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A fully inflected Arabic verb resource constructed from a lexicon of lemmas by using finite-state transducers

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We describe a fully inflected lexicon of 2.5 million verbal forms generated by using finite-state transducers. The lexicon is constituted of 15 400 verbal entries or lemmas. The lexicon of Arabic verbs is constructed on the basis of Semitic patterns
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J21*)H)B315 A21((12 *,E)3,> )3E5,=H)B315 I,2D15 =51>>,> DG F>)3A I,2D15 N1HH,234=51>>,> 13* 2BBH4=51>>,>; 2,51H,* HB HK, 31HF2, BE ,1=K BE HK, H2)5)H,215 2BBH4=B3>B313H>? 6,2D15 N1HH,234=51>>,> 12, =5,125G *,E)3,* DFH 2BBH4=51>>,> 12, =B(N5,9? %3 BF2 H19B3B(G; H21*)H)B315 N1HH,234=51>>,> 12, 2,F>,* 13* 2BBH4=51>>,> 12, >)(N5G 2,*,E)3,*? QF2 H19B3B(G N2BI)*,> 1 >H21)AKHEB2O12* ,3=B*)3A >=K,(, EB2 )3E5,=H)B315 I12)1H)B3> 13* B2HKBA21NK)= 1*RF>H(,3H> *F, HB 1>>)()51H)B3 13* 1AA5FH)31H)B3? C, K1I, H,>H,* 13* ,I15F1H,* BF2 2,>BF2=, 1A1)3>H LM MMM *)1=2)H)=)S,* I,2D B==F22,3=,> )3 HK, +,(512 =B2NF> 13* =B(N12,* )H HB TF=PO15H,2 2,>BF2=,>? JK, 5,9)=15 =BI,21A, )> UU?U V? ! 51NHBN 3,,*> HOB ()3FH,> )3 B2*,2 HB A,3,21H, 13* =B(N2,>> HK, :?/ ()55)B3 EB2( 5,9)=B3 )3HB . 0,A1DGH,> EB2 E1>H 2,H2),I15? JK, 1315G>)> BE 1 I,2D H1P,> M?/ ()55)>,=B3*? 9:1$3: 8 +BF> *7=2)IB3> F3 5,9)WF, =B(N5XH,(,3H E57=K) *, :;/ ()55)B3> *, EB2(,> I,2D15,> A73727,> N12 *,> H213>*F=H,F2> Y 7H1H> E)3)>? ", 5,9)WF, ,>H =B3>H)HF7 *, L/ .MM ,3H27,> BF 5,((,>? ", 5,9)WF, *, =,> I,2D,> 121D,> ,>H =B3>H2F)H >F2 51 D1>, *,> >=KX(,> *, 51 A21((1)2, H21*)H)B33,55,? 8,HH, 2,>>BF2=, I,2D15, ,>H ,3>F)H, FH)5)>7, N12 F3 5BA)=),5 *Z133BH1H)B3 (B2NKB5BA)WF, *F H,9H, 7=2)H ,3 121D,? [3 1RF>H,(,3H *, 5\)(N57(,3H1H)B3 *, =,> H213>*F=H,F2> 1 7H7 >N7=)15,(,3H =27, 1E)3 *, H21)H,2 5,> 513AF,> >7()H)WF,>? 8, >G>HX(, ,>H 7A15,(,3H 1*1NH7 NBF2 A7372,2 *,> EB2(,> E57=K),>? ",> 2,>>BF2=,> 5)3AF)>H)WF,> N,FI,3H ]H2,  E1=)5,(,3H ()>4Y4RBF2? +BF> N2BNB>B3> F3, H19B3B(), *, 51 E5,9)B3 I,2D15, WF) 1FA(,3H, 51 5)>)D)5)H7 *F 5,9)WF, ,H 51 (1)3H,31D)5)H7 NBF2 5,> 5B=FH,F2> ,H 5)3AF)>H,> 121D,>? "1 A21((1)2, H21*)H)B33,55, *7E)3)H *,> =51>>,> *, E5,9)B3 I,2D15,> ,3 FH)5)>13H *,> =51>>,> *, >=KX(,> ,H *,> =51>>,> *, 21=)3,>; 5)7,> Y 51 31HF2, *, =K1=F3, *,> =B3>B33,> *\F3, 21=)3, H2)5)HX2,>? ",> =51>>,> *, >=KX(,> I,2D1F9 >B3H =51)2,(,3H *7E)3),> 15B2> WF, 5,> =51>>,> *, 21=)3,> >B3H =B(N5,9,>? ^13> 3BH2, H19B3B(),; 5,> =51>>,> *, >=KX(,> H21*)H)B33,55,> >B3H 27FH)5)>7,> ,H 5,> =51>>,> *, 21=)3,> >B3H 2,*7E)3),> *, E1_B3 N5F> >)(N5,? +BH2, H19B3B(), EBF23)H F3 >=K7(1 *, =B*1A, >)(N5, *,> I12)1H)B3> E5,9)B33,55,> ,H *,> 1RF>H,(,3H> B2HKBA21NK)WF,> *F> Y 5Z1>>)()51H)B3 BF Y 5Z1AA5FH)31H)B3 *\F3, N12H)=F5, A21((1H)=15,? +BF> 1IB3> H,>H7 ,H 7I15F7 3BH2, 2,>>BF2=, >F2 LM MMM B==F22,3=,> IBG,557,> *, I,2D,> ,9H21)H,> *F =B2NF> +,(512 ,H 3BF> 5\1IB3> =B(N127 Y 51 2,>>BF2=, *, TF=PO15H,2? "1 =BFI,2HF2, 5,9)=15, ,>H *, UU;UV? [3 B2*)31H,F2 NB2H1D5, 1 D,>B)3 *, *,F9 ()3FH,> NBF2  A7372,2 ,H =B(N2,>>,2 5,> :;/ ()55)B3> *, EB2(,> E57=K),> ,3 . 07A14B=H,H> NBF2 F3, 2,=K,2=K, 21N)*,? "\1315G>, *\F3 I,2D, N2,3* M;/ ()55)>,=B3*,? ;)&<2-,18  !21D)=; +1HF215 "13AF1A, `2B=,>>)3A; &,()H)= (B2NKB5BAG; `Q& H1AA)3A; 2BBH 13* N1HH,23? =2+1 *%:1  a "13AF, 121D,; H21)H,(,3H 1FHB(1H)WF, *F 513A1A, 31HF2,5; (B2NKB5BA), >7()H)WF,; 7H)WF,H1A,  A21((1H)=15; 21=)3, ,H >=KX(,? "   [3, 2,>>BF2=, *, I,2D,> 121D,> ,3H)X2,(,3H E57=K), =B3>H)HF7, Y N12H)2 *ZF3 *)=H)B331)2, *, 5,((,> Y 5\1)*, *, H213>*F=H,F2> E)3)>? " #$%&$ #'()* %+,- ./* 01 .* 2-3456  #   ) !"#$" !&'( ) *+,- ./0 1+ .0 ./23 !   "#$%&'()$*&#  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   "##$%&'(%)&$$*"' O+=2F+,+H> JX9=<Y* .//MN 9? < 0<;&=<, =$2=$?$0;<;9+0 A+= B=<@9: 5 - )F$ "##$ =$2=$?$0;? < O+=2F$O9: <@?;=<:;9+0* &?&<,,> A+= < %$=@ < ?$Q&$0:$ +A ;F=$$ :+0?+0<0;?* ,9G$ +$, - B  )&$$*"' -. < ;$O2,<;$ +A :F<=<:;$=? ?&==+&0890H ;F$ =++; :+0?+0<0;?* <08 90 RF9:F ;F$ ?,+;? A+= ;F$ =++; :+0?+0<0;? <=$ ?F+R0 @> 9089:$?- )F$ :+O@90<;9+0 +A < =++; R9;F < 2<;;$=0 2=+8&:$? < ?&=A<:$ A+=O- Z+= $S<O2,$* +&$&,&  <08  /&+#$0,0  <=$ =$2=$?$0;$8 @> ;F$ =++; +$,  <08 ;F$ 2<;;$=0? 1&2&3&  +=  /&1#2030 -  4##$%&'(%)&$$*"'  O+=2F+,+H> 9? ?;<08<=8 90 B=<@9: <08 9? ,$<=0$8 90 H=<OO<= ;$S;  @++G?- B=<@9: ,90H&9?;? &?$ "##$%&'(%)&$$*"'  =$2=$?$0;<;9+0 90 +=8$= ;+ ,9?; %$=@<, $0;=9$? <08 =$,<;$8 90A,$:;$8 A+=O?- [0 ;F$ +;F$= F<08* Z()? F<%$ ?F+R0 ;F$9= ?9O2,9:9;> <08 $AA9:9$0:> 90 90A,$:;9+0<, O+=2F+,+H> A+= R$?;$=0 ,<0H&<H$?- \+O2&;$= ?:9$0;9?;? <22+90; Z()? <? ?;<08<=8 8$%9:$? A+= 90A,$:;9+0- ]<=9+&? A+=O<, =$2=$?$0;<;9+0? A+= B=<@9: O+=2F+,+H> F<%$ @$$0 :=$<;$8 @> :+O2&;$= ?:9$0;9?;? ;+ <%+98 =++;4<0842<;;$=0 =$2=$?$0;<;9+0- )F$ 2+90; ;F<; O+;9%<;$8 ;F9? ;=$08 9? ;F<; Z()? A+=O<,9?O R+&,8 0+; @$ A9;;$8 A+= =++;4<0842<;;$=0 O+=2F+,+H> ?90:$ Z()? <=$ :+0:<;$0<;9%$ RF$=$<? =++;4<0842<;;$=0 O+=2F+,+H> 9? 0+;- '0 :+0:<;$0<;9%$ =$2=$?$0;<;9+0* ;F$ =++;4<0842<;;$=0 =$2=$?$0;<;9+0 9? =$2,<:$8 @> < ?;$O4 += ,$S$O$4@<?$8 =$2=$?$0;<;9+0- Z+= ;F$?$ A+=O<,9?O?* < ?;$O 9? < @<?9: O+=2F$O$ ;F<; &08$=H+$? <AA9S<;9+0? R9;F +;F$= O+=2F$O$? 90 +=8$= ;+ A+=O ,<=H$= O+=2F+,+H9:<, += ?>0;<:;9: &09;?- Z+= =++;4<08 2<;;$=0 O+=2F+,+H>* < ?;$O 8$=9%$? A=+O < =++; <08 < 2<=;9:&,<= 2<;;$=0 <08 ?&@?$Q&$0;,> &08$=H+$? <AA9S<;9+0?- B; ;F$ +2$=<;9+0<, ,$%$,* ;F$ ,$S9:<, =$2=$?$0;<;9+0 +A ;F$ :+0:<;$0<;9%$ O+8$, 9? $0;9=$,> :+0:<;$0<;9%$ 90 +=8$= ;+ :+O2$, R9;F ;F$ 5)"*6-785.$*985.066-78  =$2=$?$0;<;9+0- W+R$%$=* ;F$?$ =$2=$?$0;<;9+0? 9O2,> < O<0&<, ?;$O 2=$:+O29,<;9+0 @<?$8 +0 < =++;4<084 2<;;$=0 =$2=$?$0;<;9+0- )F$ :+0:<;$0<;9%$ O+8$,? <=$ H$0$=<,,> :+O2+?$8 +A ;F=$$ :+O2+0$0;?L ,$S9:+0* =$R=9;$ =&,$?* <08 O+=2F+;<:;9:?- )F$ ,$S9:+0 :+0?9?;? +A O&,;92,$ ?&@,$S9:<* H$0$=<,,>  )"*6-7 * ?;$O* <08  .066-7 - )F$ =$R=9;$ =&,$? O<2 ;F$ O&,;92,$ ,$S9:<, =$2=$?$0;<;9+0? ;+ < ?&=A<:$ =$2=$?$0;<;9+0- )F$ O+=2F+;<:;9:? :+O2+0$0; <9O? R9;F < ?&@P<:$0; =$2=$?$0;<;9+0 ;+ H$0$=<;$ += ;+ 2<=?$ ;F$ ?&=A<:$ A+=O 5)"*6-785.$*985.066-78  <08  2$=A+=O? <,;$=0<;9+0 =&,$? <; O+=2F$O$ @+&08<=9$? ?&:F <? 8$,$;9+0* $2$0;F$?9?* <08 <??9O9,<;9+0- 5 ^$ R+&,8 ,9G$ ;+ ;F<0G _=9: C<2+=;$ <08 (`@<?;9$0 D<&O9$= A+= F$,2A&, 89?:&??9+0?* :+0;=9@&;9+0? <08 A+= ;F$ <8<2;<;9+0 +A a09;$S ;+ B=<@9:- a09;$S 9? <0 +2$0 ?+&=:$ O&,;9,90H&<, :+=2&? 2=+:$??+=- F;;2LbbRRR49HO-&09%4O,%-A=bc&09;$S-  !"#$" !&'( ) *+,- ./0 1+ .0 ./23 ) $   B0> A+=O<, =$2=$?$0;<;9+0 ;F<; 9? 0+; <8<2;$8 ;+ =++;4<0842<;;$=0 O+=2F+,+H> R9,, @$ =$P$:;$8 @> ;F$ O<P+=9;> +A B=<@9:4?2$<G90H ,90H&9?;?- ^F$0 ,90H&9?;? R+=G 90 < 0$R,> :=$<;$8 A+=O<,9?O* ;F$> :+0;90&$ ;+ R+=G R9;F "##$%&'(%)&$$*"'  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d/ 90A,$:;9+0<, :,<??$?- ^$ 8$O+0?;=<;$ ;F<; Z()? <=$ :+O2<;9@,$ R9;F =++;4<0842<;;$=0 =$2=$?$0;<;9+0- [&= ;<S+0+O> $0:+8$? ?9O&,;<0$+&?,> 90 ;F$ ,$S9:<, =$2=$?$0;<;9+0 ;F=$$ %<=9<;9+0? <; ;F$ ?&=A<:$ ,$%$,L    90A,$:;9+0<, :,<??$? +A < ,$OO<e    90A,$:;9+0<, ?&@:,<??$? =$,<;$8 ;+ O+=2F+2F+0$O9: <??9O9,<;9+0e    +=;F+H=<2F9: <8P&?;O$0;? =$,<;$8 ;+ ;F$ <HH,&;90<;9+0 +A < 2=+0+&0- '0 +&= +=;F+H=<2F9: =$2=$?$0;<;9+0* R$ &?$ < A&,,> 89<:=9;9:9Y$8 ,$S9:+0 <08 R$ ;<G$ <8%<0;<H$ +A ;F$ :,$<= @+&08<=>* <,=$<8> 8$A90$8 90 ;=<89;9+0<, H=<OO<=* @$;R$$0 %$=@<, 90A,$:;9+0 <08 %$=@<, <HH,&;90<;9+0 ;+ 8$?:=9@$ ;F$?$ ;R+ ,$%$,? 908$2$08$0;,>- '0 +=8$= ;+ ?<;9?A> @+;F :+O2&;$= ?:9$0;9?;? <08 B=<@9: ,90H&9?;?* R$ F<%$ :=$<;$8 90 a09;$S <0 $0F<0:$8 %$=?9+0 +A Z()? <8<2;$8 ;+ =++;4<0842<;;$=0 =$2=$?$0;<;9+0- '0 ($:;9+0 .* R$ +&;,90$ ;F$ ?;<;$4+A4;F$4<=; <22=+<:F$? ;+ B=<@9: O+=2F+,+H9:<, <00+;<;9+0- ($:;9+0 K 8$?:=9@$? ;F$ O$;F+8+,+H> <08 2<=;9:&,<=,> ;F$ 90A,$:;9+0<, %$=@<, ;<S+0+O>- ($:;9+0 M 8$?:=9@$? <HH,&;90<;9+0 <? O+=2F$O$ :+O@90<;+=9:?- ($:;9+0 f =$2+=;? ;F$ :+0?;=&:;9+0 +A < A&,,> 90A,$:;$8 %$=@ =$?+&=:$- ($:;9+0 d =$2+=;? ;F$ $%<,&<;9+0 +A ;F9? =$?+&=:$- B :+0:,&?9+0 <08 2$=?2$:;9%$? <=$ 2=$?$0;$8 90 ($:;9+0 3- ,   -$.$/ &0 $1/ 2%$    ($%$=<, O+=2F+,+H9:<, <00+;<;+=? +A B=<@9: <=$ <%<9,<@,$- g$$?,$>I? J566d* .//5N ?>?;$O A+= B=<@9: 90A,$:;9+0 A+=O<,9Y$? ;F$ ;=<89;9+0<, %$=?9+0 +A ;F$ =++;4<0842<;;$=0 O+8$, <08 :,<??9A9$? 90 ;F$ =++;b2<;;$=0b=&,$ <22=+<:F- ';? =&,$? 8$<, R9;F =++; <,;$=0<;9+0?* O+=2F+2F+0+,+H9:<, <,;$=0<;9+0? <08 ?2$,,90H <8P&?;O$0;?- )F$> <=$ $0:+8$8 90 ;F$ A+=O +A A909;$ <&;+O<;< <08 :+O29,$8 R9;F ;F$ 89:;9+0<=> 90;+ < A909;$ ;=<0?8&:$=- Z+= O+=2F+,+H9:<, <0<,>?9?* ;F$?$ =&,$? <=$ <22,9$8 =$H=$??9%$,>* 9-$- ;F$> ;<G$ ?&=A<:$ A+=O? <? 902&; <08 ;F$> +&;2&; 8$$2 A+=O?- )F$ %$=@<, ,$S9:<, :+%$=<H$ 9? O$89&OL M 6K/ =++;? 2=+8&:90H 6/ /// ?;$O?-  7+0$;F$,$??* ;F9? 0&O@$= +A ?;$O? 8+$? 0+; O$<?&=$ ;F$ 0&O@$= +A $0;=9$? @$:<&?$ ;F$ A+=O<, O+8$, +A ;F$ ?>?;$O 8+$? 0+; 90:,&8$ ;F$ 0+;9+0 +A ,$S9:<, $0;=> Jg$$?,$>* .//5L3N- )F9? ?>?;$O A<:$? ?$%$=<, :F<,,$0H$?- [0$ +A ;F$O 9? ;F<; +A <0<,>?9? ?2$$8L E;F$ A909;$4?;<;$ ;=<0?8&:$=? JZ()?N ;$08 ;+ @$:+O$ $S;=$O$,> ,<=H$* :<&?90H < ?9H09A9:<0; 8$;$=9+=<;9+0 90 =$?2+0?$ ;9O$I JB,;<0;<R> $; <,-* ./55L55dN-g> ;F$ R<>* ;F9? R<?;F$ O<90 O+;9%<;9+0 A+= 8$%9?90H ;F$ O&,;94?;$O <22=+<:F ?&:F <? g&:GR<,;$= B=<@9: U+=2F+,+H9:<, B0<,>Y$= J.//.N- )F$ UBh_BT ?>?;$O JW<@<?F* #<O@+R* .//de B,;<0;<R> $; <,-* ./5/* ./55N 9? :,+?$ ;+ g$$?,$>I? J.//5N 90 9;? 8$?9H0L E^$ &?$ i8$$2j O+=2F$O$? ;F=+&HF+&;* 9-$-* +&= ?>?;$O 90:,&8$? @+;F < O+8$, +A =++;?* 2<;;$=0?* <08 O+=2F+2F+0$O9:b+=;F+H=<2F9: =&,$?* <08 <  %&   ) !"#$" !&'( ) *+,- ./0 1+ .0 ./23 :+O2,$;$ A&0:;9+0<, <::+&0; +A O+=2F+,+H>I JB,;<0;<R> $; <,-* ./5/Lkf5Ne ;F$ =&,$? <=$ <,?+ :+O29,$8 R9;F ;F$ ,$S9:+0 90;+ < A909;$ ;=<0?8&:$=- )F$ ,$S9:+0 9? 8$=9%$8 A=+O g&:GR<,;$=I? JW<@<?F* #<O@+R* .//dLdkdN- )F$ 2=+P$:; F<? <0 +04H+90H 2<=; A+= 0+&0?* 90:,&890H @=+G$0 2,&=<,? JB,;<0;<R> $; <,-* ./5/N- UBh_BT 9O2=+%$? &2+0 g$$?,$> J.//5N 90 ?$%$=<, R<>?- )F$ 0+;9+0 +A ,$S9:<, $0;=> 9? =$2=$?$0;$8- )F$ 0+;9+0 +A 90A,$:;9+0<, :,<?? 9? <8+2;$8 A+= 2<;;$=0?* @&; 0+; A+= =++; <,;$=0<;9+0? JW<@<?F* #<O@+R* .//dLdkKNL $<:F ,$S9:<, $0;=> 9? <??9H0$8 < :+8$ ;F<; 98$0;9A9$? ;F$ 2<;;$=0? 9; <8O9;?- )F$=$ <=$ M5 :,<??$? A+= %$=@? JW<@<?F* #<O@+R* .//dLdkMN- )F&?* %$=@<, 90A,$:;9+0<, 90A+=O<;9+0 9? ?F<=$8 <; :,<?? ,$%$,* =$8&:90H =$8&08<0:> @$;R$$0 $0;=9$?- )F9? A<:9,9;<;$? 89:;9+0<=> :F$:G90H* &28<;$ <08 $S;$0?9+0* =$8&:90H ;F$ :+?; +A O<0<H$O$0; +A ;F$ 89:;9+0<=>L RF$0 <0 $==+= 9? 8$;$:;$8 90 ;F$  2<;;$=0? +A < :,<??* ;F$ :+==$:;9+0 +A ;F$ $==+= <AA$:;? <,, ;F$ :,<??e RF$0 < 0$R :,<?? 9? A+&08 <08 $0:+8$8* 9; :<0 @$ ?F<=$8 @> <,, ;F$ A&;&=$ O$O@$=? +A ;F$ :,<?? ;F=+&HF < ?9O2,$ :+8$ <??9H0O$0;- W+R$%$=* UBh_BT ?;9,, A<:$? O<0> 2=+@,$O?L    )F$ =$?+&=:$? +A UBh_BT4_S2=$?? :+O29,$ 90 Mk F* <08 ;F$ <0<,>?9? +A < %$=@ ;<G$? d-k O? JB,;<0;<R> $; <,-* ./55L5.KNe    )F$ <0<,>?9? +2;? A+= 8$$2 =++;?* :+O2,$S9A>90H ;F$ :+O2&;<;9+0 +A ;F$ =++; A=+O ;F$ ?&=A<:$ A+=Oe    #++; <,;$=0<;9+0? <=$ 0+; ;<G$0 90;+ <::+&0; 90 90A,$:;9+0<, :,<??$?* @&; :+0;=+,,$8  @> < ?90H,$ ?$; +A =&,$? A+= <,, $0;=9$?- _0:+890H ?&:F =&,$? 9? < :F<,,$0H$L ER$ <,?+ $S:,&8$ <,, <0<,>?$? 90%+,%90H 0+04;=9,9;$=<, =++;? <08 0+04;$O2,<;9: R+=8 ?;$O? ?90:$ R$ 8+ 0+; $%$0 <;;$O2; ;+ F<08,$ ;F$O 90 ;F$ :&==$0; %$=?9+0 +A +&= =&,$?I JB,;<0;<R> $; <,-* ./5/LkfdN- '0 <889;9+0* ;F$ ,$S9:<, :+%$=<H$ 9? ?;9,, ,9O9;$8- )F$ ,$S9:<, 8<;< <=$ @+==+R$8 A=+O g&:GR<,;$= J.//.NL k 6d/ %$=@? JB,;<0;<R> $; <,-* ./55L5..N <08 K. /// 0+&0?* 90:,&890H ;F+?$ R9;F ?&AA9S<, 2,&=<, JB,;<0;<R> $; <,-* ./5/LkfMN* @&; ;F$ =&,$? <=$ :+O2<;9@,$ +0,> R9;F ;=9,9;$=<, @=+G$0 2,&=<, 0+&0?- )F$ +2$04?+&=:$ B,GF<,9, O+=2F+,+H9:<, <0<,>?$=  .  Jg+&8,<, $; <,-* ./5/N 9? &?$8 90 %<=9+&? 2=+P$:;? <08 R+0 ;F$ A9=?; 2=9Y$ <; < :+O2$;9;9+0 @> ;F$ B=<@ C$<H&$ _8&:<;9+0<,* \&,;&=<, (:9$0;9A9: [=H<09Y<;9+0 JBC_(\[N 90 ./5/- ^$ :+&0;$8 ;F<; B,GF<,9,I? ,$S9:<, =$?+&=:$? :+%$= 63l +A ;F$ %$=@ +::&==$0:$? +A +&= ;$?; ?<O2,$ J:A- ?$:;9+0 dN* RF9:F 9? :+O2<=<@,$ ;+ ;F$ :+%$=<H$ +A g&:GR<,;$= J.//.N- )F$ 2<;;$=0? <=$ ?:=92;$8 90 B=<@9:- )F$ ?>?;$O 90:,&8$? @=+G$0 2,&=<, JgDN- B? 90 g$$?,$> J.//5N* ;F$ +&;2&; +A ;F$ <0<,>?$= 8+$? 0+; 98$0;9A> ,$S9:<, $0;=9$?L 0+;F90H :+00$:;? < 0+&0 90 ;F$ gD ;+ 9;? ?90H&,<=- )F9? 8$A9:9$0:> 90 < 8$A909;9+0 +A ,$S9:<, $0;=9$? 90 B,GF<,9, F908$=?* <O+0H +;F$=?* ;F$ ,$S9:+0 =$<8<@9,9;> <08 O<90;<90<@9,9;> A+= B=<@9: ?2$<G$=? <08 ,90H&9?;?- Z+= < :+O2,$;$ ?&=%$> +A O+=2F+,+H9:<, 2<=?$=?* =$<8$=? <=$ 90%9;$8 ;+:+0?98$= B,4(&HF<9>$= m B,4XF<=<?F9 J.//MN* <08 W<@<?F J./5/N- .  F;;2Lbb?+&=:$A+=H$-0$;b2=+P$:;?b<,GF<,9,b  !"#$" !&'( ) *+,- ./0 1+ .0 ./23 ) %%   3   4/$1&' &0 '/5)%*6$*&# 37!    2 $.8&#&9: 0&% ;/%< *#0=/)$*&# [&= O$;F+8 9? @<?$8 +0 < 2=$:+O29,$8 89<:=9;9:9Y$8 A&,,4A+=O 89:;9+0<=> R9;F <,,  2+??9@,$ 90A,$:;$8 A+=O? <08 ;F$9= +=;F+H=<2F9: %<=9<;9+0? 8&$ ;+ O+=2F+2F+0$O9: <,;$=0<;9+0?- ^$ $S:,&8$ A=+O ;F9? 90A,$:;9+0<, =$2=$?$0;<;9+0 <HH,&;90<;$8 2=$A9S$? <08 ?&AA9S$? ?&:F <? :+0P&0:;9+0? <08 2=+0+&0?- ^$ <??+:9<;$ O+=2F+?>0;<:;9: A$<;&=$ %<,&$? ;+ $<:F $0;=> 90 ;F$ H$0$=<;$8 ,9?; +A .-Mk O9,,9+0 ?&=A<:$ A+=O?- '0 +=8$= ;+ +@;<90 ;F9? ,9?;* R$ 2=+%98$ < ,9?; +A ,$OO<? O<0&<,,> <??+:9<;$8 ;+ :+8$? 8$A90$8 @> < ;<S+0+O>* $<:F :+8$ =$2=$?$0;90H < ;=<0?8&:$=- )F$ A&,,4A+=O ,9?; 9? 2=+8&:$8 <A;$= 90A,$:;90H $<:F ,$OO<  @> <22,>90H ;F$ $0:+8$8 ;=<0?8&:$= J(9,@$=Y;$90* 566kN- B=<@9: <08 +;F$= ($O9;9: ,<0H&<H$? F<%$ ,+0H @$$0 8$?:=9@$8 90 ;$=O? +A < =++; 90;$=R+%$0 R9;F < 2<;;$=0- )F$ =++; 9? < ?$Q&$0:$ +A :+0?+0<0;?- _<:F B=<@9: %$=@ :+0;<90? K += M :+0?+0<0;? ;F<; =$O<90 H$0$=<,,> &0:F<0H$8 90 <,, :+0P&H<;$8 A+=O? <08 O<G$ &2 ;F$ :+0?+0<0;<, =++;e <,, ;F$ =$O<9090H 90A+=O<;9+0 +0 < :+0P&H<;$8 A+=O 9? :<,,$8 E2<;;$=0I- Z+= $S<O2,$* g$$?,$> J566dN =$2=$?$0;?><G+;&@&R0< @> nG;@ m ><5+.&K&R0<o ;F=+&HF ;F$ 90;$=89H9;<;9+0+A ;F$ =++; G;@ R9;F ;F$ 2<;;$=0+A <:;9%$4D$=A$:;4K=82$=?+04O<?:&,90$42,&=<,49089:<;9%$ ><5+.&K&R0<- g$,+R ?+O$ 2=$:9?9+0?L    (+O$ =++; :+0?+0<0;? :F<0H$- )F$> <=$ ;F$ H,+;;<, ?;+2* 0+;$8 :  90 ;F$ ;<S+0+O>* <08 H,98$?* 0+;$8 ; *  / e ;F+?$ ;F<; 0$%$= :F<0H$ <=$ R=9;;$0 90 2<;;$=0? 90 ;F$ A+=O +A ;F$9= 2+?9;9+0 5* .* K += M-    B; ;F$ ?&=A<:$ ,$%$,* ;F$ +=;F+H=<2F9: =$2=$?$0;<;9+0 +A H,+;;<, ?;+2 <08 H,98$? :<0 :F<0H$- )F$ H,+;;<, ?;+2 9? =$2=$?$0;$8 @> ?9S <,,+H=<2F? 8$2$0890H +0 ;F$ :+0;$S;- B; ;F$ 2F+0+,+H9:<, ,$%$,* ;F$ H,98$? @$:+O$ ?F+=; %+R$,?  <-= 0< += ,+0H %+R$,?  <&>= ->= 0>< += <=$   +O9;;$8 <08 ;=<0?:=92;$8 <?  ?*"#%@#;*A= # K   J?$$ <,?+ A++;0+;$ MN-    B 2<;;$=0 9089:<;$? ;F$ 2+?9;9+0 +A 9;? ,$;;$=? =$,<;9%$ ;+ ;F$ =++; :+0?+0<0;?- h$0$=<,,>* ;F$?$ ,$;;$=? <=$ %+R$,? <08b+= <AA9S$? =$,<;$8 ;+ < 8$=9%$8 %$=@ A+=O ?&:F <?  B-.#$&+#$&,0;C D 5+$, E B-.#$&1#2&30;C8F )F$ ?&=A<:$ A+=O O<> <,?+ @$ ?&@89%98$8 90 5)"*6-78 5.$*98 5.06-78F )F$  .$*9 )&$$*"'  A+=O<,9Y$? <,, 90A9S<;9+0 +2$=<;9+0? ?&:F <  . +#$0, p 5+$, E 1#2038F '0A,$:;9+0<, 2=$A9S$? <08 ?&AA9S$? :<0  @$ :+0:<;$0<;$8 ?&@?$Q&$0;,> ;+ ;F$ ?;$O A+=O >< +#$0,0;'& p  5/&8 5+$, E 1#2038 50;'&8 -    )F$ ;F9=8 =++; :+0?+0<0; :<0 @$ 98$0;9:<, ;+ ;F$ ?$:+08 +0$- '0 ;F$ =++;* 9; 9? =$2=$?$0;$8 @> < H$O90<;9+0 O<=G G=  <08 90 ;F$ 2<;;$=0* @> 2=  ?&:F <? 9&(&(#$& D   59(G E 1&2&2#$&8F      g> :+0%$0;9+0* ;F$ 2$=A$:;4K =8  2$=?+04O<?:&,90$4?90H&,<= 9? ;F$ A+=O &?$8 <? ,$OO<- )F$ :+==$?2+0890H 2<;;$=0 9? :<,,$8 ;F$ :<0+09:<, 2<;;$=0- B,, 2<;;$=0? <=$ 8$A90$8 90 A&0:;9+0 +A ;F$ :<0+09:<, 2<;;$=0- ]$=@<, 2<;;$=0 :,<??$? <=$ :,$<=,> 8$A90$8 90 B=<@9: H=<OO<= @&; =++;4:,<??$? <=$ 90;=9:<;$ <08 90%+,%$ < :+O2,$S ;$=O90+,+H>- #++;4:,<??$? <=$ 8$A90$8 <::+=890H ;+ ;F$ 0<;&=$ +A ?+O$ +A ;F$ =++; :+0?+0<0;?L =$H&,<=* R$<G* H$O90<;$8* R9;F H,+;;<, ?;+2* <08 ;+ ;F$9= 2+?9;9+0 5* .* K += M- '0 ;F9? ;$=O90+,+H>* H&CA&</&H0;A0     i?<>j 9? < :#AA#; @*", #6 ; +-'(  * R9;F < R$<G :+0?+0<0; ;  <; ;F$ ?$:+08 2+?9;9+0e RF$=$<? ,&CI&</&,-/I0     i?$,,j 9? < :#AA#; @*", #6 / +-'(  - U+=$+%$=* ;R+ += ;F=$$ ?2$:9<, %<,&$? +A ;F$ =++; :+0?+0<0;? :<0 K  )F$ Y$=+4%+R$, O<=G? ;F$ ?9,$0;4%+R$, += ;F$ <@?$0:$ +A %+R$, @$;R$$0 ;R+ :+0?+0<0;?-  
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