, and effectively create software4.Computational designers generate and explore architectural spaces through algorithms that relate placement and configuration. Computation must be flexible, able to adapt to changing parameters of architecture and accommodate to these changes. The development of such software allows architects to create and use simulation tools to create more responsive and adaptive designs, architecture being an encounter between design and the public5. Using computation could lead to a future where a digital model could be further used after construction, parameters continuing to be updated as per residents needs and feedback, reflecting in changes in the performance of the building.1 Peters Brady. and Xavier de Kestelier, Computation Works (London: Wiley, 2013), pp. 8-15. 2. Kostas Terzidis, Algorithmic Architecture, 2006. 3. Achim Menges and Sean Ahlquist, Computational Design Thinking (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2011). 4. Mark Burry, Scripting Cultures (Chichester, West Sussex, U.K: J. Wiley & Sons, 2011), p. 8. 5. Stan Allen, Practice: Architecture, Technique And Representation (London: Routledge, 2008), p. 14.Figure 12. Hamburg ElbphilharmonieCASE STUDY ONE: HAMBURG ELBPHILHARMONIE- HERZOG AND DE MEURON The auditorium of the Elbphilharmonie in the city of hamburg is lined with 10,000 individually unique acoustic panels made of gypsum fiber. The panels feature one million indents collectively, ranging from four to sixteen centimeters in diameter, designed to shape sound within the space. When sound hits the surface, it is either absorbed or scattered back into the auditorium. Each panel is different but work together to create a balanced sound across the space. This itself is not a new concept, but the Elbphilharmonie uses parametrics to create something that is not only effective, but also visually engaging. Based on the geometry of the auditorium, differently shaped panels would need to be positioned. Towards the back the panels would need to be deeper and have bigger grooves to absorb the echoes that the distance would produce, while other areas near the ceiling would have to have a less extreme indent. This combined with the aesthetic and comfort features that architecture should include created a set of parameters that allowed the development of an algorithm that would individually shape each panel and pattern them to specification, both performance wise and aesthetics wise. The founder of the studio that fabricated these panels, Benjamin Koren,states “I hit play and it creates a million cells, all different and based on these parameters. I have 100 percent control over setting up the algorithm, and then I have no more control”1 Such a feat of design would be nearly impossible to do by hand, the practicality of such an algorithm allowing for the creation of something that regular designers without the enhanced abilities that come with computation would not have been able to do. The control that we
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