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A Peer Reviewed International Journal of Asian Academic Research Associates TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF FRESH WATER GOLDA FARMING IN EMPOLDERED AREA OF BANGLADESH Asian Academic Research Journal of Multidisciplinary

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This study was conducted in a coastal empoldered area of Bangladesh, namely Dacope upazila of Khulna district with a view to estimating the profitability, technical efficiency and constraints of Golda 1 farming. The study revealed that Golda
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   AARJMD VOLUME 1 ISSUE 25 (SEPTEMBER 2014) ISSN : 2319 - 2801  Asian Academic Research Journal of Multidisciplinary www.asianacademicresearch.org 246   A Peer Reviewed International Journal of Asian Academic Research Associates AARJMD ASIAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH JOURNAL OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY   TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF FRESH WATER GOLDA FARMING IN EMPOLDERED AREA OF BANGLADESH MOHAMMAD CHHIDDIKUR RAHMAN 1 ; TOFAZZAL HOSSAIN MIAH 2 ; M HARUN-AR RASHID 3 1 Scientific Officer, BANGLADESH RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE, Gazipur-1701 2 Professors, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 3 Professors, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Abstract This study was conducted in a coastal empoldered area of Bangladesh, namely Dacope upazila  of Khulna district with a view to estimating the profitability, technical efficiency and constraints of Golda 1 farming. The study revealed that Golda  production was found profitable as benefit cost ratio (BCR) was 2.12 on full cost basis. The estimated result showed that the average level of technical efficiency of the sample farmers was about 82%, implying that given the existing technology and level of inputs, the output could be increased by 18%. Farmer's education, training and farm size had positive significant effect on Golda  production. Farmers of the study area mentioned some economic, technical and social constraints which deviated from the highest level of production at farm level. The economic constraints were high price of inputs, lack of institutional credit and marketing facility. The technical constraints were lack of scientific knowledge & technology, lack of good water management, lack of good quality post larvae, attack of disease and the social constraints recorded as attack of theft,  Hurry  (a local leasing system), illegal cuts and poor communication & transport facilities  Key words:   Golda, Profitability, Polder, Technical efficiency.   AARJMD VOLUME 1 ISSUE 25 (SEPTEMBER 2014) ISSN : 2319 - 2801  Asian Academic Research Journal of Multidisciplinary www.asianacademicresearch.org 247   1   INTRODUCTION The coastal area of Bangladesh represents an area of 47,211 square km, 32 percent of the country’s geographical area, wherein 35 million people i.e. 28 percent of the country’s total population live at 6.85 million households. In terms of administrative consideration, 19 districts out of 64 are considered as coastal district (http://equitybd.org/newsletter/english/Issue-5/Disaster_BD.pdf). Apart from this, its 710 kilometers (km) long coast line along the North and North-East part of the Bay of Bengal also offers an excellent fishery potential in its littoral, territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) waters (Rashid, 2002). Golda  and T. Aman  rice 2  were the main crops in the study area. Golda  is cultivated on fresh and less saline water on the other hand  Bagda 3  is a high saline crop. Realizing the negative impacts of salinity on environment and the productivity of rice the farmers of the study area chose to cultivate Golda and rice instead of  Bagda . Thus, the cropping pattern of the study area became Golda - T. Aman - Fallow. The transplanting of  Aman  rice continued the full July month and the main cultivation started from August to mid-October and the harvesting time was from mid-November to mid-December. In case of Golda  post larvae stocking started at May and continued up to June then the main cultivation period continued up to October and finally the harvesting period continued up to mid-January. However, vegetables were cultivated in the homestead areas from the month November to March. As salinity was decreasing, farmers of the study area were thinking to cultivate vegetables commercially but not had started yet. During  Boro  season (mid-January to April), the land remained fallow due to high salinity. A number of studies were undertaken on rice-shrimp production in different coastal areas of Bangladesh. Haque and Rony (2008) conducted a study on ‘Environmental impacts and their socioeconomic consequences of shrimp farming in Bangladesh’. From this study, it is found that the horizontal or area expansion of shrimp farming in Southwest coastal belt of Bangladesh has caused serious environmental impacts e.g., deforestation, cutting of mangrove forests, intrusion of saline water, decreased crop diversity & fisheries, water pollution and changing hydrological characteristics. Alam (2007) conducted a study on economic returns of disease-affected extensive shrimp farming in southwest Bangladesh. They revealed that profitability of operations was affected by fluctuating yields and prices due to diseases and generated economic risk.   AARJMD VOLUME 1 ISSUE 25 (SEPTEMBER 2014) ISSN : 2319 - 2801  Asian Academic Research Journal of Multidisciplinary www.asianacademicresearch.org 248   Takumi et al. (200 6), made a study on ‘Problems and prospects of shrimp and rice -shrimp Gher farming system in Bangladesh ’. The study found that the shrimp -Gher farming system has a negative impact on the environment, ecology, land degradation, livestock, and water quality; whereas the rice-shrimp Gher farming system is friendlier to environments, ecology and water quality as well as helps to alleviate poverty. Patric Ronback (2002) conducted a study on ‘Environmentally Sustainable Shrimp Aquaculture’ . The study suggested a number of criteria that would improve the environmental sustainability of the industry. Environmental impacts such as mangrove conversion, seed by catch, introduction of alien species and diseases, water use, supplementary feeding, nutrient loading, and chemical and antibiotic use are analyzed with the ambition to ameliorate some of the environmental concerns. The findings of the earlier studies have been very helpful to understand the impact of shrimp culture on environment, but the present study deals with the technical efficiency of Golda  farming at the empoldered area after restricting saline water intrusion. Thus, this study may be considered important for the farmers, researchers, government and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) and policymakers to identify inefficiency factors and constraints Golda farming and formulate appropriate polices for efficient farming, especially in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. This study will specifically assess the technical efficiency of culturing Golda  within the Polder 4  No. 31. Therefore, the present study was undertaken at farm level with the following specific objectives: i)   to assess profitability of Golda  cultivation; ii)   to measure the technical efficiency of Golda  farmers; and iii)   to identify the constraints to Golda  production. 2   METHODOLOGY Polder 31 in Dacope Upazila of Khulna district was the selected study area. Dacope Upazila with an area of 99158 sq km is bounded by Batiaghata Upazila on the north, Pasur river on the south, Rampal and Mongla Upazilas on the east, Paikgachha and Koyra Upazilas on the west. Main rivers are Pasur, Sibsa, Manki and Bhadra. The Southern part of this Upazila is surrounded by Sundarban (11790.13 hectors) (Banglapedia, 2006). Keeping in view, the main objectives of the study, two villages of Dacope Upazila in Khulna district namely Pankhali and Anandanagar were   AARJMD VOLUME 1 ISSUE 25 (SEPTEMBER 2014) ISSN : 2319 - 2801  Asian Academic Research Journal of Multidisciplinary www.asianacademicresearch.org 249   selected as the farmers of these villages were started to follow rice-cum-golda pattern instead of rice-cum-bagda after restricting saline water intrusion. A stratified random sampling was used to select 100 rice-cum-golda farmers (50 each from Pankhali and Anandanagar) from the study area. Primary data were collected using a structured interview schedule. 1 A shrimp variety, cultured in fresh water and known as Prawn. 2 Transplanted  Aman rice, cultivation period is August  –   November. 3 A shrimp variety, cultured in saline water. 4 Polder is an area of low-lying land that has been reclaimed from a body of water and is protected by dikes/embankment. Total polders in Bangladesh are 123 among which sea facing polders are 49 (Pandey, 2011). The secondary data used in this study were from text books, journals, government papers, research reports, online materials and periodicals. Both descriptive statistics and activity budgeting were employed in analyzing the data and identifying the profitability of Golda  production. The stochastic frontier model using Cobb-Douglas production function was used in measuring farm specific technical efficiency. Technical efficiency of Golda  production was estimated with the parameters technique of production functions used by Bravo-Ureta and Evension, 1994 and Xiaosong Xu and Scott R. Jeffrey, 1998 and cost decomposition procedure used by Kopp and Diewert, 1982 to estimate the technical efficiency. The production function was specified as: iiii  X Y         ……………………………. (1)  Where,  i Y  yield of Golda ,  i  X  (  1  i K  ) matrix of inputs,  i    (  1  i K  ) matrix of parameters associated with i  X  ,  i   error terms and  i the th i observation. The error term i    is made up of two independent components, iii  uv     ……………………………… (2)  The error component i v  represents the symmetrical disturbance that captures random errors/erroneous data. The error component i u  is the asymmetrical term that captures the   AARJMD VOLUME 1 ISSUE 25 (SEPTEMBER 2014) ISSN : 2319 - 2801  Asian Academic Research Journal of Multidisciplinary www.asianacademicresearch.org 250   technical inefficiency of the observations and is assumed to be distributed independently of  i v . Hence, the production frontier may be as follows: )( iiiii  uv X Y         )exp()( iiiii  uv X  f Y       …………………… (3 ) Where, i v ~ N ),0(  2 v   and u is the truncated normal. The term u  is the one-sided error. 2.1 Production frontier estimation with inefficiency equation The i u s are non-negative random variables, associated with the technical inefficiency of production of the farmers in the production, assumed to be independently distributed such that the technical inefficiency effect for the th i  farmer, i u , is obtained by truncation (at zero) of the normal distribution with mean, 1    and variance, , 2   such that ninii  z zu         ... 110 ……………………….. (4)  Where, nii  z z  ... 1  are explanatory variables. The maximum likelihood estimates and inefficiency model, defined by equations (3) and (4) are simultaneously obtained by using the computer program FRONTIER Version 4.1 (Coelli, 1996) which estimates the variance parameters in terms of parameterization 222 uv            ……………………………………. (5)  and 22        u    ………………………………………. (6)      is the ratio of variance of farm specific technical efficiency to the total variance of output and has a value between zero and one. The technical efficiency of a farmer at a given period of time is defined as the ratio of the observed output of the frontier output which could be produced by a full-efficient farm, in which the inefficiency effect is zero. Given the specifications of the stochastic frontier models (Eqs. 3 and 4), the technical efficiency of th i  farmer, can be shown to be equal to )exp( i uTE     
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