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A Plantation is a Large Artificially Established Forest

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A plantation is a large artificially established forest, farm or estate, where crops are grown for sale, often in distant markets rather than for local on-site consumption. The term plantation is o and not precisely defined. Crops grown on plantations include fast-growing trees (often conifers), cotton, coffee, tobacco, sugar cane, sisal, some oil seeds (notably oil palms) and rubber trees. Farms that produce alfalfa, Lespedeza, clover, and other forage crops are usually not called plantations.
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  A plantation is a large artificially establishedforest,farmor estate, wherecropsare grown for  sale, often in distantmarketsrather than for local on-siteconsumption. The term  plantation is oand not precisely defined.Crops grown on plantations include fast-growingtrees(oftenconifers   ),cotton,coffee,tobacco, sugar cane,sisal, someoil seeds(notablyoil palms   ) andrubber trees. Farms that producealfalfa, Lespedeza,clover , and other foragecrops are usually not called plantations. The term plantation has usually not included largeorchards(except for  banana plantations   ), but doesinclude the planting of trees for lumber . A plantation is always amonocultureover a large area and does not include extensive naturally occurring stands of plants that haveeconomic value.Because of its large size, a plantation takes advantage of economies of scale.Protectionist   policies and naturalcomparative advantagehave contributed to determining where plantationshave been located.Among the earliest examples of plantations were thelatifundiaof theRoman Empire, which  produced large quantities of wineandolive oilfor export. Plantationagriculturegrew rapidly with the increase ininternational tradeand the development of aworldwide economythat followed the expansion of European colonial empires. Like everyeconomic activity, it has changed over time. Earlier forms of plantation agriculture were associated with large disparitiesof wealthandincome, foreign ownership and political influence, and exploitative social systems such asindentured labor andslavery. The history of the environmental, social and economic issues relating to plantation agriculture are covered in articles that focus on those subjects. C ontents [ hide] y   1 Forestry  o   1 . 1 Industrial plantations     1 . 1 . 1 Growth cycle     1 . 1 .2 Criticism of industrial plantations  o   1 .2 Farm or home plantations  o   1 .3 Environmental plantations  o   1 .4 Ecological impact  o   1 .5 Plantations and natural forest loss  y   2 Other types of plantation  o   2. 1 High value food crops  o   2.2 Sugar   o   2.3 Rubber   o   2.4 Orchards  o   2.5 Arable crops  o   2.6 Fishing plantations in Newfoundland and Labrador   y   3 Slavery, para-slavery and plantations  o   3. 1 Related matters  o   3.2 Definition of planter with regard to slavery  y   4 See also   y   5 References  y   6 External links  [ edit] Forestry [ edit] Industrial plantations A plantation of Douglas-fir inWashington,U.S.  Industrial plantations are established to produce a high volume of wood in a short period of time.Plantations are grown by state forestry authorities (for example, theForestry CommissioninBritain) and/or the paper and wood industries and other private landowners (such asWeyerhaeuser andInternational Paper in theUnited States, Asia Pulp & Paper (APP) in Indonesia).Christmas treesare often grown on plantations as well. In southern and southeasternAsia,rubber ,oil palm, and more recentlyteak plantations have replaced the natural forest. Industrial plantations are actively managed for the commercial production of forest products.Industrial plantations are usually large-scale. Individual blocks are usually even-aged and oftenconsist of just one or two species. These species can be exotic or indigenous. The plants used for the plantation are often genetically improved for desired traits such as growth and resistance to pests and diseases in general and specific traits, for example in the case of timber species,volumic wood production and stem straightness.Forest genetic resourcesare the basis for genetic improvement. Selected individuals grown inseed orchardsare a good source for seeds todevelop adequate planting material.Wood production on a tree plantation is generally higher than that of natural forests. Whileforests managed for wood production commonly yield between 1 and 3 cubic meters per hectare per year, plantations of fast-growing species commonly yield between 20 and 30 cubic meters or more per hectare annually; aGrand Fir plantation at Craigvinean inScotlandhas a growth rate of  34 cubic meters per hectare per year (Aldhous & Low 197 4), andMonterey Pineplantations insouthernAustraliacan yield up to 40 cubic meters per hectare per year (Everard & Fourt 197 4).In 2000, while plantations accounted for 5% of global forest, it is estimated that they suppliedabout 35% of the world's roundwood [1 ]. [ edit] Growth cycle  y   In the first year, the ground is prepared usually by the combination of burning, herbicidespraying, and/or cultivationand then saplings are planted by human crew or by machine.The saplings are usually obtained in bulk from industrial nurseries, which may specializein selective breeding in order to produce fast growing disease- and pest-resistant strains. y   In the first few years until the canopy closes, the saplings are looked after, and may bedusted or sprayed with fertilizers or pesticides until established. y   After the canopy closes, with the tree crowns touching each other, the plantation is becoming dense and crowded, and tree growth is slowing due to competition. This stageis termed 'pole stage'. When competition becomes too intense (for  pinetrees, when thelive crownis less than a third of the tree's total height), it is time to thin out the section.There are several methods for thinning, but wheretopographypermits, the most popular  is 'row-thinning', where every third or fourth or fifth row of trees is removed, usually withaharvester . Many trees areremoved, leaving regular clear lanes through the section so that the remaining trees have room to expand again. The removed trees aredelimbed,forwarded to the forest road, loaded onto trucks, and sent to a mill. A typical pole stage plantation tree is 7±  30 cm indiameter at breast height(dbh). Such trees are sometimesnot suitable for timber , but are used as pulp for paper and particleboard, and as chips for  oriented strand board. y   As the trees grow and become dense and crowded again, the thinning process is repeated.Depending on growth rate and species, trees at this age may be large enough for timber milling; if not, they are again used as pulp and chips. y   Around year  1 0-60 the plantation is now mature and (in economic terms) is falling off the back side of its growth curve. That is to say, it is passing the point of maximum woodgrowth per hectare per year, and so is ready for the final harvest. All remaining trees arefelled, delimbed, and taken to be processed. y   The ground is cleared, and the cycle is repeated.Some plantation trees, such as pines and eucalyptus, can be at high risk of fire damage becausetheir leaf oils and resins are flammable to the point of a tree being explosive under someconditions. Conversely, an afflicted plantation can in some cases be cleared of pest speciescheaply through the use of a prescribed burn, which kills all lesser plants but does notsignificantly harm the mature trees. [ edit] C riticism of industrial plantations   Bushfirespose a high risk toEucalyptusplantations. In contrast to a naturally regenerated forest, plantations are typically grown as even-agedmonocultures, primarily for timber production. y   Plantations are usually near- or total monocultures. That is, the same species of tree is planted across a given area, whereas a natural forest would contain a far more diverserange of tree species. y   Plantations may include tree species that would not naturally occur in the area. They mayinclude unconventional types such ashybrids, andgenetically modifiedtrees may be used sometime in the future [ c itation needed  ] . Since the primary interest in plantations is to producewoodor  pulp, the types of trees found in plantations are those that are best-suited to industrial applications. For example, pine,spruceandeucalyptusare widely planted far   beyond their natural range because of their fast growth rate, tolerance of rich or degradedagricultural land and potential to produce large volumes of raw material for industrialuse. y   Plantations are always young forests in ecological terms. Typically, trees grown in plantations are harvested after  1 0 to 60 years, rarely up to 1 20 years. This means that theforests produced by plantations do not contain the type of growth, soil or wildlife typicalof old-growth natural forest ecosystems. Most conspicuous is the absence of decaying dead wood, a crucial component of natural forest ecosystems.In the 197 0s,Brazilbegan to establish high-yield, intensively managed, short rotation plantations. These types of plantations are sometimes called fast-wood plantations or fiber farmsand often managed on a short-rotation basis, as little as 5 to 1 5 years. They are becoming morewidespread in South America, Asia and other areas. The environmental and social impacts of thistype of plantation has caused them to become controversial. InIndonesia, for example, largemulti-national pulp companies have harvested large areas of natural forest without regard for 

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Oct 13, 2017
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