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A Room of Their Own: The Contribution of Women to the Panama-California Exposition, 1915

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A Room of Their Own: The Contribution of Women to the Panama-California Exposition, 1915
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  253 ! #$$% $& '()*+ ,-./ '() 0$.1+*231*$. $& 4$%). 1$ 1() 56.6%67068*&$+.*6 9:;$<*1*$.= >?>@ AB C$88B CD086*. !"#$% '() "#*) +#+,-.* .*/(0')/',*.- 1).',*)2 0$ 3.-4#. 5.*6 .*) '() 2'.',)27 #* /.*8.'0927 #1 4.*):4*).2')9 ;#")$ ;(# 2'*.0$ '# (#-9 ,+ '() ).<)2 #1 '() =.2. 9) 3.-4#.7 '() *)/#$2'*,/')9 <)*20#$ #1 '() =#"")*/) .$9 >$9,2'*0)2 Building that was built for San Diego’s rst world fair, the Panama-California ?@+#20'0#$ ABCBDEF B  G0'( '()0* +)$9,-#,2 4*).2'2 .$9 2.%%0$% 4)--0)27 '() 2'.',)2 +*#<09) .$ )8): /.'/(0$% )@."+-) #1 '() 60$9 #1 H+.$02( 3.*#I,) )"4)--02(")$'2 '(.' ;)*) ",/( .9"0*)9 .' '() '0")F 5)*(.+2 -)22 #1')$ $#'0/)9 ;)*) '() 2(.*+ )-4#;2 #$ '()2) "#9)*$ /.*8.'092J )-4#;2 ;#,-9  4) $))9)9 01 *)+*)2)$'.'0#$ #1 ;#")$ .' '() ?@+#20'0#$ ;.2 '# 4) "#*) '(.$ 28"4#-0/F >$ BCBK7 . H.$ L0)%# M$0#$ N#,*$.-02' 9)2/*04)9 '()" .2 “heroic nudes” who typied “the woman of toil, . +.'0)$'7 +#;)*1,- "#'()* #1 ")$7 . ();)* #1 ;##9 .$9 . 9*.;)* #1 ;.')*FO P   H.$ L0)%# ;#")$ 6$); .-- .4#,' ;#*67 +.'0)$/)7 .$9 '#0-7 (.<0$% )@+)$9)9 $,")*#,2 (#,*2 #$ <#-,$'))* +*#N)/'2 '(*#,%(#,' '() /0'8F C$88B CD086*.  02 . +*#1)22#* 0$ '() 9)+.*'")$' #1 (02'#*8 .' '() M$0<)*20'8 #1 H.$ L0)%# .$9 /#:)90'#* #1 !"# %&'()*+ &, -*) ./#0& 1/23&(4 F H() 02 '() .,'(#* #1 '(*)) 4##62 .$9 $,")*#,2 (02'#*0/.- .*'0/-)2F Q)* 1#*'(/#"0$% 40#%*.+(8 1#/,2)2 #$ '() -01) #1 +(0-.$'(*#+02' ?--)$ 3*#;$0$% H/*0++2F 5&&, 6/0'(#7 89 :;:<9 =(/0/)*+ 8*(4*3/> (#?+/8*3#> ,&( >/2?+*4 &) 3&>*4@2 A*2* ># B*+C&*9 D-.1A EFG;H<9  254 The Journal of San Diego History  >' /.") .2 2#")'(0$% #1 . 2(#/67 '()$7 '(.' '() 90*)/'#*2 #1 '() 5.$.".:=.-01#*$0. ?@+#20'0#$ =#"+.$8 1.0-)9 '# ./6$#;-)9%) ;#")$R2 +#')$'0.- 1#* 2)*<0/)7 ",/( -)22 .--#/.') '()" +(820/.- 2+./) 0$ '() 4,0-90$%2 ,$9)* /#$2'*,/'0#$ 0$ '() +.*6F >$ BCBK7 .1')* ;(.' '() -#/.- $);2+.+)* 9)2/*04)9 .2 .$ S?@+#20'0#$ T).+#' T)"+)2'7O ;#")$ 2)/,*)9 '() *0%(' 4#'( '# *)+*)2)$'.'0#$ .$9 . -#/.- ().9I,.*')*27 '(#,%( $#' '()0* #;$ G#".$R2 3,0-90$%F U  V<)* '() /#,*2) #1 '() $)@' ';# 8).*27 /#,$'8 ;#")$ <#-,$'))*)9 '# %*))' <020'#*27 *,$ '). *##"27 .$9 +*#<09) 2.1) 2+./)2 1#* women traveling alone. The Ocial Woman’s Board, meanwhile, made a special eort to showcase San Diego’s progressive values and appreciation for modern art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  To that end, women played important roles at the great world fairs that ourished 0$ '() M$0')9 H'.')2 4)';))$ BYZ[ .$9 BCBDF ?<)*8 !")*0/.$ 1.0* (.9 . ;#".$R2  building or space set aside for female exhibitors. The rst Women’s Pavilion was  4,0-' .' 5(0-.9)-+(0. ABYZ[E '# (#2' )@(040'0#$2 #1 ;#")$R2 .*'7 ;#*67 .$9 0$9,2'*8F =(0/.%#R2 BYCU =#-,"40.$ ?@+#20'0#$ (.9 . 3#.*9 #1 \.98 ].$.%)*27 /*).')9 48 .$ ./' #1 =#$%*)227 ;(#2) ./'0<0'0)2 ;)*) 1,$9)9 48 '() 1)9)*.- %#<)*$")$' .$9 '() )@+#20'0#$ 4#.*9F !$ .++*#+*0.'0#$ #1 ^P__7___ ;.2 ".9) 1#* . ;#")$R2 4,0-90$%7 9)20%$)9 48 ]>T %*.9,.') H#+(0. Q.89)$7 #$) #1 '() 1); 1)".-) .*/(0')/'2 0$ nineteenth-century America. Subsequent fairs in Atlanta (1895), Bualo (1901), and H'F \#,02 ABC_KE .-2# .--#'')9 2+./) '# ;#")$R2 )@(040'2 .$9 ./'0<0'0)2F [  >$ H'F \#,027 women “for the rst time stood with equality,” serving on the juries of awards and ./'0$% .2 /#$/)220#$.0*)2 .$9 /#$'*./'#*2F Z   H).''-) ;#")$7 ").$;(0-)7 *.--0)9 '# )2'.4-02( . G#".$R2 3,0-90$% .' '() Alaska-Yukon-Pacic Exposition in 1909. The building included reception spaces, 902+-.827 *)2' *##"2 ;0'( /#,/()27 .$9 . -.*%) $,*2)*8F >' .-2# (#2')9 "))'0$%2 #1 '() G.2(0$%'#$ H'.') W)9)*.'0#$ #1 G#")$R2 =-,42 .$9 '() `.'0#$.- =#,$/0- of Women. The National American Woman Surage Association held its 41 2'  255 !"# A&)3(/C'3/&) &, I&J#) 3& 3"# :;:< KL?&2/3/&) !$$,.- =#$<)$'0#$ .' '() H).''-) )@+#20'0#$7 .''*./'0$% . S;(#R2 ;(#O #1 !")*0/.$ 1)"0$02'2F Y  L*F =(.*-#'') 3.6)*7 . ;)--:6$#;$ H.$ L0)%# 9#/'#*7 ;.2 #$) #1 $).*-8 P7___ ;#")$ ;(# .'')$9)9 '() /#$<)$'0#$ .$9 +.*'0/0+.')9 0$ '() SG#")$R2 Surage Day” at the Seattle exposition. She heard a speech by the organization’s +*)209)$'7 '() a)<)*)$9 !$$. Q#;.*9 H(.;7 .$9 ".9) .**.$%)")$'2 1#* 2#/0.- *)1#*")* W-#*)$/) b)--)8 '# /#") '# H.$ L0)%# -.')* '(.' 8).*F C   Women had almost no hand in planning San Francisco’s Panama-Pacic >$')*$.'0#$.- ?@+#20'0#$ ABCBDE 4)/.,2) '() )<)$' (.9 1#*1)0')9 =#$%*)220#$.- 1,$90$% 0$ *)',*$ 1#* '() '0'-) S>$')*$.'0#$.-FO T() ./' #1 =#$%*)22 '(.' 9)20%$.')9 =(0/.%# .2 '() 20') #1 '() BYCU G#*-9R2 W.0*7 .++*#<)9 !+*0- PD7 BYC_7 (.9 0$/-,9)9 '() +*#<020#$ '(.' . 3#.*9 #1 \.98 ].$.%)*2 4) .++#0$')9 48 . `.'0#$.- 3#.*9 #1 G#")$ =#""0220#$)*27 ';# 1*#" )./( 2'.') .$9 ')**0'#*8F B_  3)*'(. QF 5.-")* 2,"")9 ,+ '() 0"+#*'.$/) #1 1)9)*.- *)/#%$0'0#$7 S?<)$ "#*) 0"+#*'.$' '(.$ '() 902/#<)*8 #1 =#-,"4,27 ;(0/( ;) .*) %.'()*)9 '#%)'()* '# /)-)4*.')7 02 '() 1./' '(.' '() c)$)*.- c#<)*$")$' (.2 N,2' 902/#<)*)9 ;#")$FO BB  T() H.$ W*.$/02/# exposition was nanced chiey by the State of California, bond issues, and stock sales to residents still recovering from the 1906 earthquake and re. BP  W*.$6 ]#*'#$ Todd, the ocial historian of the fair, explained, “The boards of lady managers of #'()* )@+#20'0#$2 (.<) 4))$ .++#0$')9 1*#" )<)*8 +.*' #1 '() M)/&)  4)/.,2) '() expositions have received the nancial aid of the whole country. There was no #4-0%.'0#$ #$ '() +.*' #1 '(02 ?@+#20'0#$ '# ".6) #* .//)+' 2,/( .++#0$'")$'2FO BU   The Woman’s Building at the Alaska-Yukon-Pacic Exposition, 1909, now Cunningham Hall at the M)/N#(2/34 &, I*2"/)03&)7 -#*33+#9 A&'(3#24 &, 3"# M)/N#(2/34 &, I*2"/)03&)7 -#*33+#9  256 The Journal of San Diego History  H.$ W*.$/02/# ;#")$7 (#;)<)*7 909 $#' -)' '(02 *)2'F >$ BCBB7 H.$ W*.$/02/# /-,4;#")$ +*)22,*)9 exhibition organizers to acknowledge an ocial G#".$R2 3#.*9F G#")$ 0$/-,90$% 5(#)4) !++)*2#$ Q).*2' .$9 Q)-)$ H.$4#*$ .*%,)9 '(.' '() )@+#20'0#$  4#.*9 $))9)9 ;#")$ '# (#2' *)/)+'0#$27 +*#<09) )$')*'.0$")$' 1#* 0$')*$.'0#$.- <020'#*27 .$9 9).- with the anticipated inux of immigrants traveling '(*#,%( '() 5.$.". =.$.-F T()8 +-.$$)9 '# 0$<#-<) ;#")$ 1*#" H.$ W*.$/02/# .$9 .9N./)$' /#,$'0)2 ;(# ;)*) .//,2'#")9 '# /0<0/ .$9 +(0-.$'(*#+0/ *)2+#$2040-0'0)2F T() 90*)/'#*2 10$.--8 .%*))97 ".60$% '() G#".$R2 3#.*9 . 2,4/#""0'')) #1 '() ?@+#20'0#$ 90*)/'#*.')7 ,$9)* '() .,'(#*0'8 #1 .$ .--:".-) S/#""0'')) #$ ;#".$R2 +.*'0/0+.'0#$FO BK T.26)9 ;0'( 1,*$02(0$% .$9 ".0$'.0$0$% '() =.-01#*$0. Q#2' 3,0-90$%7 '() 4#.*9 4)%.$ '# *.02) "#$)8 48 #*%.$0X0$% . 2'.');09) =.-01#*$0. G#".$R2 !,@0-0.*8F d#-,$'))*2 +)*2,.9)9 '()0* $)0%(4#*2 '# 4,8 . ")"4)*2(0+ 2,42/*0+'0#$ 1#* ^P7 . 2".-- ."#,$' '(.' )$.4-)9 ;#")$ 1*#" '(*#,%(#,' '() 2'.') S'# 9# 2#")'(0$% 1#* '() ;)-1.*) #1 '() ?@+#20'0#$FO T()8 .-2# 2#-9 +0$2 .$9 /#--)/')9 9#$.'0#$2 1#* . 50#$))* ]#'()* ]#$,")$'F !//#*90$% '# !$$. 5*.'' H0"+2#$7 .,'(#* #1 O(&C+#J2 I&J#) -&+N#>7  '() 4#.*9 S2'.*')9 ;0'(#,' . 9#--.*O .$9 S$)<)* *)/)0<)9 .$8'(0$% .60$ '# . 2,42098 #* . gift from ocial sources.” Clever management and good fundraising enabled '()" '# *,$ . *)2'.,*.$' .$9 '). *##"7 (#2' *)/)+'0#$2 1#* <020'0$% 90%$0'.*0)27 .$9 +-.$ )9,/.'0#$.- +*#%*."2F BD T() =.-01#*$0. G#".$R2 !,@0-0.*8 0$/-,9)9 2#") #1 '() "#2' +*#"0$)$' ;#")$ 0$ H.$ L0)%#7 ."#$% '()" \890. Q#*'#$7 ?--)$ 3*#;$0$% H/*0++27 .$9 !$$. ].*2'#$F Q#*'#$ ;.2 ".9) .$ Q#$#*.*8 d0/):5*)209)$' ;(0-) H/*0++2 .$9 ].*2'#$ ;)*) (#$#*.*8 ")"4)*2F ?-0X. ]/b)) 2)*<)9 .2 '() +*)209)$' #1 '() H#,'()*$ =.-01#*$0. G#")$R2 !,@0-0.*8 ;(0-) ].*8 a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uxiliary of the Panama-Pacic Q)3#()*3/&)*+ KL?&2/3/&)7 89 :;:<9 D-.1A E=O :RS::9  257 !"# A&)3(/C'3/&) &, I&J#) 3& 3"# :;:< KL?&2/3/&) \.98 ].$.%)*2F T()8 2.; '() 1.0* .2 . /#"")*/0.- <)$',*) .$9 ;.$')9 '# +)*"0' '() 2.-) #1 .-/#(#- ;0'(#,' #++#20'0#$ 1*#" '() G#")$R2 =(*02'0.$ T)"+)*.$/) M$0#$ AG=TMEF BZ  They also wanted to avoid unnecessary conict. As one female +.*'0/0+.$' -.')* N#6)97 '() ")$ 0".%0$)9 . ;#")$R2 4#.*9 .2 S. +#-0') 28$#$8" for a Squabble Court, where the poor dears would meet, discuss, weep, even ght ;0'( ,"4*)--.2 1#* ;).+#$27 .$9 '()$ +*#/))9 '# 2,-62 .$9 (82')*0/2FO BY   H.$ L0)%#R2 )@+#20'0#$ ;.2 4,0-' I,0/6-87 ;0'( -0"0')9 1,$92 .$9 /#$209)*.4-) 9#,4'2 .4#,' 0'2 2,//)22F T() 90*)/'#*2 #1 '() 5.$.".:=.-01#*$0. ?@+#20'0#$ =#"+.$87 1#,$9)9 0$ H)+')"4)* BC_C7 2/*."4-)9 '# 6))+ ,+ ;0'( H.$ W*.$/02/#  4##2')*2 ;(# ;)*) ;)-- #$ '()0* ;.8 '#;.*92 (#2'0$% . /#"+)'0$% ;#*-9R2 1.0*F E.W. Scripps, who attended the rst meeting, warned that “the job was too big . #$) 1#* H.$ L0)%#FO Q) '#-9 '() /#"+.$8R2 <0/):+*)209)$'2 '(.' () #$-8 6$); one man who could “carry through the blu, if it could be carried through at all,” .$9 '(.' ;.2 L.<09 S=(.*-0)O =#--0)*F BC  ?<)$ ;0'( =#--0)* #$ 4#.*97 '() 90*)/'#*2 1./)9 '() -./6 #1 =#$%*)220#$.- 2,++#*' .$9 $# %,.*.$')) '(.' %#<)*$")$': sponsored museums such as the Post Oce or the U.S. Mint would be able to 2)$9 )@(040'2 '# H.$ L0)%#F 5.*' #1 '() +*#4-)" ;.2 '() $)%.'0<) +,4-0/0'8 %.*$)*)9 48 H.$ L0)%# 9,*0$% the Free Speech ght of 1912-13. City ocials, fearful that revolutionary activity ;#,-9 ".6) 0'2 ;.8 #<)* '() 4#*9)* 1*#" ])@0/#7 (.9 +.22)9 .$ #*90$.$/) 2,2+)$90$% +,4-0/ 2+).60$% 0$ '() /0'8 /)$')*7 6$#;$ .2 SH#.+4#@ a#;FO >$ *)2+#$2)7 '() >$')*$.'0#$.- G#*6)*2 #1 '() G#*-9 A>GGE 2)$' (,$9*)92 #1 +*#')2')*2F H#") ;)*) 4).')$ 48 +#-0/)")$ .$9 '(*#;$ 0$ N.0-J #'()*2 ;)*) '#*',*)9 48 S<0%0-.$')2O .$9 9*0<)$ #,' #1 '#;$F T() 20',.'0#$ .''*./')9 $.'0#$.- ().9-0$)2 .$9  4.9-8 9.".%)9 '() /0'8R2 *)+,'.'0#$F P_   !++.--)9 48 '() )<)$'2 #1 BCBP:BU7 ".$8 H.$ L0)%# ;#")$ 9)/09)9 '# '.6) 2')+2 towards inuencing public policy. In a speech  4)1#*) '() \. e#--. G#".$R2 =-,47 ?--)$ 3*#;$0$% H/*0++2 '#-9 /-,4;#")$ S> '(0$6 ;#")$ ;#,-9 (.<) ".$.%)9 '() >$9,2'*0.- G#*6)*2 #1 '() G#*-9 4)'')*7 .$9 -)22 '# '() 902/*)90' #1 '() /0'8FO H() /#$'0$,)97 ST() '0") ".8 $#' (.<) /#") 8)' ;()$ ;) /.$ work eectively in public policies; but it will 2,*)-8 /#")7 .$9 ;) #,%(' '# 4) *).98FO PB   V$) +-./) '# 2'.*' ;.2 '() ,+/#"0$% Col. David Charles Collier, rst President &, 3"# O*)*J*TA*+/,&()/* KL?&2/3/&) A&J?*)47 89 :;G;9 D-.1A EU:V:GUHW9
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