A Routing Layer Number Generation & Dynamic Routing Algorithm on Random Wireless Sensor Network (2014)_ART

A Routing Layer Number Generation & Dynamic Routing Algorithm on Random Wireless Sensor Network.
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  A Routing Layer Number Generation and Dynamic Routing Algorithm on Random Wireless Sensor  Network  Tan Guolin, Qiu Kaijin*, Yu Qunchao College of Computer & Information ScienceSouthwest UniversityChongqing, China  Abstract   —inreal life,random wireless sensor network is very common, such as network of monitoring nodesin rural anti-theft system andas well asin agriculture-forestryenvironmental monitoring, and so on. Large-scale network,intensive nodesand disorganizeddistributionare the features of this network.Ifwe transmit data by point-to-point methodon such a network,then there exist disadvantages of large transmitting power at the monitoring nodes and high energy consumption of thenodes, so networking betweennodes is inevitable development.Based on the characteristics of random wireless sensor network proposed routing layer number generation algorithm and dynamic routing algorithm for random wireless sensor network,to achieve transmit reliable data stably between routing nodes.  Keywords-random wireless sensor network;dynamic routing algorithm;routing layer number generationalgorithm; I.I  NTRODUCTION Random wireless sensor network not only has the common features of Ad Hoc networks’, butalso has the following distinctive features [1][2][3][4].   a. Large-scale network. In order to obtain accurate information  a large number of sensor nodesare usually deployedin the monitoring area , the number of sensor nodes may reach hundreds of thousands, or even more. Information obtained through different spatial perspective hasgreaterSNR (Signal to Noise Ratio). b.Self-organizing network. In the applicationof Random wireless sensor network, the sensor nodes are usually  placed in the place without infrastructures. Position of sensor nodes can not be precisely set in advanceand mutual neighbor relationship betweennodes also can not be known in advance, suchas sowing a large number of sensor nodesto the vast area of virgin forest by plane or randomly placinginto the dangerousareawhere people can’treach. c. Multihop routing.Communicationdistanceof thisnetwork is limited, generally within the range of tens to hundreds of meters, only can nodes communicate directly with its neighbors. If the node wantsto communicate with other node which isoutside the radio frequency coverage, itneeds routing through intermediate nodes. Wireless sensor networks multi-hop routing is accomplished byitscommon network nodes; there is no specific routing equipment. So each node can be both the initiator of the informationand forwarder.   As the nodes needing monitoring become more and more, it will be of challenge to adopt central point-to-point manner. It will be of more and more advantages to perform networking and transmission of the monitor nodes. After the networking of the nodes, an individual node just needs to transmit data to the neighboring nodes, so the transmission power is small and the energy consumption is low. This paper presents a random wireless sensor network implemented on microcontroller. Microcontroller as the node’s main controller composesa random node networkon which  proposed routing layer number generation and dynamic routing algorithm.II.O VERALL F RAMEWORK OF R  ANDOM W IRELESS S ENSOR  N ETWORK As is illustrated in Figure 1, the random wireless sensor networkimplemented by the paper is mainly composed of monitor nodes, central nodes, GSM modules, smart phone monitor center. Figure 1. Random wireless sensor network diagram  The hardware structure of the monitor nodes of the paper is illustrated in Figure 2, including a sensor module, a * Corresponding author. E-mail address:  ____________________________   ________ 978-1-4799-3279-5 /14 /$ 31 .00 ©201 4  IEEE   microprocessor chip, a wireless communication module, and  power supply. The microprocessor chip adopts STC89C52, which is a kind of low cost, lower energy consumption, high  performance CMOS8 bit microprocessor; the wireless communication module adopts CC1101 which has sleepfunction, low cost, lower energy consumption, and no need to apply for frequency points.The sensors at the monitor nodes can monitor surroundingthings in real time, and gain the monitor data, after the  processing ofSCM, the monitor data can be transmitted by wireless communication module. The microprocessor is  powered by power supply, and has power-off protection functions, so even when power is incidentally off, it can also switch to the standby power supply. Figure 2. Monitor Node Hardware Structure   The central node is special monitor node, and the hardware structure of the central node implemented by the paper is illustrated by Figure3.It is also provided with a GSM wireless communication module and the GSM communication module can send the information to the smart cell phones of the user, and remind the user in time to adopt corresponding measures. The central node can sent the monitoring information to the remote cell phone, and the user can also control the random wireless sensor networksystem via the smart cell phone, and can also awaken or sleep each monitor node. Figure 3. Central Node Hardware Structure III.T HE I MPLEMENTATION OF THE D ATA T RANSMISSION A LGORITHM  A.Frame Design The paper designs five types of data frames, which can be distinguished as per their labels, as is illustrated in Table I.The data frame is composed of five fields, namely a label number, a serial number, an ID number, data and routing layer number, and the meaning and description of each field is illustrated in Table II.   TABLE I. F RAME T YPE I NFORMATION TABLE II. F RAME S TRUCTURE I NFORMATION As the monitor node and the central node can form a distributed network architecture, the transmission direction shall be determined if the monitor node shall transmit nodes to the central nodes, thenumber of each monitor node in the network shall be determined. The routing layernumber of the central node is 0, and the routing layernumber increases gradually as per the distance from the central node to the monitor nodes.  B.Monitor Routing Layer Number Generation Algorithm The routing layer number is generated from the central nodes to the outside, as is illustrated in Figure 4. Figure 4. Routing Layer Number GenerationLabelTypes of FrameDetailed Description00Central Node Awakening FrameSent by the central node to awaken the monitor nodes01MonitorNode Awakening FrameSent by the monitor node02Routing LayerNumber Generation FrameThe central node to generate the Routing Layernumber of each node03 DataFrameSent by the monitor node04 Sleep FrameSent by the central node within a certain time when no order from the smart cell phone is received.FieldLength (Byte)Detailed DescriptionLabel No1 To distinguish the data frames of different typesSerial  Number 1 To distinguish the data frames sent at different timesID No6 To identify each nodeData1 DatainformationRouting Level No2 The distance numbers from each monitor node to the central node are the present routing layer number and the target routing layer number, and 1  byte each.    1 Center 1111112222222222223213333333333 Power-off Microprocessor Unit Wireless Communication Module Sensor Power Sensor GSM Module Microprocessor Chip Microprocessor Chip Power Wireless Communication Module Standby batter   The wireless transmission powers of the central node and each monitor node are almost the same, and they both can achieve double direction transmission. To complete the algorithm, the structure of the routing layer number generation frame is illustrated in TableIII. TABLE III. R OUTING L  AYER N UMBER G ENERATION F RAME S TRUCTURE LabelSerial  Number Target  Node NoDataRouting Layer  No.020 XXXXArbitrary0 The four variables (the first is the level number variable V_layer, the second is the routing serial number V_routRN, the third is the temporal routing layer number variable TempLayer, and the fourth is the temporal routing serial number variable TempRN) set on each node are generated by routing layer number. When power is on, the initial max value of the V_layer routing layer number at each node is 255, and the initial value of the routing serial number variable TempRN is 0; The central node sends routing layernumber generation frame, as is illustrated in Table 4; it starts counting when the serial number is 0, and the number value returns to 0 when it is 256; the routing layer number V_layer of the central node is 0; when the neighboring node receives the frame, the procession flows are as follows: The extracted values of the routing serial number and the routing layer are assigned to TempRN and TempLayer respectively.Add 1 to routing layer number TempLayer. If the received serial number is not equal to the serial number variable V_routRN that is saved in the node, this demonstrates new routing layer number generation frame, and the max value of the updated V_layer is 255, and V_routRN is the new serial number value.Then we will compare TempLayer with the routing layer number variable V_layer, if TempLayer is less than V_layer, this demonstrates that it is the first time to receive routing layer frame, then the label 00 is generated, routing serial number is V_routRN, the routing layer number is frame V_layer,and then the frame is sent out.The value of TempLayer is assigned to V_layer. If they are the same, this demonstrated that it is the routing layer number generation frame sent by the other nodes of the same layer, and then no treatment is required, and thus quit. If value of TempLayer is higher than V_layer, this demonstrated that it is the routing layer number generation frame sent by the other nodes of the higher layer, and then no treatment is required, and thus quit.The pseudo-codes are as follows: 1)When frame with the label of 00 is received, the extracted values of the routing serial number and the routing layer are assigned to TempRN and TempLayer respectively. 2)tempLayer= tempLayer+1; 3)if(TempRN!= V_routRN){ V_layer=255; V_routRN= TempRN; } if(V_layer> TempLayer){  V_layer= TempLayer; The frame with the generation label of 00, the routing serial number of V_routRN and the routing layer number of V_layer is generated, and then the frame is sent out. } C.DataFrame Transmission Algorithm 1)Monitor Node Sending DataFrame   Suppose the node number of the monitor node is XXXX, and the target routing layer number is XX, and then the contents of the dataframe is illustrated in Table IV. TABLE IV. S TRUCTURE OF THE D  ATA F RAME LabelSerial  Number Target  Node NoDataTarget Routing Layer No.Present Routing Layer No.040 XXXXMonitor DataXXXX The initial value of the serial number is 0; when one respond frame is sent, the serial number will be added by 1 automatically, and when the value reaches 256, itwill starts from 0 again.The number of the present routing layer is the same as the number of the target routing layer. 2)Monitor Node Transmitting DataFrame When the monitor node receives the BufferFrame with an ID No. 0f 04, it shall be required to judge whether frame transmitting is demanded, and the method is as follows: Rule 1: If the routing layer number of its own is larger than the present routing layer number of BufferFrame, no  procession is demanded, andthe rule guarantees the dataframe can transmit downward to the central node. Rule 2: If the serial number and the node number of the BufferFrame and the serial number and target node number of the saved data frame DataFrameLib are the same, it demonstrates that frame has be transmitted, and no procession shall be demanded, and the loop is quit. The rule guarantees that the frame can be transmitted only once. Rule 3: Frame Transmitting: the routing layer number of the monitor node is copied to the routing layer number of the BufferFrame, and then the frame is transmitted. If there has  been the target node number of BufferFrame in DataFrameLib, Buffer Frame is then copied to replace the records with the same node number in DataFrameLib, and if there is not target node number of BufferFrame, then the BufferFrame shall be copied to DataFrameLib. In adding, if the max capacity of DataFrameLib is reached, then replacement shall be performed as per the principle of “first come, first enter”. 3)Central Node Receiving DataFrame If the central node receives the dataframes from the monitor nodes, then the ID number of the dataframe shall be  judged.If the ID number is 04, the serial number and the node number of the frame shall be judged for whether they have existed in the database; if they have existed, it demonstrates that the database has accepted the dataframe, and no    procession shall be required; if they do not exist, the contents of the dataframe shall be extracted to fill into corresponding database, and then the datais received successfully. If the ID number is not 04, then no procession shall be demanded, and the loop is ended.Algorithm Overall Flow Chart is illustrated in Figure 5. Figure 5. Data Frame Procession Flowchart at Central Node  D.Algorithms of Awakening Frame and Sleep Frame Transmission The transmission of the awakening frame is similar to the transmission of the generation frame, and where the difference exits is that the node transmission requires the repeated sending at the awakening window time larger thatthe node awakening window time. No procession shall be required when the awakening frame from the same layer or the higher layer is received, and each node can only transmit one awakening frame each time.After being awakened, each node shall need a certain long time to sleep again. IV.A LGORITHM D ATA A  NALYSIS  A.Algorithm Examples Suppose there are 14 monitor nodes and 1 central node, the date now transmits from Center 0-0 to Node 4-14; Node4-14 means that the routing layer number is 4and the ID is 14, and the coding rules of other nodes are the same. The transmitting power of the node is small, transmission can only to the neighboring nodes, and transmission shall be performed as per the transmitting rules, as illustrated in Figure 6.Step 1: the node 4-14send frames to the nodes 3-10and 3-13whose routing layer number is 3. Step 2: 3-10and 3-13of the thirdlayer transmit the frame outward, and the node 4-14will also receive the frame, butthe discard the frame.Node 2-9 and 2-12of the second layer willreceive the frames. The frame arriving first will be received, and frame arriving later will be discarded.In the figure, the frame from Node 3-10to Node 2-9shall be received first, and the frame from 3-13 to Node 2-9will be discarded. Step 3: Nodes 2-9 and 2-12of the second layer will transmit the frames.Step 4: Node 1-6,1-8and 3-11will transmit the frames outward, Center Node 0-0 will receive the frames transmitted  by Nodes 1-6 and 1-8, and in the figure, the frames transmitted  by Node 1-6arrives first, and then the frames transmitted by  Node 1-8 will be discarded. Figure 6. The schematic diagram passing from Node0-0 to Node1-1 V.S UMMARY This paper studies the characteristics of random wireless sensor network, design hardware implementationsof wireless sensor network system anddata frame structure, proposed routing layer number generation and dynamic routing algorithm to achieve reliable and stable transmissionof data  between routingnodes.A CKNOWLEDGMENT This work is partially supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (NO.XDJK2011C073 and NO. XDJK2012A006).R  EFERENCES[1]Xiangyang Xu,Kejun Xu,“Research and realization of ad hoc network  protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Hefei: HeFeiUniversity of Technology, 2007.[2]Yibing Cai,Zhongcheng Li, “Wireless ad hoc networks MAC and routing technology research,” Beijing:Institute of computing technology Chinese Academy of Sciences,2006.[3]Hao Cheng,Weishan Wu, “Research and implementation of wireless sensor network based on ad hoc network protocol,” Xi’an:Xi'an University Of Architecture And Technology, 2009.   [4]Xianming Chen, Lianfeng Shen, “Vehicle control and dynamic wireless network protocol research,” Nanjing:Southeast University, 2005Receive frame NoCentral nodeID No. 04?YesThe first time to receive?ReceivedataDiscard  NoDiscardYes4-14 3-133-102-9 1-6 2-33-41-52-1 1-2 2-123-1 2-7 1-8 Center0-0Forward after receiving Discard after receiving 

Jolene Brighten

Dec 2, 2018

NLFEM thesis

Dec 2, 2018
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