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A Pilot Census of the Medical Sciences in Sanskrit (pre-publication draft).

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A Pilot Census of the Medical Sciences in Sanskrit (pre-publication draft).
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  A Pilot Census of the Medical Sciences inSanskrit Dominik WujastykPre-publication draft.Published as “A Pilot Census of the Medical Sciences in Sanskrit,”  Journal of the Institute of History of Medicine , 38 ( 2008 ): 111 – 56 . Introduction Between 1970 and 1994 , David Pingree published five volumes of hismonumental Census of the Exact Sciences in Sanskrit . 1 In the CESS (as hereferred to this work), Pingree organised and presented a vast amount of information on scholars of the Sanskrit astral sciences (  jyotis.a ) that hegathered from their own writings and from the writings of thousands of medieval manuscript scribes. For obvious reasons, Sanskrit authors on  jyotis.a were particularly conscious about dates and chronologies.Therefore astronomers, more than authors in other genres, oftenmentioned in their works the date of composition, or the reference date(the “epoch”) of the heavenly positions to which their calculationspertained. Authors sometimes mentioned the names of their teachers orfamily members, occasionally giving whole family trees. They sometimesmentioned the locations at which they lived or worked, characteristicallyexpressed as being in or near a particular temple, or on the bank of aparticular river. Furthermore, the scribes who later copied themanuscripts of these scientific compositions sometimes also recorded theplaces and dates of their own scribal activities. In a rough calculation based on some general Sanskrit manuscript collections I have worked on,I estimate that approximately 15 % of surviving manuscripts containscribal information on dates, names, or places. This may not sound ahigh proportion, but Sanskrit manuscripts exist in such prolificabundance, with estimates routinely reaching many millions, that theprosopographical information that reaches us through these sources isvery substantial, and allows for the widespread reconstruction of lineagesof families and scholars, and of the identification of networks of intellectual exchange. Using estimated figures, there may exist as manyas 100 , 000 ¯ayurvedic manuscripts containing scribal statements about 1 Pingree 1970 –[ 1994 ]. 1  ownership, chronology, and other historical information. 2 The CESS volumes published by Pingree were numbered A 1 –A 5 . In his“A” series, Pingree presented information on authors whose names wereknown, arranged alphabetically by name. Pingree planned to publish a“B” series that would give information on anonymous works, arrangedalphabetically by title. There would also be publications giving multipleindexes of dates, places, names, etc. The archival materials exist for thecontinuation of the late Prof. Pingree’s monumental work, but at the timeof writing it remains to be seen what arrangements will be made for thecontinuation and completion of Pingree’s project.The CESS has made possible what can justly be called a new wave of scholarship on the history of the exact sciences in India. With the CESS volumes at one’s elbow, it is possible to identify scholars, their dates andplaces of working, their writings and affiliations, and to continue to buildup a detailed picture of the vast scientific work that took place in India’spast.The Catalogus Catalogorum of Aufrecht and the New CatalogusCatalogorum of Raghavan and colleagues also give a large amount of invaluable information about Sanskrit and Prakrit works and theirauthors. 3 In the CC , Aufrecht gave an outstanding account of Sanskritmanuscripts, works, and authors as known up to 1903 , just thirty-fiveyears after the British Government in India had begun officially fundingthe collection of manuscripts and information about Sanskrit literature inthe three Presidencies in 1868 . 4 The CC recorded information aboutauthors and works, but not about scribes, and it did not give the dates of the manuscripts it noted. The NCC follows the same pattern, andalthough it provides a very large amount of new information, it is not yetcompletely published. Both these research works are essential andinvaluable. But by concentrating on a single ´ s¯ astra , and going into fargreater detail, including giving identifying extracts from most of theworks listed, Pingree’s CESS is a quantum leap forward for the study of the history of the exact sciences.It is obvious that a work like CESS would be of great benefit tohistorians of Indian medicine. In 1984 , I decided to see what it would feellike to compile such a work, and I began a pilot study for a Census of the Medical Sciences in Sanskrit (that I call MESS ) based mainly on thecatalogue by Sharma ( 1939 ) of the Vaidyaka manuscripts in the library of  2 This figure is based on a crude estimate of seven million surviving Sanskrit manu-scripts, one tenth of which may be ¯ayurvedic works, of which 15 % have historical colo-phons. 3 Aufrecht 1891 – 1903 (abbreviated CC ), Raghavan et al. 1949 – ( NCC ). 4 Government of India Order no. 4338 – 48 , Simla, 3 rd November 1868 . See Katre 1941 : 102 , n. 6 , Gough 1878 , Johnson 1980 , Janert 1962 -, Janert 1965 , Biswas and Prajapati 1998 . 2  the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute in Pune. I also added, in an adhoc manner, information based on manuscripts in the Wellcome Libraryin London, where I was at that time curator of Sanskrit manuscripts, andin one case from a manuscript in Jammu. 5 This pilot study for a MESS circulated amongst my colleagues in anunpublished form during the 1980 s.During the years from the mid 1970 s onwards, G. Jan Meulenbeldlaboured single-mindedly on a history of the medical literature of SouthAsia. This monumental work was finally published during 1999 – 2002 as  A History of Indian Medical Literature in five thick volumes. 6 In a mannersimilar to the great reference works referred to above, Meulenbeld’s  HIML has revolutionised the possibilities for understanding the history of medicine in South Asia. In HIML , Meulenbeld has provided acomprehensive survey of all known¯ayurvedic works (and other relatedmaterials) together with an account of the secondary literature, andsummaries of the contents of works, their important features, dates,authors, and related information.It was heartening to see that Prof. Meulenbeld made use of myunpublished pilot MESS . It appears in his bibliography as,Wujastyk, D. ( 1984 ) – A census of the medical sciences inSanskrit. Unpublished.and it was cited in many places through the HIML . This demonstratesthat a fairly limited amount of work along the lines of the MESS canproduce a disproportionately rich amount of foundational historicalinformation.The HIML is an unassailably substantial contribution to the history of the medical sciences in India. And yet, there remains more work that can be done, and more discoveries to be made. Meulenbeld based the HIML principally on the study of printed source materials. There is a very largeamount of printed¯ayurvedic literature, much more than one might atfirst guess. There is a common and understandable concentrationamongst contemporary physicians and scholars on classical works suchas the Carakasam.hita , the Su´ srutasam.hit¯ a , and V¯agbhat.a’s  As.t.¯ a˙ngahr.dayasam.hit¯ a , so it may come as a surprise to know that manythousands of different¯ayurvedic works have been published, especiallyduring the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century. Theseprinted works form the solid foundation for the HIML . What HIML doesnot set out to do, however, is to be the kind of survey of manuscriptsources that CESS provides. 7 Meulenbeld’s HIML leaves scope for 5 Stein 1894 , Wujastyk 1984 , 1985 , 1998 . 6 Meulenbeld 1999 – 2002 , abbreviated HIML . A review by the present author was pub-lished in 2004 . 7  HIML does list references to CC and NCC for unpublished medical works. 3  substantial new scholarship based on the kind of examination of manuscript catalogues, colophons, and post-colophons that was done inPingree’s CESS .In recent years, it has become clear to me that the kind of work thatPingree did for his CESS must today be done using database technology.The advantages of collecting the work in this way are too many and tooobvious to be listed here. I have continued to work towards a MESS as adatabase project, and preliminary results of this work have appeared onthe internet as part of the Philobiblon project. 8 The data from this projecthas also been contributed to the online database of the “SanskritKnowledge Systems on the Eve of Colonialism” project. 9 Compared with these new computer-based developments, my srcinalpilot study appears a modest effort, and mainly of historical interest as ademonstration of a valuable methodology. I am acutely aware of itslimitations, which include the fact that it does not even excerptcompletely all the information available in Sharma ( 1939 ). I have oftenthought of going back to the project in its srcinal form, but I have notfound the opportunity to do so. Nevertheless, in my own writing, I find Irefer back to it surprisingly often. Furthermore, it has assumed a morepublic and real status since being cited by Meulenbeld in his HIML . Itherefore feel that in spite of all its limitations, it is of value to place thiswork in the public domain, so that it may be of use to others, and may bereferred to in a scholarly manner. 10 Principle abbreviations used in the Pilot CensusPoona BORI (Vaidyaka) The Bhandarkar Oriental Research InstituteLibrary, Pune (Sharma 1939 ). London WL The Wellcome Library, London (Wujastyk 1985 , 1998 ).  Jammu Stein The Raghunatha Temple Library, Jammu (Stein 1894 ). 8 See  (October 2006 ). 9 The website for the project is  (October 2006 ),and it is planned to make the Bio-bibliographical database publicly accessible in the future.I am grateful to Dr Ram Manohar and his colleagues for assistance with data-entry. 10 I should like to thank Dr Pascal Haag for her assistance in preparing these materialsfor publication. 4  A Pilot Census of the Medical Sciences in Sanskrit AGNIVE´SA Author of the Agnive´ satantra , the basis of the Carakasam.hit¯ a .AGNIVE´SA Author of the A˜ njananid¯ ana = Nid¯ an¯ a˜ njana , on nid¯ana.Manuscripts:- Poona BORI (Vaidyaka). 6 . 17 ff. Copied at Pun.yagrama (=Pun.e) by Ga˙ng¯adharabhat .t.avaidya on Monday 10 kr.s.n.apaks.a of K¯arttika,´saka 1716 = AD 1794 , the year called¯Ananda.- Poona BORI (Vaidyaka). 4 . 106 ff. With Hind¯ı t.¯ık¯a. Copied atKot.¯anandagr¯ama, by Gujar¯at¯ı Gan .e´sal¯ala for Bhat .aj¯ı Jagul¯al¯aj¯ı, on Sunday 14 ´suklapaks.a of Ph¯alguna, sam. 1944 ,´saka 1809 =AD 1888 .- Poona BORI (Vaidyaka). 5 . 15 ff.- Poona BORI (Vaidyaka). 7 . 24 ff.AGRAV¯ALA KULAsee NIRA˜NJANAPRAS¯ADA GUPTAANANTA see DINAKARAANANTADEVA S¯URI Author of the Rasacint¯ aman.i = Rasendracint¯ aman.i awork on alchemy in eleven stavakas, which is quoted byT.od.aramalla (  fl . 1565 / 1589 ) in the ¯  Ayurvedasaukhya of his T .od.ar¯ ananda , (see NCC 1 . 168  b, 169  b) and in the Bh¯ avaprak¯ a´ sa ( 16 cent.) (Jolly 1977 . 4 ; this may, however, refer to R¯amacandra’s tratiseof this name).Manuscripts:- Poona BORI (Vaidyaka). 192 . 32 ff. Incomplete.- Poona BORI (Vaidyaka). 193 . 15 ff. Incomplete.Printed at:- Bombay in 1911 , with a Hind¯ı t.¯ık¯a (BL 14044 .c. 3 ; IO 21 .J. 28 );- Poona in 1925 , with a Mar¯at.h¯ı commentary (IO San.D. 556 ).The Rasacint¯ aman.i begins: jayaty amaravandit¯a tripurasundar¯ı devat¯avibhogavibhav¯anvit¯a paramatattvacint¯aman .ih./up¯adhirahit¯ahit¯a sakala´s¯astranirddh¯arit¯aprapa˜ncaparava˜ncit¯a tribhuvanaikam¯at¯a mat¯a //rasacint¯aman.ir n¯ama rasaratnakaran.d.akah.bhavaty es.ame granthah.´sr¯ımato hastapustakah.//ANNAP¯ALA see R¯AMAR¯AJA 5
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