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A new kind of mechanical parking equipment

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A new kind of mechanical parking equipment of two stories was developed. It is capable of double parking in order to raise the capacity of pavement parking. A parallelogram mechanism is employed to transfer a car into or out of the upper storey. A
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   A New Kind of Two-storied Mechanical Parking Equipment  Dept. of Mechanical Machine Design, TOCE 2014-15 1 ABSTRACT A new kind of mechanical parking equipment of two stories was developed. It is capable of double parking in order to raise the capacity of pavement parking. A parallelogram mecha-nism is employed to transfer a car into or out of the upper storey. A self-propelled car plat-form is used to move a car into or out of the lower storey. The cars on the upper and lower stories are all placed to be parallel to the road axis in order that they can get in or out of the stories without reversing. This saves the space and time for cars to enter or leave the garage, and realizes the possibility of double parking on the narrow roads. In addition, the car on the upper storey can enter or leave the garage freely whether the lower storey is parking or not. Key words: Mechanical parking equipment; Two-storied; Parallelogram mechanism; Self- propelled; Back into the garage.   A New Kind of Two-storied Mechanical Parking Equipment  Dept. of Mechanical Machine Design, TOCE 2014-15 2 1. INTRODUCTION At present, the common types of mechanical parking equipments are the lifting & transferring type and the vertical lifting type, etc . They possess such features as great capacity of parking and high cost, and are more suitable to be built at the public places where parking is heavy such as the centers of city or the centers of business. With the growing of the quantity of per-sonal cars, parking at residential districts and units comes into a serious problem. It is urgent to improve the capacity of pavement parking at residential districts and units. So some simple two-storied mechanical parking garages come into being as shown in Figure 1. However, the current simple two-storied mechanical parking garages also have some defects. First, in these types of parking equipment, the cars are all placed perpendicularly or obliquely to the road axis, so the cars need to be backed into the garages. In this situation, a wider road or channel is required, so those narrow roads or channels cannot be configured with these types of park-ing equipment, thus the parking spaces of th ose roads or channels can’t be fully tapped. S e-cond, these types of parking equipment have only simple lifting function, no translation func-tion. If the lower storey had a car, then the upper car could not be down or up. So in order to access the car from the upper storey, the lower car must be driven away temporarily. In order to ensure that the upper car can be transferred into or out of the garage at any time, the owner of the lower car must give his or her key to the custody staff. This brings some inconvenience and psychological worry to the owner of the lower car. This paper described a new type of two-storied parking equipment. In this type, whether the lower storey parking or not does not affect the parking of the upper storey.  Fig.1. Parking way of the current two-storied parking equipment   A New Kind of Two-storied Mechanical Parking Equipment  Dept. of Mechanical Machine Design, TOCE 2014-15 3 2. STRUCTURE AND WORKING PRINCIPLE   The design goals of the novel simple two-storied mechanical parking garage are: first, when cars are placed in the garage, their locations are all parallel to the axis of the road; second, cars do not need to be backed into the garage; and third, whether the lower storey is parking or not does not affect the parking of the upper storey. The design schemes of the novel simple two-storied mechanical parking garage are: a parallelogram mechanism is employed to trans-fer a car into or out of the upper storey, and a self-propelled car platform is used to move a car in or out of the lower storey. 2.1. Structure and composition As shown in Figure 2, the novel mechanical parking garage has two stories. Viewed from one side, the upper storey consists of an upright post, a hydraulic cylinder, a left arm, an upper  board and a right arm. The combination of the left arm, the right arm, the upper board and the  base forms a parallelogram mechanism which is driven by the hydraulic cylinder. The lower storey is made up of a self moving car platform only.  Fig.2. Configuration of the new two-storied parking garage 2.2. Working principle The parking principle of the upper storey is shown in Figure 3. Driven by the hydraulic cyl-inder, the two rotary arms of the parallelogram mechanism rotate synchronously, and drive the upper board to translate. When the two arms turn clockwise to the horizontal position, they all lie on the ground with the upper board, thus the car can be driven on or off the upper  board along the road directly. When the two arms turn anticlockwise to the vertical position, the upper board with the car can be lifted to a certain height and moved in the garage. This not only parks the car into the upper storey, but also gives the lower storey a parking space. In order to avoid the upper board colliding with the car parked in the lower storey due to the shortening of the projected lengths of the two arms when they turn, and also to prevent the two arms from being too long so that the upper board rises excessively, a telescopic structure is employed for the two arms. Here, just two hydraulic cylinders are used as the two arms. So   A New Kind of Two-storied Mechanical Parking Equipment  Dept. of Mechanical Machine Design, TOCE 2014-15 4 in the process of the two arms turning from a horizontal position to the vertical position, in the first half, the two arms should elongate, and in the second half, the two arms should shorten. On the contrary, the two arms should do the opposite actions. In addition, there is another way to solve the two problems above. That is to park the lower car close to the up-right post in order that the car is far away from the upper board. In so doing, the length of each of the two arms could be constant, thus th structure of the arm could be simple, and the cost of the arm could be lower. The lower storey is made up of a tram-like structure. The “tram” is composed of a  motor, a reducer, four rolling wheels and a lower board, as shown in Figure 4. Driven by the motor, the “trolley” can drive along the two  parallel tracks fixed on the ground and be per- pendicular to the axis of the road, so realizing the purpose for a car to come in or out of the lower storey.   As the upper storey employs a parallelogram mechanism, in conjunction with the two rotary arms using a telescopic structure, so the upper board can move almost along the outer contour of the car parked in the lower storey, achieving the effect that whether the lower storey is parking or not do not affect the upper car coming in or out of the upper store  Fig.3. Parking principle of the upper storey  Fig.4. Parking principle of the lower storey   A New Kind of Two-storied Mechanical Parking Equipment  Dept. of Mechanical Machine Design, TOCE 2014-15 5 3. DESIGN ESSENTIALS After the technical scheme of the simple two-storied parking garage is determined, there will  be many details need to be done in the specific design process. Otherwise these details would affect the performances of the mechanical parking equipments. Among these details, there are two questions should be focused on. One is the optimization design of the structure of the garage in order to minimize the space occupied by the garage that is, to make the sizes of length, width, height of the garage as small as possible, especially, the width size of the gar-age should not exceed that of the pavement parking space too much, otherwise it is against its feature of being suitable for parking cars on the narrow roads or channels. The other is the anti-sinking and anti-falling design for the garage. As noted previously, the upper storey is driven hydraulically. Hydraulic drives inevitably have some back-draws such as the leakage of hydraulic oil and the burst of oil-pipes. The former makes the upper board sink slowly and the latter causes the upper board to fall suddenly, so the garage should be equipped with an-tisinking and anti-falling devices. 3.1. Structural optimization design Try to minimize the outline dimensions of the garage is the objective of structure optimiza-tion design of the garage. Here, the outline dimensions of the garage are referred to its maxi-mum external dimensions when the upper and the lower storey are all in parking. The outline sizes of the garage comprise the length size, the width size and the height size. The design for the length size is simple, it is the sum of the length of the car, the twice thickness of the rotary arm and some space allowance.The height of garages has a standard size that is, its size is given. In general, the width of the garage is related to the height of the garage, for both of them depend on the length of the arm. But this relationship can be relieved by improving the design of the structure of the garage so that the width of the garage can be designed inde- pendently. As shown in Figure 5, the width of the garage l is composed of three components: The width needed for the installation of the hydraulic cylinder 1 l , the centre distance be-tween two lower joints of the two arms 2 l and the overhanging length of the upper board rel-ative to the two arms 3 l .
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