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A ROOT Guide For Beginners

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A ROOT Guide For Beginners
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  A ROOT Guide For Beginners“Diving Into ROOT”  2  Contents 1 Motivation and Introduction 52 ROOT Basics 7 2.1 ROOT as calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72.2 Learn C++ at the ROOT prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82.3 ROOT as function plotter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82.4 Controlling ROOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.5 Plotting Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.6 Histograms in ROOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.7 Interactive ROOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132.8 ROOT Beginners’ FAQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3 ROOT Macros 17 3.1 General Remarks on ROOT macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173.2 A more complete example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183.3 Summary of Visual effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203.4 Interpretation and Compilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4 Graphs 23 4.1 Read Graph Points from File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234.2 Polar Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.3 2D Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264.4 Multiple graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5 Histograms 31 5.1 Your First Histogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315.2 Add and Divide Histograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325.3 Two-dimensional Histograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355.4 Multiple histograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 6 Functions and Parameter Estimation 41 6.1 Fitting Functions to Pseudo Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416.2 Toy Monte Carlo Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 7 File I/O and Parallel Analysis 47 7.1 Storing ROOT Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477.2 N-tuples in ROOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 8 ROOT in Python 57 8.1 PyROOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578.2 Custom code: from C++ to Python . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 9 Concluding Remarks 61References 63Abstract ROOT is a software framework for data analysis and I/O: a powerful tool to cope with the demanding tasks typical of  state of the art scientific data analysis. Among its prominent features are an advanced graphical user interface, idealfor interactive analysis, an interpreter for the C++ programming language, for rapid and efficient prototyping and a persistency mechanism for C++ objects, used also to write every year petabytes of data recorded by the Large Hadron 3  4  CONTENTS  Collider experiments. This introductory guide illustrates the main features of ROOT which are relevant for the typical problems of data analysis: input and plotting of data from measurements and fitting of analytical functions. Original Authors   - D. Piparo - G. Quast - M. Zeise
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