A Feasibility Study of Wireless Charging

This paper analyses the concept of wireless power transmission for mobile charging via three major methodologies of radioactive wave; coupled magnetic resonance; and induction resonance both electromagnetic and NFC-enabled. It describes each methods
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  A Feasibility Study of Wireless Charging Oyediran Oyepeju,1119124 Dept. of Computer Science& Technology University of Bedfordshire, Luton LU1 3U, U!  yemi"o#$gm%il.com Chisanga Masanga,11!"4#4 Dept. of Computer Science& Technology University of Bedfordshire, Luton LU1 3U, U! cidr%''($y%hoo.com  $oy %as, &419"'&   Dept. of Computer Science& Technology University of Bedfordshire, Luton LU1 3U, U!  joy(das)study(beds(a*(u +eyords-Wireless .oer /rans0ission, ndu*tie resonant, Coil 3esonant oop, 5FC, Wireless *hargingAbstra*t-/his paper analyses the *on*ept of ireless poer trans0ission for 0obile*harging ia three 0ajor 0ethodologies of radioa*tie ae6 *oupled 0agneti*resonan*e6 and indu*tion resonan*e both ele*tro0agneti* and 5FC7enabled( tdes*ribes ea*h 0ethods in iepoints of their *ontrast, strengths, short*o0ingsand i0pa*t on so*iety( t *on*ludes that a 3F7%C 0ethod be e8plored fori0proe0ent((5/3O%C/O5 /he standardi:ation and use of ireless*harging te*hnology is yet to be*o0epopular, but e *an already see so0eadan*es of this te*hnology *o0ing intoe8isten*e( /he idea of *harging dei*esirelessly has been around for a long ti0eand as initially suggested by 5iola /elsa(Oer the *ouple of years the idea of ireless *harging has be*o0e 0ore and0ore popular to 0anufa*tures of 0obiledei*es and te*hnology proiders( 5ot onlyill ireless *harging 0ae *harging of dei*es 0ore *onenient, it is also belieedto bridge the eer in*reasing gap beteenbattery *apa*ity and dei*e poer*onsu0ption ;Stro00er et al, 2&12<((=AC+>3O5%Wireless *harging *an be 0ade possibleby ireless poer trans0ission, that is,radiation of ele*tro0agneti* ?eld totrans0it energy irelessly by indu*tion,ae or resonan*e( /hese 0ethods arefurther identi?ed as indu*tion *oupling,*oupled 0agneti* resonan*es andradioa*tie aes respe*tiely ;Mehdipouret al, 2&12<( @a*h of these 0ethods aredierse in *urrent i0pedan*e, ae range,operating freuen*y, eB*ien*y andli0itations, but relate for the pri0e ai0 of a*hieing ireless poer trans0ission for*harging( /hese 0ethods *an be *o0paredin the folloing areas-.roto*ol- ndu*tion *oupling and resonant*oupling use 0agneti* ?eld lo freuen*yideband and high freuen*y narro bandrespe*tiely hile radioa*tie transfer usesele*tro70agneti* aes(3ange- ndu*tion *oupling only ors bestin ery short distan*e( 3esonant *ouplingors ith relatiely farther distan*e butnot far enough up to 0eters in distan*e(3adioa*tie transfer is suited for 0ediu0 tolong distan*es(@B*ien*y- ndu*tion *oupling are eryeB*ient as it only deals ith ery shortdistan*e( 3esonant *oupling oer 0ediu0eB*ien*y oer short distan*es hileradioa*tie transfer eB*ien*y is uite lo(n general, ndu*tion *oupling proides higheB*ien*y but the operating distan*e is ery  li0ited( 3esonant *oupling oers 0ediu0eB*ien*y oer short distan*es but diB*ultto 0aintain high uality( 3adioa*tietransfer ors oer long distan*e but theeB*ien*y is ery lo( Moreoer, radioa*tieae 0ethod *alls for *on*ern for hu0ansafety ;Mehdipour et al, 2&12<((CO.@% MA>5@/C 3@SO5A5C@ FO3W3@@SS .OW@3 /3A5SMSSO5Oyediran Oyepeju, 1119124 /his se*tion proposes ireless poertrans0ission to *harging and turning onele*tri*al dei*es ithout the ne*essarypoer unit but through inisible line of ele*tri* ?eld na0ely 0agneti* ?eld ia a*oupled 0agneti* resonan*es approa*h( /his approa*h analyses the inDuen*e of trans0ission distan*e, d, re*eiing loadresistan*e, 3  and duty *y*le % on of thepulse drie signal as ell as other relatedpara0eters on the eB*ien*y of irelesspoer trans0ission( /he idea behind the *oupled 0agneti*resonan*es is to *reate strong *ouplingbeteen obje*ts i(e( to *ir*ular hollo*oils tightly ound, at the sa0e resonantfreuen*y so as to trans0it energyeB*iently( @le*tro0agneti* ?eld energyDos *onstantly beteen the e0itting andabsorbing *ir*uit *o0ponents and thesurrounding spa*e thus 0aing the syste0a non7radioa*tie 0agneti* *oupling( /he 0odel has a *ouple of e0itting andre*eiing resonant *oil loops, C( /hee0itting C rapidly radiatesele*tro0agneti* ae hi*h is re*eied bythe re*eiing C( Figure 1( /he e0itter and re*eier resonant *oildiagra0 ;Wang and i, 2&11<(  /here are four dierent resonan*e*oupling states a**ording to theresonan*es of the e0itting and re*eiing*oil loops( /herefore a resonant *ouplingstate is as a result of either both thee0itting and re*eiing *oil loops to beresonant, both not to be resonant or one of both to be resonant hile the other is not(Eoeer, the i0pedan*e alue is 0ini0u0and the Do of *urrent is greatest hen thee0itting and re*eiing *oils are resonantthus produ*ing a better poer and eB*ienttrans0ission(A**ording to Wang and i ;2&11<, toensure the full resonan*e state of a*oupling syste0, it is ne*essary that boththe e0itting and re*eiing *oil para0etersbe si0ilar in design and hae the 0utualindu*tan*e beteen the0 as-A(CO5/3AS/ W/E O/E@3 M@/EO%S /he ! approa*hes to ireless poertrans0ission as preiously 0entioned are i(@le*tro0agneti* ae, ii( @le*tro0agneti*indu*tion and iii( Coupled 0agneti*resonan*es( Coupled 0agneti* resonan*esis an i0proed and progressie 0odel tothe ?rst to approa*hes by *o0bining theadantages of the @le*tro0agneti* aeand @le*tro0agneti* indu*tion hi*h thenresults to longer trans0ission distan*e,large transfer poer hile eli0inating thedraba*s of the to approa*hes su*h asli0ited trans0ission dire*tion, loeB*ien*y and short distan*e trans0ission(nlie the @le*tro0agneti* indu*tion ithloose *oils, the Coupled 0agneti* resonantsyste0 has its *oils tightly ound thuspreents *onstant attenuation of the0agneti* ?eld ith in*reasing distan*e( /he *oupled 0agneti* resonant syste0 isnon7radioa*tie therefore it has noalar0ing i0pa*t to the eniron0ent*o0pared to the @le*tro0agneti* ae(  =(/3@5%S A5% M.AC/ O5 SOC@/Wireless poer trans0ission by *oupled0agneti* resonan*e proes to be usable inthe Ministry of %efen*e in battle?eld*o00uni*ators( t is also appli*able to?shing port hi*h *onsists of poertrans0itter, to 0agneti* resonan*e*ouplers and a full bridge diode re*ti?erre*eier ;+i0 et al, 2&12<(As the orld yearns for 0obility ithouthassle, aailability of *o00uni*ationanyhere and eeryhere so is the needfor portable *harging to poer on 0obiledei*es( /he adoption of ireless *hargingill not only support 0i*ro te*hnologies butill also guarantee *lean and re7usableenergy on eniron0ent(C(5SOG@% .3O=@MS OF /E@ SS/@M H F/3@ 3@S@A3CEAlthough the *oupled 0agneti* resonantsyste0 produ*es a better poertrans0ission and eB*ien*y, it is restri*tedto li0ited trans0ission dire*tion( /hat is,the e0itting and the re*eiing *oils hae tobe parallel to ea*h other in order to ensurelargest *urrent Dos through the resonant*oils hile i0pedan*e alue in*reases asthe *oils deDe*t fro0 parallel angle(0pedan*e alue is 0a8i0u0 hen thee0itting and re*eiing *oils areperpendi*ular in positioning in other ordsabsolute loss of *urrent( /herefore aireless poered dei*e ould need to be*arefully aligned to its energy sour*e for*harging(Se*ondly, for poer oltage to be*onstant ith *hanging trans0issiondistan*e is an issue that re0ains unsoled,that is to say as trans0ission distan*ein*reases, trans0ission poer graduallyredu*es( /his proble0 *an pose ris to0obile dei*es ith the appli*ation of thete*hnology as poer upsurge andDu*tuation ill o**ur ith *hangingdistan*e fro0 the energy sour*e thus*ausing da0age to euip0ent andIorha:ard to users( For future design,auto0ation 0ethod for oltage regulationand poer eB*ien*y i0proe0ent need tobe resear*hed(G(5%C/G@ CO.5> FO3 W3@@SSCEA3>5> $oy %as, &419"'&  /ransferring poer through nfraredte*hnology needs dire*t line of sightbeteen trans0itter and re*eier and thistrans0ission *ould be deDe*ted orinterfered ith( /ransferring large a0ountof poer using laser is hoeer dangerous(3adio Freuen*y ;3F< poer transfer is onlyable to transfer ery s0all a0ount of poerto the re*eiing end, due to the li0itationof the poer on the trans0itter side ;Olit:et al(, 2&12<( ndu*tie *oupling does not bear any of these li0itations and *an transfer poerirelessly and safely ;Olit: et al(, 2&12<(ndu*tie *oupling is used in 3F% ;3adioFreuen*y denti?*ation< syste0s for*onta*tless s0art *ards and otherpurposes, in the ?elds of sensors, irelessly*harging ele*troni* dei*es, in *arindustry, for e8a0ple, irelessly 0easuretire pressure using sensor and in7*ar*o0puter is realised re*ently, and 0any0ore other appli*ations ;.hilippe =asset etal(, 2&&'<(A( /E@O3For ireless poering and *harging tosupport *o00uni*ation using indu*tie*oupling, the *on*ept behind is the loosely*oupled transfor0er ;Sila H Gas*on*elos,2&11< hi*h *onsists of a pri0ary *oil;trans0itter< and a se*ondary *oil;re*eier< that are not lined together as of typi*al transfor0ers ;Olit: et al(, 2&12<( Anindu*tie poer syste0 transfers poerirelessly beteen these isolated *ir*uitsand *onsists of to parts( /he interrogator*ir*uitry, the pri0ary side of the syste0,  *onsists of a poer supply and the pri0ary*oil here the AC oltage is applied( /hetransponder *ir*uitry, se*ondary part of thesyste0, *onsists of a se*ondary *oil and a*onerter hi*h re*eies a %C oltage fro0the high freuen*y *urrent indu*ed in these*ondary *oil ;Sila H Gas*on*elos, 2&11<(=( SA>@ /he indu*tie *harging is the 0ost used0ethod for irelessly *harging the lopoered dei*es so far ;Arshad et al(,2&12<( t is safe and preents spars andother ha:ards in situations lie *oal 0ininget*( =e*ause of the *oupling being0agneti*, there is no ris of ele*tro*utionor short *ir*uit, een in high poersyste0s( C( M/A/O5SAlthough indu*tie *harging is safe, ithas its on li0itations( Standard indu*tie*harging only ors ell in relatiely short*o00uni*ation distan*es and ithin*reasing distan*es the poer transfer andeB*ien*y begin to de*rease dra0ati*allyresulting in poor eB*ien*y ;Sangoo HWent:lo, 2&1&<(%(CO5/3AS/ W/E 3@SO5A5/ CO.5> /raditional indu*tie *oupling te*hniueors ell in ery short distan*es( =ut byusing resonant indu*tie *oupling oerstandard indu*tie *oupling, the poer *anbe trans0itted oer a relatiely longerdistan*e ith "&J 0ore eB*ien*y ithout*hanging the si:e of the *oils or poer*onsu0ption ;Sangoo H Went:lo,2&1&<( Also, Mehdipour et al( ;2&12<suggested 3F7%C ireless transfer pro*ess,hi*h repla*es pri0ary and se*ondary *oilsith trans0itting and re*eiing antennas,eli0inates the need for angular align0entbeteen the trans0itter and re*eier, andpoer supply oer a longer distan*e asa*hieed(G(5FC7@5A=@% W3@@SS CEA3>5>Chisanga Masanga, 11!"4#4A(CO5/3AS/ The integration of NFC (Near FieldCommunication) and wireless charging implementedtogether will bring about more compact and cost-effective wireless charging devices with reduced costs.NFC as well as wireless charging is based on inductivecoupling between two loop antennas with tuningnetworks that hold the antenna circuits close to their resonant frequenc ;Stro00er et al, 2&12<( !oth NFC and "#C $i are based on inductivecoupling discussed in the previous section. The maindifference between the two is that NFC operates on ahigher frequenc %&.'*+ compared to $i whichoperates at %%,-,' k*+ ;Stro00er et al, 2&12<(=(/3@5%SWireless *harging is already a reality inso0e dei*es su*h as surgi*ally i0planteddei*es e(g( arti?*ial hearts and ele*tri*toothbrushes ;Stro00er et al, 2&12<(As 0ore and 0ore dei*es are being*reated ith 5FC *hips, e ill also see agroth in the nu0ber of dei*es that in*ooperate 5FC and ireless *harging to*reate ireless *harging dei*es( /his *anthen lead to a standardi:ation of ireless*harging, but e are yet to *o0parebeteen 5FC and Ki ireless *harging onhi*h ould be 0ore bene?*ial and hae agreater *o00er*ial a**eptan*e( n future e ill see the use of irelessele*tri* ehi*le *harging, that ould enableele*tri* *ars to *harge their batteriesirelessly ;+rishnan et al, 2&12<(C(5SOG@% .3O=@MS /here are a nu0ber of unsoled andunforeseen proble0s as the te*hnology isstill e0erging( /he *o00er*ial use of thete*hnology has yet to *at*h on andproble0s on standardisation of *hargingdei*es for 0obile phones is still inprogress and that brings about dei*e*o0patibility issues( /o sole this proble0,  the organisation of Wireless .oerConsortiu0 deeloped Ki, the standard forinteroperable ireless *harging, as ell as5FC7enabled dei*es in*orporated togetherith ireless *harging hi*h *ould easilybe *o00er*ially a**epted as there is agroing nu0ber of 0obile dei*es being*reated ith 5FC *hips( n*onenien*e proble0s as so0e of thedei*es being *reated ould need thedei*es to be in *lose rea*h of the *hargingdei*e and 0ostly liely has to stay in onepla*e, hi*h is a proble0 as 0ost peopleare used to *harging ith a *able and getto still use the dei*es hile it is *harging(As it is still deeloping, the *urrentdei*es hae a slo *harge pro*ess*o0pared to a *able *hargers hi*h is aproble0 as no one ants to ait for a longti0e to *harge a dei*e and ould ratheruse the ui*est ay to *harge hisIherdei*e(%(M.AC/ OF W3@@SS CEA3>5>Wireless *harging has brought about0ore deelop0ents in this te*hnology iththe *reation of Ki, a standard for ireless*harging( Wireless *harging has broughtabout *reation of 0obile and *hargingdei*es that in*orporate Ki in*luding0anufa*tures lie E/C, Euaei, >@le*troni*s, Motorola Mobility, 5oia,Sa0sung, and Sony ;Wireless .oerConsortiu0, 2&12<(With the in*reasing in*orporation andalready e8isten*e of 5FC in 0obile dei*es,the *o0bination of *harging poertrans0ission ia 5FC ill bring about a0ore *o0pa*t and *ost7eB*ient irelessenabling a 0ore perasie *harger( With0ore and 0ore ne phones and futurephones being *reated ith 5FC *hips andantenna integration issues that haealready been soled in e8isting 0odels, thestandardisation no ill enable neireless *harging produ*ts to enter the0aret in the early phase of building 5FCinfrastru*ture ;Stro00er et al, 2&12<(Wireless *harging te*hnology has alsobrought about the *reation of a ireless@le*tri* Gehi*le ;@G< *harging syste0 that*onsists of a trans0itting *oil at the*harging station and a re*eiing *oil in theehi*le, enabling the ele*tri* ehi*le topar in a ireless *harging point and*harge its battery irelessly ;+rishnan et al,2&12<(G(CO5CSO5 /he indu*tie *oupling 0ethod of ireless poer trans0ission *an transfergreater poer, hoeer poer transfer andeB*ien*y de*reases as the distan*ebeteen radiation sour*es in*reases hilethe *oupled 0agneti* resonan*e ill hae arelatie eB*ient poer ith in*reasingseparation distan*e beteen *oils( t istherefore re*o00ended that substitute0ethods that inole radio freuen*ies as*arriers for %C ele*tri*ity beteen tonodes ith longer range, higher eB*ien*yand opti0i:ed operating freuen*y yetpose no ris to hu0an safety 0ust beresear*hed for future i0proe0ent(3@F@3@5C@S [1]Tsunekawa, K. (2011) ‘A feasibility study of wireless power transission syste by usin! two independent"oupled ele"tri" fields,#  Microwave Workshop Series on Innovative Wireless Power Transmission: Technologies,Systems, and Applications (IMWS) , pp.1$1%1$$. &'''[nline] Aailable at* +ttp*0%ieee-plore.ieee.or!.bru.beds.a".ukstapstap.sp/tparnuber344103isnuber3455$4 (A""essed* 26anuary 2017).[2] 8an!, 9., :i, ;. (2011) ‘<esear"+ on t+e wireless power transission syste based on "oupled a!neti" resonan"es,#  lectronics, !omm"nications and !ontrol (I!!!), #$%% International !on&erence on , pp.22%223. &''' [nline]Aailable at* +ttp*0%ieee-plore.ieee.or!.bru.beds.a".ukstapstap.sp/tparnuber50544$$isnuber5055252 (A""essed* 26anuary 2017).[7]=eon!%in Ki, &n%Kui >+o, 6eon!%&"k ?oon, 6ae%;un@oon, 8oo%6in yun, 6ae%&"k >+oi (2012) ‘1.B?;C wireless power transission syste usin! "oupled a!neti"resonan"e,#  Microwave 'adar and Wireless !omm"nications
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