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A Linear LED Driver with Concave Current Control for Low Power Application

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A Linear LED Driver with Concave Current Control for Low Power Application
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  A Linear LED Driver with Concave Current Control for Low-Power Application Abstract—this paper presents a linear LED driver with concave current control method for low power applications. In order to achieve a high efficiency of the linear LED driver, control methods with three different current shapes, namely, traditional flat and convex current shape, proposed concave current shape, have been discussed and compared via theoretical analysis. It is concluded that the proposed concave current control method has the highest efficiency among these three methods for different input voltage conditions. The design considerations have been provided. Finally, experimental results verify the proposed method. Index Terms—linear LED driver, current shape, high efficiency,   low power. I.   INTRODUCTION The LED driver is the key component of the LED system since the brightness of LEDs is related to the driver-controlled-current through the LEDs. The design criterion for the LED driver are high efficiency, high power factor (PF) and low total harmonic distortion (THD). Various topologies are adopted for the LED driver in different applications [1]-[3]. Compared with topologies introduced above, the linear LED driver has many advantages, such as simple structure, no passive components, easy control and few EMI problems. These advantages bring benefits of low cost and long life time. The linear LED drivers can be divided into single string structure and multi-string structure as shown in Fig.1 (a) and (b). For multi-string linear LED driver’ application, paper [4] reported a method to make a high efficiency and high PF circuit for the LED array. An improved control method is proposed for lighting the LED array step by step and shaping the output current in proportion to the input voltage. However, it has complex structure and large number of devices. Furthermore, LEDs of the last few rows have low utilization, because they are conducted for a short time during the peak value of the input voltage. On the other hand, paper [5] gives a three-string in series linear LED driver control method. It could make the system power factor high, however, it also needs several switch device and the last few LEDs have low utilization because they are turned on for quite a short time. Paper [6] also comes up with the novel method that by inserting the switching LED module, the linear LED driver could achieve high efficiency without reducing PF. It makes some LEDs lighting even when the input voltage is low through some switching module. However, this method also has complex structure and large number of devices, which has little advantage in low power application. On the other hand, the research on aspects of the single string structure is less. As introduced above, single string structure without much requirement on PF has less device and lower cost than multi-string one, which is more popular in the low power application. However, the efficiency of single string structure is lower than multi-string one. So how to improve the efficiency of the single string structure is a big issue. So this paper is focused on improving the efficiency of the single string structure by altering the input current shape. The paper is organized as follow. In section II, single-string LED drivers are introduced and based on this structure different current shapes are theoretical analyzed. Section III shows the detail design considerations. The experimental results are compared in section IV. Finally, the conclusions of this paper are given in section V.  ACFuseRs1 Rs2 RsNS1 S2 SNString1 String2 StringN ACFuseRsSSingle String   Fig.1 (a) Multi-String Linear LED Driver System Block Fig.1 (b) Single-String Linear LED Driver System Block II.   THEORETICAL ANALYSIS If the number of LEDs in series is given and the output power is constant, changing the input current shape could reduce the input power although power factor could be sacrificed. That means different input current shapes could have different input power under the same input voltage. Power factor and system efficiency need to be traded off when the input current shape is changed. Fig.2 gives three input current shapes working in single string structure shown in Fig.1 (b). V   LED  is the total voltage of the LEDs in series. So when the input voltage achieves V   LED , LEDs will be turned on. Different current shapes could be controlled by switching device in Fig.2. V LED V in I flat I convex I concave π   t  ω  o 0 θ   0 - π θ    Fig.2 Three Shapes of the Input Current   Assuming that the voltage and the average current of LEDs under three different current shape conditions are the same, the output power is equal according to the formula (1). * o LED av P V I  =   (1) av  I  is the average current through the LEDs. When the input voltage reaches the point of  LED V  shown in Fig.2, the LEDs will be turned on at this point, which is defined as 0 θ  shown as equation (2), 0  sin( )2*  LEDin V aV  θ   =   (2) The general current equation could be defined as equation (3) shown as follows.    I  stands for the DC bias value, in V  is RMS of the input voltage and k  is the coefficient, which affects the peak point of current curve. * sin( )110 in k V  I I   θ θ   = ±   (3) Fig.2 shows the flat current waveform when 0  I I  = ,  0 k   = , the convex current waveform when 1  I I  = , 1  0 k k  = > and the concave current waveform when 2  I I  = , 2 = 0 k k   > . Then the three different current shapes’ equations are defined as follows (4)-(6), 0 ( )  flat   I I  θ   =   (4)   11 *V sin( )110 inconvex k  I I   θ θ   = +   (5)    22 *V sin( ) -110 inconcave k  I I   θ θ   =   (6)   The θ  in three equations has the same interval where 0 0 θ θ π θ  < < − shown in Fig.2. As the average input current is assumed to be equal, then equation (7) can be obtained as follow, 0 ( ) av  I d  I const  π  θ θ π  = = ∫   (7) Also the input power could be expressed as equation (8), 0 ( )* 2* sin inin  I V d P π  θ θ θ π  = ∫   (8) The input power of three different current shapes could be compared under same condition. Since the output power is equal, a high efficiency is obtained for a low input power is high according to equation (9). in o PP η   =   (9) Based on equation (7) and (8), the input power of convex current and flat current conditions are compared as follows, 2 21 0_ _flat 0 00 2 4cos1 1- [ ( 2 ) sin2 ]110 2 2 2 inin convex in kV P P  θ π θ θ π θ  = × − + −−   (10) Also the input power of flat current and concave current conditions are compared as follows, 2 22 0_flat _concave 0 00 2 4cos1 1- [ ( 2 ) sin2 ]110 2 2 2 inin in k V P P  θ π θ θ π θ  = × − + −−   (11) Equations (10) and (11) have the same factor defined as 0 ( )  f   θ  and the values of 0 ( )  f   θ  with different 0 θ  are plotted in Fig.3. 200 0 00 4cos1 1( ) ( 2 ) sin22 2 2  f   θ θ π θ θ π θ  = − + −−   (12) The value 0 ( )  f   θ  is positive when 0 0 / 2 θ π  < < , which is verified shown in Fig.3. As 1  0 k   > and 2  0 k   > , _ _flat _ in convex in in concave P P P > >  will be derived from formula (10) and (11).  In conclusion, different current shapes could affect the system efficiency in single string linear LED circuit. For three current shapes, namely, concave current shape, flat current shape and convex current shape, the efficiency are compared under the same condition of LEDs’ voltage and average current _ ca _flat _ in con ve in in convex η η η  > > . The concave current shape has the best efficiency among the three current shapes in theory analysis. III.   DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Although the efficiency of the linear LED driver could be improved by using concave current shape, some practical design factors should be considered. The detailed design consideration should be taken that the peak current at the conduction point could not be too high. So a limit current could be added in the actual circuit shown in Fig.4, which is easily implemented by the current limit circuit. And another point is that the current at the point of pi/2 would not be zero. If the current is too low, it might cause the light flickering. That’s the reason of that the current has the DC component I in equation (3). The input voltage is varied from 99V to 121V, the LED voltage is set as V   LED =70V, the average current is set as  I  av =60mA and the cut-top current is assumed as  I   Limit  =150mA.  V LED V in π   t  ω  o 0 θ   / 2 π  I limit   Fig.3 The curve of the same factor in formula (10) and (11) Fig.4 The cut-top current waveform   It has been discussed before that the peak current at the conduction point should not be too high. In order to reduce the current peak of the concave current shape, a limit current is added as an improved version, namely, cut-top current shape. In conclusion, under the low power condition, especially the power factor is not requested higher than 0.6, which is shown in next part, the cut-top current shape improved from concave shape is more attractive than the traditional convex current shape and the flat current shape. IV.   EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS   Fig.5 (a)-(d) show the experimental results at the input voltage of 110V for four different current shape conditions. The input voltage and current waveforms have been measured for these four conditions. For the concave current shape as shown in Fig.5 (c), there is a peak current of ~240mA at the conduction point. This peak current would lead to a sudden flash of the LED. For the cut-top limit current as shown in Fig.5 (d), the peak current is reduced to ~ 150mA. In the experiment, the practical average current is 68mA, which is a little higher than the theoretical value 60mA. This is mainly because that the practical current shape has the rising and falling time, which makes both average current and power factor a little higher than those in the theoretical analysis. As a result, when compared with the theoretical calculation, the efficiency and power factors are both increased in the experiment. Fig.6 (a) and (b) show the experiment results of the system efficiency and power factor for different input voltages. On the other hand, the power factor of cut-top could be higher than 0.7, which could meet the usual power factor requirement in low power application. As a result, the cut-top current shape obtains a better trade-off between the system efficiency and power factor. It achieves a system efficiency improvement for the single string LED driver than traditional methods, while obtaining a sufficient power factor for low power applications at the same time. Fig.5 (a) flat current (50mV/div) and sampled input voltage (1V/div), time scale: 2ms/div Fig.5 (b) convex current (50mV/div) and sampled input voltage (1V/div), time scale: 2ms/div     Fig.5 (c) concave current (50mV/div) and sampled input voltage (1V/div), time scale: 2ms/div Fig.5 (d) cut-top current (50mA/div) and sampled input voltage (1V/div), time scale: 2ms/div Fig.6 (a) Experiments of four current shapes’ efficiency Fig.6 (b) Experiments of four current shapes’ power factor V.   CONCLUSION This paper proposed the concave current control method used in single string linear LED driver for low power applications. Compared with the traditional convex current control and flat current control, the proposed concave current control method could achieve high efficiency. The cut-top current control method is presented in order to limit the peak current of the concave current for practical considerations. The experimental system efficiency of concave current shape improves 10% higher than that of the convex one under same condition. REFERENCES [1] Van der Broeck, H.; Sauerlander, Georg; Wendt, M., "Power driver topologies and control schemes for LEDs," Applied Power Electronics Conference, APEC 2007 - Twenty Second Annual IEEE , vol., no., pp.1319,1325, Feb. 25 2007-March 1 2007 [2] Alonso, J.M.; Viña, J.; Vaquero, D.G.; Martínez, G.; Osorio, R., "Analysis and Design of the Integrated Double Buck–Boost Converter as a High-Power-Factor Driver for Power-LED Lamps," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.59, no.4, pp.1689,1697, April 2012 [3] Ray-Lee Lin; Yi-Chun Chang; Chia-Chun Lee, "Optimal Design of LED Array for Single-Loop CCM Buck–Boost LED Driver," Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on , vol.49, no.2, pp.761,768, March-April 2013 [4] Chenyang Wang; Jianxiong Xi; Lenian He, "A linear constant current LED driver with no off-chip inductor or capacitor," Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2014 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on, vol., no., pp.2524, 2528, 1-4 June 2014 [5] Dayal, R.; Modepalli, K.; Parsa, L., "A direct AC LED driver with high power factor without the use of passive components," Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2012 IEEE, vol., no., pp.4230,4234, 15-20 Sept. 2012 [6] Hwu, K.I; Tu, W.C.; Fang, Y.T., "Dimmable AC LED Driver With Efficiency Improved Based on Switched LED Module," Display Technology, Journal of, vol.10, no.3, pp.171,181, March 2014 50.00%55.00%60.00%65.00%70.00%75.00%80.00%99V110V121VFlatConvexConcaveCut-top0.50.60.70.80.9199V110V121VFlatConvexConcaveCut-top
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