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A escravidão africana na produção de alimentos_São Paulo no século XIX

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Francisco Vidal Luna e Herbert S. Klein_A escravidão africana na produção de alimentos_São Paulo no século XIX
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  Iw{, Igcl,$ wçc Qoydc$ v, ;1$ l, >$ Q, >:9-7?5$ on~jd-mylhc >1?1  Iwg~ovjkçc O~jgolo lo Q~ckyåçc ki Odj`il{cw, Wçc Qoydc lc Wêgydc ?:    F~olgjwgc Vjkod Dylo     Hi~ni~{ W, Bdijl  ^iwy`c  O y{jdj}oåçc kc {~onodhc iwg~ovc lo O`ê~jgo iw{ivi owwcgjoko gc` o oe~jgyd{y~o qo~o ixqc~{oåçc, Il{~i{ol{c$lçc hcyvi ~iej`i iwg~ovjw{o lc yod cw iwg~ovcw fc~o` y{jdj}okcw wc`il{i loyidiw gyd{jvcw2 `iw`c lowï~iow `ojw c~jil{okow qo~o o ixqc~{oåçc$ hcyvi q~ckyåçc ki eíli~cw odj`il{àgjcw qo~o gclwy`c q~÷q~jci onow{igj`il{c kc `i~gokc dcgod, Qc~ê`$ i` qcygcw gowcw iwwo o{jvjkoki fcj {çc `o~gol{i gc`c loigclc`jo iwg~ovjw{o lc N~owjd$ i` iwqigjod low ï~iow qjclij~ow ko gofijgyd{y~o i` Wçc Qoydc$ lo q~j`ij~o`i{oki kc wêgydc ?:, O olïdjwi kiwwi q~cgiwwc ki q~ckyåçc ê c cnmi{jvc kiw{i o~{jec, Qodov~ow-Ghovi Wçc Qoydc$ iwg~ovjw`c$ q~ckyåçc ki odj`il{cw$ oe~jgyd{y~o  Onw{~og{ [hi y{jdj}o{jcl cf wdovi donc~ jl O`i~jgo uow owwcgjo{ik uj{h ixqc~{ oe~jgyd{y~i$ od{hcyeh {hi~i uow lcwdovi ~iej`i uhjgh ywik wdoviw ixgdywjvidz jl wygh gyd{jvo{jcl, Ivil jl {hi o~iow `cw{ c~jil{ik {cuo~kixqc~{w$ {hi~i uow wdovi q~ckyg{jcl cf fcckw{yffw fc~ wynwjw{ilgi olk dcgod `o~bi{ wodiw, Ny{ jl fiu gowiwuow {hjw og{jvj{z ow j`qc~{ol{ ow jl {hi wdovi igclc`z jl N~o}jd qo~{jgydo~dz jl {hi qjclii~ o~iow cf gcffiiq~ckyg{jcl jl Wçc Qoydc jl {hi fj~w{ hodf cf {hi ?:{h gil{y~z, [hi olodzwjw cf {hjw q~cgiww cf fcckw{yffwq~ckyg{jcl jw {hi cnmig{ cf {hjw o~{jgdi, Bizuc~kw Wçc Qoydc$ wdovi~z$ q~ckyg{jcl cf fcckw{yffw$ oe~jgyd{y~i MID Gdowwjfgo{jcl L7$ L9  Fogydkoki ki Igclc`jo i Ok`jljw{~oåçc$ Yljvi~wjkoki ki Wçc Qoydc (FIO-YWQ*, I-`ojd= fvdyloAywq,n~,  W{olfc~k Yljvi~wj{z, I-`ojd= hbdijlAw{olfc~k,iky,Ilki~iåc qo~o gcl{o{c= F~olgjwgc Vjkod Dylo ‗ ^yo kcw Qjlhij~cw$ 851 ‗ >1½ olko~ ‗ gmw, >1? i >1> ‗ WçcQoydc ‗ N~owjd, GIQ= 19;>>-11?,(^iginjkc i` cy{yn~c ki >118, Ogij{c qo~o qyndjgoåçc i` `ojc ki >11:*,  Iw{, igcl,$ Wçc Qoydc$ ;1(>*= >:9-7?5$ on~,-myl, >1?1 >:6   Iwg~ovjkçc Of~jgolo lo Q~ckyåçc ki Odj`il{cw, Wçc Qoydc lc Wêgydc ?:  O y{jdj}oåçc kc {~onodhc iwg~ovc lo O`ê~jgo iw{ivi {~okjgjclod`il{i owwcgjoko gc`o oe~jgyd{y~o gc`i~gjod qo~o ixqc~{oåçc$ q~jlgjqod`il{i oåýgo~$ {onogc$ odeckçc igofê, Il{~i{ol{c$ lçc hcyvi ~iej`i iwg~ovjw{o lc yod cw iwg~ovcw fc~o` y{jdj}okcwixgdywjvo`il{i loyidiw gyd{jvcw2 `iw`c low ï~iow `ojw c~jil{okow qo~o o ixqc~{o-åçc$ hcyvi q~ckyåçc qo~o gclwy`c q~÷q~jc gymcw ixgikil{iw i~o` vilkjkcw ywyod-`il{i lc `i~gokc dcgod, Qc~ê`$ i` qcygcw gowcw iwwo o{jvjkoki fcj {çc j`qc~{ol{igc`c lo igclc`jo iwg~ovjw{o j`qdol{oko lc N~owjd, Liw{i ilwojc$ q~i{ilki`cw iw-{yko~ o jl{ilwo y{jdj}oåçc ki kjwqilkjcwc {~onodhc iwg~ovc lcw gyd{jvcw odj`il{àgjcwi` Wçc Qoydc$ lc jlàgjc kc wêgydc ?:,Lcw q~j`ij~cw kcjw wêgydcw ko gcdclj}oåçc$ o igclc`jo qoydjw{o nowicy-wi lo q~cky-åçc ki eíli~cw qo~o gclwy`c fo`jdjo~ i onow{igj`il{c kcw `i~gokcw dcgojw, Gc`c qowwo~ kc {i`qc$ goko vi} `ojw c ixgikil{i qowwcy o wi~ gc`i~gjodj}okc il{~i ow vï~jow ~iejùiw ko goqj{oljo i {o`nê` gc` cy{~ow goqj{oljow, Jw{c cgc~~iy iwqigjod-`il{i o qo~{j~ kc jlàgjc kc wêgydc ?8$ yolkc Wçc Qoydc wi {c~lcy y`o j`qc~{ol{i~iejçc q~cky{c~o qo~o ow ~igê`-oni~{ow `jlow ki cy~c i` @jlow Ei~ojw, @iw`c ki-qcjw kc g~iwgj`il{c kow ixqc~{oåùiw ki oåýgo~ i gofê$ oyido q~ckyåçc qi~`oligiygc`c y`o qo~{i fylko`il{od ko igclc`jo$ `ol{ilkc y`o iw{~ij{o owwcgjoåçc gc`ow lcvow gyd{y~ow ki ixqc~{oåçc, Kiwki cw q~j`ij~cw {i`qcw$ cw odj`il{cw nïwjgcw‗ `jdhc$ o~~c}$ fijmçc i go~liw ‗ fc~o` q~cky}jkcw i` {ckow ow qo~{iw ki Wçc Qoydc${ol{c lc dj{c~od gc`c lc qdolod{c, Hovjo {o`nê` o q~ckyåçc iwqigjodj}oko ki o~{jecwgc`c c {onogc$ o oeyo~kil{i$ o i~vo-`o{i i o g~joåçc ki olj`ojw, C q~cgiwwo`il{cki {cygjlhc i~o {o`nê` j`qc~{ol{i i` {ckow ow ï~iow cgyqokow i gclwy`jkc i`wyo `ojc~jo lo q~÷q~jo yljkoki fo`jdjo~,Jljgjod`il{i wi` gclkjåùiw qo~o jle~iwwo~ lo igclc`jo jl{i~logjclod i cn{i~ cw~igy~wcw ligiwwï~jcw qo~o j`qc~{o~ of~jgolcw$ cw qoydjw{ow ilgcl{~o~o` wcdyåùiw jl-{i~low qo~o wyqi~o~ wyow kiwvol{oeilw lc `i~gokc jl{i~logjclod, O `ojw j`qc~{ol{ifcj o jl{ilwo y{jdj}oåçc ko fc~åo ki {~onodhc jlkàeilo$ yi wi {c~lcy g~ygjod qo~o o vjonjdjkoki kc qcvco`il{c, O cgyqoåçc ki @jlow Ei~ojw ei~cy y` e~olki `i~gokc~iejclod$ lc yod cw qoydjw{ow fc~ligjo` olj`ojw ki {~olwqc~{i i odj`il{cw$ iwwil-gjojw qo~o o igclc`jo `jli~okc~o, Iwwi `i~gokc$ qc~ wyo vi}$ fcj c q~jlgjqod fo{c~yi qi~`j{jy ocw qoydjw{ow wynw{j{yj~ o `çc ki cn~o jlkàeilo$ goko vi} `ojw kjfàgjdki goq{y~o~$ qido fc~åo ki {~onodhc ki go{jvcw of~jgolcw, I`nc~o$ lc jlàgjc kc wêgydc?:$ cw of~jgolcw fcwwi` kj~igjclokcw q~jlgjqod`il{i qo~o cw ileilhcw ki oåýgo~${o`nê` fc~o` i`q~ieokcw lc gyd{jvc ki vàvi~iw qo~o cw `i~gokcw dcgojw i ~iejclojw,Liw{i {~onodhc$ fo~i`cw ywc kow Djw{ow Lc`jlo{jvow kcw Honj{ol{iw kc Ogi~vc kc O~yjvc kc Iw{okc ki Wçc Qoydc (OIWQ*, Iwwiw `olywg~j{cw$ c~eolj}okcw qc~ kc`j-gàdjc$ gcl{jlho` {~okjgjclod`il{i jlfc~`oåùiw ki`ce~ïfjgow i$ lc qi~àckc ki ?81;o ?8>:$ qowwo~o` o jlgc~qc~o~ {o`nê` kokcw o ~iwqij{c ko q~ckyåçc ~iodj}oko i`goko yljkoki kc`jgjdjo~, Qo~o cw q~cq÷wj{cw ko lcwwo olïdjwi$ vo`cw ifi{yo~ kyow  F vk d$ hii w, Bi >:5 Iw{, igcl,$ Wçc Qoydc$ ;1(>*= >:9-7?5$ on~,-myl, >1?1 e~olkiw oe~ieoåùiw= q~cky{cw odj`il{àgjcw {àqjgcw kc `i~gokc jl{i~lc (`jdhc$ fijmçc$o~~c}$ `olkjcgo$ g~joåçc olj`od i {cygjlhc* ? i cw ki`ojw q~cky{cw (oåýgo~$ gofê${onogc$ odeckçc i oeyo~kil{i*, Qo~o wj`qdjfjgo~$ vo`cw kilc`jlo~ c q~j`ij~c e~yqcgc`c —odj`il{cw‐ i cw ki`ojw q~cky{cw gc`c —ixqc~{ïvijw‐, I` ?81;$ c idivokcqc~gil{yod ki 86) kcw oe~jgyd{c~iw q~cq~ji{ï~jcw ki iwg~ovcw kikjgovo-wi á q~cky-åçc ki —odj`il{cw‐2 {ojw q~cky{c~iw gcl{~cdovo` 51) kcw iwg~ovcw qi~{ilgil{iw ocwoe~jgyd{c~iw, I` ?8>:$ oq~cxj`oko`il{i {~íw yo~{cw kcw q~cq~ji{ï~jcw ki go{jvcwcgyqokcw lo oe~jgyd{y~o kigdo~o~o` iwwiw q~cky{cw$ i wiyw iwg~ovcw gc`qylho`gi~go ko `i{oki ko fc~åo ki {~onodhc go{jvo i`q~ieoko lo oe~jgyd{y~o (vi~ [onido ?*,Liwwi `iw`c olc$ wi jlgdyj~`cw {ckcw cw q~cq~ji{ï~jcw ki iwg~ovcw$ `iw`c cw yilçc wi kikjgovo` á oe~jgyd{y~o$ cw yi q~cky}jo` —odj`il{cw‐ ojlko gc`qylho``i{oki kc {c{od ki wilhc~iw i gcl{~cdovo` ;1) kcw iwg~ovcw, O `ojc~jo kow yljkokiw q~cky{c~ow ki —odj`il{cw‐ lçc {jlho iwg~ovcw i kiqilkjokc {~onodhc fo`jdjo~, @iw`c owwj`$ ê lc{ïvid o qo~{jgjqoåçc kcw iwg~ovcw i wiywq~cq~ji{ï~jcw liwwi wi{c~$ qcjw gi~go ki y` yo~{c kcw kc`jgàdjcw q~cky{c~iw ki—odj`il{cw‐ gcl{jlho iwg~ovcw, Kil{~i cw q~cq~ji{ï~jcw ki iwg~ovcw kikjgokcw o iwwiwgyd{jvcw$ y` yo~{c qcwwyào oqilow y` iwg~ovc, Q~cvovid`il{i$ iwwow yljkokiw gc`y` w÷ iwg~ovc owwi`idhovo`-wi áw yljkokiw wi` iwg~ovcw$ y{jdj}olkc iwwilgjod`il{io fc~åo ki {~onodhc fo`jdjo~, ? Wy~ej~o` cy{~cw q~cky{cw odj`il{àgjcw$ `ow gc` qiyilo ixq~iwwçc$ gc`c$ qc~ ixi`qdc$ c {~jec,[ckcw fc~o` gclwjki~okcw liwwi e~yqc gc`c —odj`il{cw‐,  Iw{, igcl,$ Wçc Qoydc$ ;1(>*= >:9-7?5$ on~,-myl, >1?1 >:8   Iwg~ovjkçc Of~jgolo lo Q~ckyåçc ki Odj`il{cw, Wçc Qoydc lc Wêgydc ?: [onido ? ‗ Oe~jgyd{c~iw lo Q~ckyåçc ki —Odj`il{cw‐ Wçc Qoydc$ ?81; i ?8>: (?* ?81;?8>:gc`wi`gc`wi`) kcw oe~jgyd{c~iw q~cky}jlkc —odj`il{cw‐iwg~ovcwiwg~ovcwiwg~ovcwiwg~ovcwQc~gil{oei` ki ghifiw ki kc`jgàdjc86):9)5;):9)Qc~gil{oei` kcw iwg~ovcw ixjw{il{iw51) ;:) Q~cq~ji{ï~jcw ki iwg~ovcw Qc~gil{oei` oe~jgyd{c~iw gc` iwg~ovcw>;) >9)Lý`i~c `êkjc ki iwg~ovcw9 6Kiwvjc qok~çc6$8 5$>@ikjolo7 7@cko? ?Àlkjgi ki Ejlj il{~i cw q~cq~ji{ï~jcw 1$9> 1$9> Qc~gil{oei` kcw q~cq~ji{ï~jcw qc~ {o`olhc kc qdol{id  ? iwg~ovc>9) >;) Fojxow ki {o`olhc=  ?-9 iwg~ovcw51) 65)6-?1 iwg~ovcw?8) ?:)??->1 iwg~ovcw:) ?1)>?-;1 iwg~ovcw>) 7)@ojw ki ;1 iwg~ovcw?) ?)[c{od ?11) ?11) Qc~gil{oei` kcw iwg~ovcw qc~ {o`olhc kc qdol{id  ? iwg~ovc9) ;) Fojxow ki {o`olhc=  ?-9 iwg~ovcw7>) >:)6-?1 iwg~ovcw>9) >9)??->1 iwg~ovcw>;) >6)>?-;1 iwg~ovcw??) ?;)@ojw ki ;1 iwg~ovcw5) 5)[c{od ?11) ?11) Fcl{i= Djw{ow Lc`jlo{jvow kc O~yjvc kc Iw{okc ki Wçc Qoydc (OIWQ*,Cnwi~voåçc (?*= O olïdjwi kcw kc`jgàdjcw gc` iwg~ovcw gclwjki~cy {ckcw cw gilwcw kjwqclàvijw, Lcgowc kcw kc`jgàdjcw wi` iwg~ovcw gclwjki~cy-wi y`o o`cw{~o ki >1 dcgodjkokiw,  O wi`idholåo cgc~~jo {o`nê` yol{c áw go~og{i~àw{jgow kcw ghifiw ki kc`jgàdjc, I`?81;$ qc~ ixi`qdc$ cw qo~kcw i lie~cw ~iq~iwil{ovo` y` yo~{c kcw oe~jgyd{c~iwgc` y` w÷ iwg~ovc$ oc qowwc yi$ il{~i cw q~cq~ji{ï~jcw ki `ojc~ qc~{i$ o q~cqc~åçcki qo~kcw i lie~cw i~o jlwjeljfjgol{i, Cw qo~kcw gclw{j{yào` {o`nê` y` yo~{ckcw q~cky{c~iw ki —odj`il{cw‐ wi` iwg~ovcw, I` ei~od$ cw q~cq~ji{ï~jcw ki iwg~ovcwi~o` `ojw vidhcw kc yi cw lçc q~cq~ji{ï~jcw ki iwg~ovcw, Wc`il{i 7) kcw ghifiwki kc`jgàdjcw i~o` iw{~oleij~cw i` {ckc c lcwwc divol{o`il{c$ `ow wiy qiwc o{jl-ejo 8) il{~i cw q~cq~ji{ï~jcw ki iwg~ovcw (vi~ [onido >*, Odê` kjwwc$ iw{ovo` `ojw
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