A new locality and host for Pseudione crenulata G.O. Sars, 1898 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Bopyridae) in the Mediterranean

A new locality and host for Pseudione crenulata G.O. Sars, 1898 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Bopyridae) in the Mediterranean
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  DOI: 10.2478/s11686-010-0038-y© W. Stefan´ski Institute of Parasitology, PASActa Parasitologica, 2010, 55(3), 291–295; ISSN 1230-2821 RESEARCH NOTE A new locality and hostfor  Pseudione crenulata G.O. Sars,1898 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Bopyridae) in the Mediterranean Luca Castriota*, Manuela Falautano, Pietro VivonaandFranco Andaloro Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA), Via Salvatore Puglisi 9, 90143 Palermo, Italy Abstract The first record of  Pseudione crenulata in the branchial chamber of  Munida intermedia is reported from the southern Tyrrhe-nian Sea, with notes on accessory males and female morphology. The effects of this parasite on host pleopod morphology arereported.  Pseudione crenulata has previously been recorded from  M.tenuimana and  M.rugosa , both in the Atlantic Ocean andthe Mediterranean Sea. Keywords Crustacea, Isopoda, Bopyridae,  Pseudionecrenulata , Decapoda,  Munidaintermedia , Mediterranean, SicilyThe Bopyridae is a family of parasitic isopods mostly found inthe branchial chambers of crustacean decapods. The presenceof these parasites is manifested by a distortion of the host’scarapace produced by the female. Bopyrids exhibit sexual di-morphism: the female being larger than the male and havinga body that is more or less deformed and asymmetrical; themale is usually found attached to the female pleopods and isof a more typical isopod form (Sars 1898). Bopyrids may haveseveral effects on primary and secondary sexual characters of their hosts, even producing parasitic castration (Reverberi1943,Pike 1953,Beck 1980,Calado et al  . 2005).In a study on crustacean fishery in the southern TyrrhenianSea, 51 specimens of  Munida intermedia (A. Milne Edwardset Bouvier, 1899) were collected by bottom traps, from April2001 to February 2002, at depths ranging from 200 to 330 me-tres, on muddy bottoms. This species was firstly misidentifiedand recorded as  Munida rugosa (Fabricius, 1775) (Castriota et al  . 2004); a re-examination of the collected individuals al-lowed for reidentification on the basis of the diagnostic char-acters provided by Rice and de Saint Laurent (1986) and Noël(1992). Three of them, two males and one female, showedcarapace distortion into a bulge hosting the bopyrid parasite  Pseudione crenulata G.O. Sars, 1898 in their branchial cham- ber. One male of  M.intermedia (17.4 mm carapace length,CL, code n. MR03) was infested in the right side, and the other male (19.8 mm CL, code n. MR01) in the left side of the branchial chamber. They showed modification of the pleopodsIII to V, whose endopodites exhibited two articles instead of one, looking like female pleopods, as already observed byPike (1953) and Zariquiey Alvarez (1958) in males of  M.ru- gosa  parasitized  P.crenulata . Conversely, the female (10.5mm CL, code n. MR02), infested in the left side of the branchial chamber, did not show any sign of pleopod modifi-cation. The parasites, and their hosts coded as MR01 andMR02, are deposited in the collection of ISPRA (Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) Palermo. The para-site found in  M.intermedia MR03 was stored in the isopodcollection of Prof. Roberto Argano of the University of Rome, but was lost in a fire; its host is still kept in the collection of ISPRA Palermo.Within the genus  Pseudione Kossmann, 1881,  P.crenulata is recognizable by the peculiar crenulation of both the frontaledge and the coxal plates (Sars 1898), by the posterior marginof cephalon being tuberculated and bearing two pairs of strongly digitate lamellae, and by the internal ridge of the firstoostegite being finely digitate in the female (Bourdon 1968). The females of  P.crenulata herein recorded present allthese features, but differ from the srcinal description in their anteriorly bilobate cephalons, rather than being arched. Thisfeature is particularly evident in the larger female (codeMR01f; Fig. 1), measuring 12.20 mm total length (TL, fromthe anterior margin of cephalon to the posterior margin of  *Corresponding author: castriotaluca@hotmail.com  Luca Castriota et al  .292  pleon) and 8.45 mm maximal width (MW). This specimen wasfound bearing eggs and was associated with other three spec-imens of different morphology and dimensions: one adultmale (code MR01m1; Fig. 2), located in the female pleopods,measuring 3.25 mm TL and 1.65 mm MW, with the typical char-acteristics described by Sars (1898); two juvenile males, onelocated among the female pleopodsand the other one insidethe marsupium (codesMR01m2 and MR01m3,respectively), both measuring 2.80 mm TL and 1.00 MW; they differ fromthe adult male in that they bear dorsal bosses on all pereomeres(Fig. 3). The co-occurrence of immature individuals with amature male in bopyrid isopods is not frequent and has beeninterpreted as a case of supernumerary males, whose fate isalmost unknown although they are presumed to be temporar-ily tolerated and bound to be expelled sooner or later (Rein-hard 1949).  Pseudione crenulata , herein recorded for the first time inthe southern Tyrrhenian Sea, has been previously found from Norway to the Mediterranean Sea (Fig. 4), in  M.rugosa (LoBianco 1888, Sars 1898, Scott 1901, Pike 1953, P.M.F. 1957,Zariquiey Alvarez 1958, Bourdon 1968) and in  M.tenuimana G.O. Sars, 1872 (Sars 1899, Zariquiey Alvarez 1958, Nielsen1969, Mori et al  . 1999). Specimens hosted by Galathea dis- persa Bate, 1859 from South Africa, recorded and identified by Barnard (1920) as  P.crenulata , were subsequently ascribedto  P.confusa (Norman, 1886) (Bourdon 1968). Fig. 1. Female of  Pseudione crenulata (MR01f, 12.20 mm TL), dorsal view ( A ) and detail of its head ( B ) AB   Pseudione crenulata in  M. intermedia from Tyrrhenian Sea293 Fig. 2. Dorsal ( A ) and ventral ( B ) view of mature male (MR01m1, 3.25 mm TL) of  Pseudione crenulata Fig. 3. Dorsal ( A ) and lateral ( B ) view of immature male (MR01m2, 2.80 mm TL) of  Pseudione crenulata A BAB  Luca Castriota et al  .294 Bopyrid infestation in  M.intermedia was reported byGramitto and Froglia (1998) from the Adriatic Sea with a verylow incidence(0.6%)but unfortunately they did not identifythe parasites to genus or species. Conversely, Mori et al  .(2004) did not find any bopyrid infestation in the same speciesfrom the northern Tyrrhenian Sea and hypothesized that branchial chamber of this species is not suitable to host such parasites. However, our finding demonstrates that  M.inter-media is a new host species for the parasite  P.crenulata . Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to Dr. R. Román-Con-treras, Dr. C. Froglia and Dr. M. Mori for their scientific support. References Barnard K.H. 1920. Contributions to the crustacean fauna of SouthAfrica.  Annals of the South African Museum , 17, 319–438.Beck J.T. 1980. The effects of an isopod castrator,  Probopyrus pan-dalicola , on the sex characters of one of its caridean shrimphosts,  Palaemonetes paludosus .  Biological Bulletin , 158, 1– 15.Bourdon R. 1968. Les Bopyridae des mers européennes.  Mémoiresdu Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle , Série A ,  Zoologie, Paris , 50, 77–424.Calado R., Bartilotti C., Narciso L. 2005. Short report on the effectof a parasitic isopod on the reproductive performance of ashrimp.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecol-ogy , 321, 13–18. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2004.12.038.Castriota L., Falautano M., Romeo T., Florio J., Pelusi P., Finoia M.G.,Andaloro F. 2004. Crustacean fishery with bottom traps in anarea of the southern Tyrrhenian Sea: species composition, abun-dance and biomass.  Mediterranean Marine Science , 5, 15–22.Gramitto M.E., Froglia C. 1998. Notes on the biology and growth of   Munida intermedia (Anomura: Galatheidae) in the westernPomo pit (Adriatic Sea).  Journal of Natural History , 32,1553–1566. DOI: 10.1080/00222939800771091.Lo Bianco S. 1888. Notizie biologiche riguardanti specialmente il periodo di maturità sessuale degli animali del golfo di Napoli.  Mittheilungen aus der Zoologischen Station zu Neapel  , 8,385–440.Mori M., Orecchia S.,Biagi F. 1999. The occurrence of the bopyrid parasite  Pseudione crenulata G.O. Sars (Isopoda, Epicaridea)in the branchial chamber of  Munida tenuimana G.O. Sars(Crustacea: Anomura) from north Tyrrhenian Sea.  Doriana ,7(312), 1–5.Mori M., Sbrana M., Sartor P.,De Ranieri S. 2004. Aspetti bio-eco-logici di  Munida intermedia (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura)nell’Arcipelago Toscano meridionale (Tirreno settentrionale).  Atti della Società toscana di Scienze naturali ,  Memorie , Serie B , 111, 43–53. Nielsen S.O. 1969.  Nectonema munidae Brinkmann (Nemato-morpha) parasitizing  Munida tenuimana G.O. Sars (Crust.Dec.) with notes on host-parasite relations and new hostspecies. Sarsia , 38, 91–110. Noël P.Y. 1992. Clé préliminaire d’identification des Crustacea De-capoda de France et des principales autres espèces d’Europe. Collection Patrimoines Naturels (  Patrimoine Scientifique ),9, 1–145. Pike R.B. 1953. The bopyrid parasites of the Anomura from Britishand Irish waters.  Journal of the Linnean Society of London , Fig. 4. Map of records of  Pseudione crenulata in European waters with host indication: r  –  Munida rugosa ; t  –  Munida tenuimana ; i  –  Munida intermedia . 1 and 2 : Sars (1898); 3 and 7 : Pike (1953); 4 : Lo Bianco (1888); 5 : Scott (1901); 6 : PMF (1957); 8 and 9 : Bourdon(1968); 10 : Zariquiey Alvarez (1958); 11 : Nielsen (1969); 12 : Mori et al  . (1999); 13 : present record   Pseudione crenulata in  M. intermedia from Tyrrhenian Sea295  Zoology , 42, 219–237. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1953.tb02540.x.P.M.F. 1957. The Plymouth marine fauna. Third edition. (Marine Bi-ological Association of the United Kingdom, Cambridge).Available from http://www.mba.ac.uk/PMF/.Reinhard E.G. 1949. Experiments on the determination and differ-entiation of sex in the bopyrid Stegophryxus hyptius Thomp-son.  Biological Bulletin , 96, 17–31.Reverberi G. 1943. Sul significato della “castrazione parassitaria”.La trasformazione del sesso nei Crostacei parassitati da Bo- piridi e da Rizocefali.  Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologicadi Napoli , 19, 225–316.Rice A.L.,de Saint Laurent M. 1986. The nomenclature and diag-nostic characters of four north-eastern Atlantic species of thegenus  Munida Leach:  M.rugosa (Fabricius),  M.tenuimana (Accepted May 7, 2010)G.O. Sars,  M.intermedia A. Milne Edwards and Bouvier, and  M.sarsi Huus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Galatheidae).  Journal of  Natural History , 20, 143–163. DOI: 10.1080/00222938600770131.Sars G.O. 1898 (1896–1899). An account of the Crustacea of Norwaywith short descriptions and figures of all the species. Vol. II.Isopoda. Bergen Museum, Bergen, 270 pp, 104 pls. Scott T. 1901. Land, fresh-water, and marine Crustacea. In: (Eds.G.F.S. Elliott, M. Laurie and J.B. Murdoch).  Fauna ,  flora and  geology of the Clyde Area .British Association for the Ad-vancement of Science, Glasgow, 328–358.Zariquiey Alvarez R. 1958. Decápodos españoles. XII. Acción de un bopírido sobre los caracteres sexuales de dos especies del gén.  Munida Leach.  Investigación Pesquera , 11, 101–104.
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