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A Review on Antihelmintic Potential of Siddha Herbal Formulation Pirandai Kudineer

Helminthes are infectious agents that cause chronic and debilitating diseases that are responsible for morbidity and greater economic and social deprivation among humans. Intestinal worms consume nutrients from their host and may result in weakness,
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   IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS) e-ISSN: 2279-0853, p-ISSN: 2279-0861.Volume 17, Issue 7 Ver. 16 (July. 2018), PP 18-22   DOI: 10.9790/0853-1707161822 18 | Page A Review on Antihelmintic Potential of Siddha Herbal Formulation  Pirandai Kudineer   R. Savitha* 1 1 ( Sri Dhanvanthiri Siddha And Varma Hospital, Kunjapalayam, Idapadi Taluk, Salem District  ) Corresponding Author:    R. Savitha*1    Abstract:  Helminthes are infectious agents that cause chronic and debilitating diseases that are responsible for morbidity and greater economic and social deprivation among humans. Intestinal worms consume nutrients  from their host and may result in weakness, loss of appetite, reduced weight gain and decreased productivity resulting in growth retardation. In this review we compiled available literatures from libraries, scientific  journals and online database queries on plants and remedies used in traditional medicinal systems for such diseases. Since age old times, herbs have been widely used, either as a single drug or as compound herbal  formulation. The Siddha system of medicine has an enormous collection of herbal formulation for the management of Worm infestation. Pirandai Kudineer is one such valuable source of unique natural herbs indicated in Siddha text Gunapaadam mooligai vaguppu (Siddha material medica-Herbal division). In this review the ingredients of Pirandai kudineer Pirandai (Cissus quadrangularis), Perilanthai (Ziziphus mauritiana), Veppa eerkku (Stem of Azadirachta indica), Murukkan vithai (Seeds of Butea monosperma) and Omam (Tachyspermum ammi) has been analyzed scientifically in the light of recent publications to justify the traditional claims.  Keywords -    Antihelmintic action, Worm infestation, Siddha , Herbal medicine, Traditional medicine . --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Date of Submission: 15-07-2018 Date of acceptance: 30-07-2018 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  I.   Introduction Helminthic infection affect a large number of global population and it is mainly restricted in the tropical regions of the world due to unhygienic lifestyle and poverty. The control of Gastrointestinal nematodes is mainly based on the use of synthetic anthelmintics[1]. But there is an emerging burden of development of resistance in helminths to various anthelmintic compounds that has worsen the condition[2] . For these assorted reasons, the screening of medicinal plants for their anthelmintic activity remains of great scientific interest[3,4]. Since primordial times nature has been an intrusive source of medicinal agents and several traditional medicines have been extracted and formulated from natural source. In recent times, research focus on the natural source has been increased due to its minimum side effects. India is a herbal hub with an ancient heritage of traditional medicine. It consists of more than 6,000 plant species that are used as medicines [5]. Around 80% of population totally depends on traditional medicinal system in the developing countries. Medicinal plants play a chief role in the management of various diseases[6]. Pirandai kudineer is a Siddha herbal for,mulation that has been indicated in Sidha literature Gunapadam mooligai vaguppu (Siddha materia medica-Herbal division) for the treatment of worm infestation. This review article deals with the critical analysis of various ingredients of Pirandai kudineer for its effectiveness against parasitic infection. II.   Materials And Methods Preparation Of Pirandai Kudineer   The ingredients of Pirandai kudineer   consist of Pirandai  ( Cissus quadrangularis), Perilanthai (Ziziphus mauritiana), Veppa eerkku ( Stem of   Azadirachta indica),    Murukkan   vithai  (Seeds of Butea monosperma) and Omam  (Tachyspermum ammi) all of which are to be taken in equal quantity and ground coarsely. The mixture is to be boiled with 3 parts of water until it reduces to one part and to be filtered and consumed. This preparation has been indicated in the Siddha literature Gunapaadam - Mooligai vaguppu (Siddha material medica herbal division) for the treatment of flatulence and intestinal worms [7].   A Review On Antihelmintic Potential Of Siddha Herbal Formulation Pirandai Kudineer DOI: 10.9790/0853-1707161822 19 | Page III.   Scientific Evaluation Of Ingredients Of Pirandai Kudineer 1.  Cissus quadrangularis Cissus quadrangularis belonging to the family Vitaceae is commonly used as a folk medicine in India for promoting the fracture healing process. It is also locally known as “Hadjod” in Hindi or bone setter due to its bone fracture healing potential [8]. Various phytochemicals such as high contents of ascorbic acid, carotene, anabolic steroidal substances, and calcium have been reported to be present in Cissus quadrangularis. The stem of Cissus contains two asymmetric tetracyclic triterpenoids, and two steroidal principles along with β -sitosterol, δ - amyrin, δ -amyrone, and flavanoids (quercetin)[9,10]. Among these phytochemicals, analysis of the crude extract revealed the presence of tannins among other chemical constituents contained within them. Tannins were shown to produce anthelmintic activities [11]. Mohanambal et al., evaluated the alcoholic and aqueous plant extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn root to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity on earthworm Pheretima posthuma (Annelida). For the above reason Cissus quadrangularis Linn root was prepared and the in vitro anthelmintic activity was evaluated. The results showed that the alcoholic and aqueous extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn root exhibited anthelmintic activity in dose dependent manner giving shortest time of paralysis (P) at 100(ml) and death (D) with 200 mg/ml concentration. 100 mg/ml Cissus quadrangularis Linn root, caused paralysis and death at 17.00 and 30.67 minutes respectively while, 200 mg/ml, caused paralysis and death at 8.33 and 18.50 minutes respectively against earthworm Pheretima posthuma. The reference drug piperazine citrate showed the same at 19.26 and 63.25 minutes, respectively. This study has proved that Cissus quadrangularis Linn root not only demonstrated paralysis, but also caused death of worms at both the dose levels tested, in shorter time as compared to reference drug Piperazine citrate[12,13]. Additionally it can also be confirmed that the tannins can bind to free proteins in the gastro intestinal tract of host animal and cause antihelminthetic effect. Tannins can also bind to glycoprotein on the cuticle of the parasite and may cause death. Therefore previous studies suggest that presence of tannins in the plant extract may be the reason for paralysis and death in the earthworm Pheretima posthuma [14]. 2. Ziziphus mauritiana  Ziziphus mauritiana is most commonly found in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the globe and cultivated throughout the greater part of India. . It is well known as jujube and it is an evergreen tree of various size[15,16]. Phytochemical analysis of  Ziziphus mauritiana plant contains flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, saponins, resins, polyphenols, mucilage and vitamins. The fruits are good source of vitamin C, sugars and contain various minerals. The pulp contains moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrates, calcium, phosphorous, iron, carotene, thiamine, riboflavin and fluoride [17]. The Fruits also contain tannins, flavonoids, saponins, mucilage, reducing suger, ascorbic, tartaric acid and citric acid.  Ziziphus species has revealed the presence of polysaccharides, pectin composed of Dgalacturonic acid, L-rhamnose, D-galacturonic acid as   A Review On Antihelmintic Potential Of Siddha Herbal Formulation Pirandai Kudineer DOI: 10.9790/0853-1707161822 20 | Page methyl ester and O-acetyl groups, cyclopeptides, peptide alkaloids, flavonoids, dodecaacetylprodelphinidin B3, Ziziphine N, O, P and Q, saponins and fatty acids[18-20]. Khan A.M  ,   2011, investigated the invitro ovicidal effects aqueous and methanolic extract of Ziziphus mauritiana using egg hatch test on nematode ova. The results revealed that  Ziziphus mauritiana  showed anthemintic activity and the lethal concentration value of aqueous and methanolic extract recorded as 0.1773 and 0.6778. The results also revealed that aqueous extract shows stronger anthelmintic activity than that of methanolic extract. And this is the first scientific evidence that says about its anthelmintic property[21]. 3. Azadirachta indica Azadirachta indica, commonly known as Neem tree is a tropical evergreen tree with a wide adaptability. The phytocompounds present in Neem tree have been divided into isoprenoids such as diterpenoids and triterpenoids, limonoids, azadirone, gedunin, vilasinin type of compounds and Csecomeliacins such as nimbin, salanin and azadirachtin and non-isoprenoids, which are aminoacids, polysaccharides, sulphurous compounds, flavonoids and their glycosides, coumarins, tannins and aliphatic compounds. Aqueous extract of Neem exhibited anthelmintic activity in dose-dependent manner and exhibited more potent activity at lowest concentration (10 mg/ml) against (roundworm). The anthelmintic activity of Neem extract was compared with the standard drug Piperazine citrate[22]. The antihelminthic property of neem probably was probably due to the presence of an active alkaloid,  Azadirachtin , which interferes with the central nervous system parasite via inhibition of excitatory cholinergic transmission and partly blocks the calcium channel resulting in expulsion parasites from host body[23]. Qiao J et al., studied that  Azadirachtin  modulates the cholinergic miniature synaptic current in the central nervous system of Drosophila by blocking the calcium channel. Radhakrishnan et al., performed a study on the efficacy Neem leaves as an anthelmintic source by infecting with 5000 larvae of  Haemonchus contortus  (L3) on animals fed with or without Neem leaves. The study inferred that feeding Neem leaves reduced the Egg per Gram (EPG) count from 42nd day and worm count was also significantly reduced compared to infected groups fed with complete diet that did not contain Neem leaves[24,25]. 4. Butea monosperma  Butea monosperma (Lam.) is commonly known as Flame of forest, belongs to the family Fabaceae [26]. The flowers are widely used in treatment of hepatic disorders, viral hepatitis, diarrhea, depurative and tonic [27]. The flowers are also good source of flavonoids. The contents of flowers are Butein, Butrin, Isobutrin, Plastron, coreipsin, and Isocoreipsin[28]This plant species has been found to display a wide variety of biological activities. The plant is traditionally reported to possess astringent, bitter, alterative, aphrodiasiac, anthelmintic, antibacterial and anti-asthamatic properties[29]. Kaleysa raj et al., evaluated the anthelmintic activity of the lactone, palasonin, isolated from the ethanolic extract of Butea frondosa[Butea monosperma] seeds, and its piperazine salt. Kymographic studies with normally expelled human Ascaris indicated that palasonin was   A Review On Antihelmintic Potential Of Siddha Herbal Formulation Pirandai Kudineer DOI: 10.9790/0853-1707161822 21 | Page more effective against Ascaris lumbricoides than piperazine or santonin and the effects of the piperazine salt were found to be similar to, but less pronounced than those produced by palasonin alone[30]. In another study by Ghayur et al., crude powder of Butea monosperma seeds was administered as at doses of 1, 2 and 3 g/kg to naturally infected sheep with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. The study results found out that Butea monosperma seeds exhibited a dose and a time-dependent anthelmintic effect.The anthelmintic effect of Butea monosperma seeds was 78.4% in eggs per gram of feces (EPG) on day 10 after treatment with 3 g/kg. Levamisole (7.5 mg/kg), a standard anthelmintic agent exhibited 99.1% antihelminthetic effect[31]. Ethanolic extract of stem bark of Butea monosperma(Lam) Kuntz at 400 mg/kg and 800mg/kg inhibited castor oil induced diarrhoea due to inhibiting gastrointestinal motility and PGE2 induced enteropooling and it also reduced gastrointestinal motility after charcoal meal administration in Wistar albino rats Butea monosperma gum has also been found useful in cases of chronic diarrhea[32]. The anthelmintic activity of different species of Butea has been reported against ascaridia galli, ascaris lumbricoides, earthworms, toxocara canis, oxyurids, dipylidium caninum and taenia[33]. 5. Tachyspermum ammi Trachyspermum ammi is a member of the Apiaceae family and it is commo nly known as „Ajwain‟ in India. It is distributed throughout India and is mostly cultivated in Gujarat and Rajasthan. Studies reveal the presence of various phytochemical constituents mainly carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, phenolic compounds, volatile oil such as thymol, terpinene, para-cymene and and pinene, protein, fat, fiber and mineral matter containing calcium, phosphorous, iron and nicotinic acid. Various pharmacological studies have proven to possess various pharmacological activities like antifungal, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antinociceptive, cytotoxic, hypolipidemic, antihypertensive, antispasmodic, broncho-dilating actions, antilithiasis, diuretic, abortifacient, antitussive, nematicidal, anthelmintic and antifilarial [34]. The main component of this oil is thymol, which is used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal ailments, lack of appetite and bronchial problems[35]. Anthelmintic activity of T. ammi was evaluated by Jabbar.A et al., against Ascaris lumbricoides in humans and Haemonchus contortus in sheep. T. ammi showed anthelmintic activity by interfering with the energy metabolism of parasites through potentiation of ATPase activity and thus loss of energy reserves. Also the plant has been reported to aid in the expulsion of intestinal parasites through its cholinergic activity with peristaltic movements of the gut, thus itacts as a contributory factor to its anthelmintic activity[35].   Methanolic extract of the fruits of Trachyspermum ammi was evaluated for In vitro  anthelmintic activity against Setaria digitata  worms. Both crude extract and the active fraction showed significant activity against the adult S. digitata  by both a worm motility and MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assays. Also the isolated active principle phenolic monoterpene screened for in vivo  antifilarial activity against the human filarial worm  B. malayi  in  Mastomys coucha  showed significant macrofilaricidal activity[35]. IV.   Conclusion At the present time, despite the existence of chemical anthelmintics the control of GI worm infections of humans is not totally adequate and effective due to the inevitability of the development of resistance to the current chemical anthelmintics. Hence it is vital that the herbal antihelminthics are tested to modern pharmaceutical standards to assess their potential benefits. The present review on traditional Siddha formulation Pirandai kudineer   has highlighted the antihelminthetic action of its ingredients thus confirming antihelminthetic action as claimed in the traditional Siddha literature. References [1].   Waller PJ, .Anthelmintic resistance and future for roundworm control. Vet Parasitol  15, 1987, 177  –  191. [2].   Waller PJ, Prichard RK , Drug resistance in nematodes. In:Campbell WC, Rcw RS (eds) Chemotherapy of parasitic infections. 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