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A study of applying Bus Rapid Transit System in Hanoi

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A study of applying Bus Rapid Transit System in Hanoi
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  Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.7, 2009   A Study of Applying Bus Rapid Transit System in Hanoi Doan Thanh TAN Graduate Student Civil and Environmental Engineering Nagaoka University of Technology Kamitomioka1603-1, Nagaoka Niigata 940-2188, Japan Tel: +81–258–47–6635 Fax: +81–258–47–9650 Email: thanhtan@stn.nagaokaut.ac.jp Kazushi SANO Associate Professor Civil and Environmental Engineering Nagaoka University of Technology Kamitomioka1603-1, Nagaoka Niigata 940-2188, Japan Tel: +81–258–47–9616 Fax: +81–258–47–9650 Email: sano@nagaokaut.ac.jp Nguyen Cao Y Graduate Student Civil and Environmental Engineering Nagaoka University of Technology Kamitomioka1603-1, Nagaoka Niigata 940-2188, Japan Tel: +81–258–47–6635 Fax: +81–258–47–9650 Email: nguyeny@stn.nagaokaut.ac.jp Tran Vu TU Graduate Student Civil and Environmental Engineering Nagaoka University of Technology Kamitomioka1603-1, Nagaoka Niigata 940-2188, Japan Tel: +81–258–47–6635 Fax: +81–258–47–9650 Email: trvutu@stn.nagaokaut.ac.jp Abstract:  The paper proposes some important criterion for the development of BRT system in Hanoi which based on the experience of studying on BRT in the World and Hanoi traffic network. In addition, the paper also put a sample route in accordance with the proposed criterion to analyze cost-benefits of BRT in comparison with conventional bus service. Finally, some conclusions concerning with Hanoi’s BRT system are suggested.  Key Words:  BRT, Bus Rapid Transit, Hanoi public transport. 1. INTRODUCTION In Vietnam, Hanoi is a city with a powerful urbanization process. More and more people migrate to this area to look for work or improve the working environment. However, the unreasonable policies on land use in Hanoi lead to overloads on the underdeveloped traffic system. There are not many transport options for people here to choose. Although, bus is a unique large capacity mode in this area, but it satisfies only 25% of the transport demand. Moreover, bus becomes overloaded and most people use private vehicles for daily trips. Traffic congestion and environmental pollution are becoming serious problems and makes big damages to the economy. Based on Hanoi’s master plans, project of Hanoi’s zone and Urban mass rapid transit (UMRT) project, the paper focused on the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system which is considered as a global phenomenon. At present, 63 BRT systems are operating on six continents, as many as 93 more are planned worldwide.  Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.7, 2009   2. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Concerning with the traffic network in Hanoi, the paper focuses on the application of the BRT system to improve the current public transport system. The research objectives of this paper are as follows: - To propose BRT standard that suitable to characteristics of Hanoi traffic network and city planning projects - To make a sample BRT route according to above BRT standard and estimate cost components for evaluating BRT’s profits  3. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY This research focuses on the previous Hanoi traffic network that is in being previous to merging with Ha Tay province on August 1st 2008. The main references are based on the instructions from Bus Rapid Transit Planning Guide published by the Institute for Transportation Policy & Development, Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide from TCRP Report 118 and Characteristics of Bus Rapid Transit for Decision-Making of Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Moreover, experiences of implementing BRT in Latin America and Southeast Asia are also modified to use reasonably in the conditions of Hanoi. The survey data is used from a part of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), The Comprehensive Urban Development Programme in Hanoi Capital City (HAIDEP project) and some implemented projects in Vietnam. Besides, the calculation methods of costs which applied in Hanoi bus are also used in this research. The steps of study were carried out as follows: Figure 1 The main process of study  Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.7, 2009   4. ACTUAL STATE OF HANOI TRAFFIC NETWORK 4.1 Road network The urban road network of Hanoi look like the layout of blade of a fan. Arterial roads connect each other by 3 main belt roads. The streets length in urban are 343 km, almost trips centralize in the center, thus, it creates heavy pressures and congestions in surrounding areas of the city center. Besides, the road network has a poor quality with narrow roads: 88% of road has the width from 7-11 m, and only 12% has the width over 12 m. The percentage of land areas used for transport is very low, only about 6.1% of natural land area where parking area is about 0.31%. Along streets, there are many intersections. In this area, there are 580 intersections and the distance between intersections is around 380m. 4.2 Parking system Inter-provincial coach stations are located on the belt road 3.   There are 5 inter-provincial terminals and 1 post. According to a current report, Hanoi has about 352 places for bicycle and motorcycle parking, with the total authorization area of 1.82 ha. The urban has about 200 places for car parking. They occupy an area of 105,362 m 2  on sidewalks or streets. There are 8 new places are planned and built on good standard. They have 2,850 m 2  in area and 2,830 cars in capacity. The total area for public parking is 27.8 hectares. It only holds about 0.45% of urban land area for parking and satisfies 25-30% of parking demands. 4.3 Vehicles The growth of private vehicles in Hanoi is higher and higher. Every year, it’s about 12-15% for car, 15-16% for motorcycle, and rather low for bicycle. The number of vehicles increase quickly in private effects, meanwhile the land area for traffic is constant. That leads to environmental pollution and traffic congestions at many places in the city, especially at main traffic intersections. Table 1 The number of vehicles in Hanoi Year Motorcycle Car Passenger Truck 2000 785,969 20,840 5,052 18,257 2001 951,083 22,184 6,643 18,311 2002 1,112,976 26,213 7,652 21,465 2003 1,180,151 31,858 8,420 22,894 2004 1,300,000 44,798 8,915 24,879 2005 1,530,000 51,173 9,601 26,508 2006 1,700,422 58,849 10,369 28,368 4.4 The state of bus public transport in Hanoi In 2006, Hanoi has 58 bus routes and 912 buses. The number of passenger trips is 294.9 million. The bus public transport socializations from 2004 mobilized an investment of 8.73 million USD from public areas. It makes the operating costs decrease to 1.6 million USD. The details are as follows:  Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.7, 2009  Table 2 Operation outcomes of Hanoi transport corporation (Excluded 3 socialized routes: 49, 51, 52) Order Index Unit 2005 2006 1 Number of routes routes 43 47 2 Planned vehicles vehicles 728 762 3 Vehicle journey Million journeys 2.7 3.1 4 Total itinerary Million km 55.1 63.7 5 Number of passengers Million passengers 292.6 294.9 6 Total revenue Million USA 15.4 17.1 Generally, there are several remarkable points about the Hanoi public transport system as follows: * Advantages - Creating pleasure and good impression to users - The ticket price is reasonable and flexible, suitable for any user. - The network is distributed to every where. Thus, bus can use any road in the urban of Hanoi or any main routes. * Disadvantages - Bus infrastructure is behind the time and lack a lot - At present, bus service just serves 20% of travel demand, it’s rather low in comparison with the others in the World -The public transport socializations are implemented slowly and its effects are not good yet. 5. SEVERAL PROPOSALS FOR HANOI BRT SYSTEM 5.1 BRT routes According to the transportation plans to year 2020 of the ministry of transport, Hanoi will be built 08 urban railway routes. However, according to HAIDEP, a general development project for Hanoi urban development including JICA and related offices, Hanoi should build 4 urban mass transport routes with the total length of 193 km. Table 3 The length of UMRT routes in the proposal of HAIDEP Urban railway (km) Route Under ground Over ground On ground Total BRT (km) Total (km) 1 - 12.9 21.6 34.5 - 34.5 2 22.3 8.0 15.7 46 17 63 3 15.9 2.6 14.5 33 10 43 4 - - - - 52.5 52.5 Total 38.2 23.5 75.3 113.5 79.5 193  Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.7, 2009  Although Hanoi has a plan to deploy 2 BRT routes recently. These routes have many segments that reach to the urban. However, according to the paper proposal, it should not build more BRT routes that cross the belt road 2 and move towards the center in the future. Therefore, more than 80% of streets that is inside the belt road 1 have the following characteristics: The width is less than 10 m, 2-way streets are popular and it’s very difficult to organize traffic. If a BRT route is built, the clearance expense is very high. For example in 2005, the expenses for ground clearance and resettlement for a 1,080 m long road whose name is Kim Lien – O Cho Dua on the belt road 1 are approximately 37.5 million USD. In 2009, a 547 long segment of O Cho Dua – Hoang Cau on the belt road 1 has an expense of 31 million USD (or approximately 56.7 million USD per each kilometer). This expense is 11.6 times larger than the expense for building the same grade road in the Transmilleno system of Bogota. The proposals of this paper for the future BRT system are as follows: - All of BRT routes should be located on the arterial road axis and their width are more than 12m. The maximum average compensation expense is 647 USD/m 2 , equal to 30% in comparison with the highest expense on the belt road 1 above. The service capacity is larger than 25,000 passengers per day. They are following route directions:. + Direction from Nguyen Trai to Dong Ha town + Direction from Nga Tu Vong to Van Dien + Direction from Cau Giay - Nhon following the highway 32 + Direction from Bac Thang Long to Noi Bai + Direction from Lang to Hoa Lac Figure 2 The map of passenger flow distribution on the main routes in year 2020 Figure 3 The proposal of HAIDEP for (Urban Mass Rapid Transit) UMRT route
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