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A Study of Surface Roughness in Drilling of AISI H11 Die Steel using Face Centered Design

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Drilling is one of the most common and fundamental machining processes. In machining, twist drills with diameters of 1–20 mm are used. Most of automotive components are manufactured using a conventional machining process, such as turning, drilling,
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  IJIRST  –  International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology| Volume 1 | Issue 12 | May 2015   ISSN (online): 2349-6010 All rights reserved by www.ijirst.org   464 A Study of Surface Roughness in Drilling of AISI H11 Die Steel using Face Centered Design  Sudesh Garg Ravi Kumar Goyal  M. Tech Scholar Professor  Department of  Mechanical Engineering Department of  Mechanical Engineering    Jaipur Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan Jaipur Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan   Abstract   Drilling is one of the most common and fundamental machining processes. In machining, twist drills with diameters of 1  –  20 mm are used. Most of automotive components are manufactured using a conventional machining process, such as turning, drilling, milling, shaping and planning, etc.. These focus on producing high quality products in time at minimum cost. The surface roughness and MRR are considered to be a measure of the technological quality of a product. The aim of the present work is to optimize cutting conditions (Cutting speed, feed, wet and dry cutting, depth of hole) parameters for minimum Surface Roughness in drilling of AISI H11 using Face Centered Design . Experiments were conducted based on the design of experiments (DOE) and followed by optimization of the results using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to find the minimum surface roughness. Keywords: Surface Roughness, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Design of Experiments (DOE), RSM, Face Centered Design _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ I.   I NTRODUCTION   In the manufacturing industries, various machining processes (turning, milling, drilling etc.) are adopted for removing the material from the workpiece to obtain finished product. Among the various metal removing processes, drilling is the one of most important metal removing process as compared to other traditional machining processes. Drilling is use for making the hole in the workpieces. Hole making is a most important machining process in manufacturing. During the drilling, the drill rotates and fed into the work Different drilling tools and hole making methods are used for drilling. The selection of different tools and methods depends on the type of workpiece, size of the hole, the quantity of holes, and the quantity of the holes in given time periods. The manufacturing industries are focus on producing high quality products in time at minimum cost. The surface roughness is considered to be a measure of the technological quality of a product. Surface roughness is the one of the critical performance parameter that has an appreciable effect on several mechanical properties of machined parts such as fatigue behaviour, corrosion resistance, creep life, etc. It also affects other functional attributes of machined parts like friction, wear, light reflection, heat transmission, lubrication, electrical conductivity, etc. Hence, achieving the desired surface quality is of great importance for the functional behaviour of the mechanical parts. During the drilling of the workpiece, it has long been recognized that the drilling conditions (drill point geometry, drill and workpiece materials, drilling parameters like feed rate and spindle speed) affect the performance of the operation to a greater piece to remove the material in the form of chips that move along the fluted shank of the drill.extent. These drilling conditions should be selected to optimize the economics of drilling operations. So it can be achieved by empirical modeling of performance as a function of machining conditions using design of experiments (DOE). The proposed work will be employed for optimization of drilling conditions for minimum surface roughness using response surface methodology based on face centered design. II.   L ITERATURE REVIEW   Metal machining has been an interesting topic of research for decades. Early research efforts include topics, such as, chip formation, heat generation at tool-chip and tool-work interfaces, tool wear, tool life, cutting force analysis, machinability, power requirements, manufacturing cost and productivity etc. With more emphasis on quality of surface finish with high prodection rate, in past few decades, research efforts seem to have been diverted towards the study of surface finish/roughness in metal machining. It may be due to the reason that the surface finish/roughness has great importance with regard to friction, wear, fatigue resistance etc. of the machined part/surface. Profile of a surface is the total vertical departure, at a cross section, from a fixed datum. The long period component of the surface profile is called waviness and the short period (i.e. closely spaced) one is called roughness. Surfaces obtained from machining processes are more vulnerable to damage of surface integrity than the surfaces obtained from cold working and polishing processes. However, by proper selection of machining parameters, quality surface finish and good surface integrity may be obtained.   A Study of Surface Roughness in Drilling of AISI H11 Die Steel using Face Centered Design   (IJIRST/ Volume 1 / Issue 12 / 079) All rights reserved by www.ijirst.org   465 Studies have been reported on mathematical modeling and selection of machining parameters for optimization of surface roughness in recent past. A brief review of research on the topic is presented below. Madival (1998) employed artificial neural network to investigate the effect of drilling parameters on surface roughness during the drilling of composite. An attempt has also been made to developed surface roughness prediction model using ANN. The cutting speed and feed have been considered as drilling parameters. The result clearly shows that surface finish decreases with increase in feed. Davim and Reis (2002) Used Taguchi methodology to investigate the effect of cutting speed and feed rate on delamination during the drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). The ANOVA has also used to investigate the most significant parameter. The cutting speed and feed rate have been considered as drilling parameters. The cutting speed has been found most significant parameter that affects the delamination factor. The delamination factor increases with increase in cutting speed as well as with increase in feed rate. Nouari et al. (2005) experimentally investigated the effect of machining parameters on tool wear, hole diameter deviations and surface roughness during the dry drilling of aluminum alloy 2024 using coated tungsten carbide drill, uncoated tungsten carbide drill and HSS drill. The drilling experiments were performed on rigid instrumented drilling bench. The result shows that minimum hole deviation and minimum surface roughness has been achieved with in terms of maximum and minimum hole diameter deviations and surface roughness are obtained for the uncoated and coated tungsten carbide drills.. The cutting speed has been found most significant parameter that affects the surface roughness, tool wear and hole deviation during the dry drilling of aluminum alloy A2024. Haq et al. (2007) used grey relational analysis with Taguchi methodology for multi response optimization of machining parameters during the drilling Al/SiC metal matrix composite. The cutting speed, feed and point angle have been considered as drilling parameters while surface roughness, cutting force and torque have been considered as responses. ANOVA has also been used to identify most significant parameter that affects the responses. The results show that this new approach i.e grey relation analysis with Taguchi is a effective tool for multi response optimization. Karnik et al. (2007) made an attempt to investigate best technique for the prediction of burr size during the drilling of AISI 316 L stainless steel. For this a comparison has been made between the prediction values of burr size, those obtained using RSM based on three level full factorial design and artificial neural network. The cutting speed, feed, and point angle have been considered as cutting parameters for both models. The comparison between the predicted values from both models clearly indicates that the ANN models provide more accurate prediction results as compared to those obtained through RSM models. Kurt et al. (2008) employed Taguchi methodology to optimized the cutting parameters minimum surface roughness and hole diameter accuracy during the dry drilling operation. The cutting speed, feed rates, depths of drilling and different drills have been considered as cutting parameters. An attempt has also been made to investigate the effect of cutting parameters on responses. Kurt et al, (2009) used Taguchi methodology to investigate the effect of cutting parameters and different drill diameter on drilling temperature, cutting forces and surface roughness during dry drilling of Al 2024 alloy using diamond like carbon coated drills. The speed, feed and depth of hole have been considered as drilling parameters. The cutting temperature has been measured using thermocouple, cutting forces has been measured using Kistler dynamometer during drilling process. Kivak et al. (2012) experimentally investigated the influence of drilling parameters on the hole quality i.e. circularity and hole diameter and drill wear during the drilling of Inconel 718 using coated carbide drills and uncoated carbide drills. All the drilling experiments have been carried out on CNC milling center under dry cutting conditions using drill having 5 mm dia. The cutting speed and feed have been considered as cutting parameters. The results reveals that as the cutting speed increase, the tool wear and hole quality decreases. The flank wear and chisel edge wear have been observed during the drilling. Navanth and Sharma (2013) Used L18 orthogonal array based Taguchi methodology to optimize drilling parameters for minimum surface roughness and hole diameter deviation during the drilling of AI 2014 alloy block. All the drilling operations have been carried out on conventional drilling machine using HSS twist drills under dry cutting conditions. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has also been employed to investigate the main influencing parameter that affects the surfafe roughness and hole diameter deviation. The cutting tool, spindle speed and feed rate have been considered as process parameters. The main and interaction effect of the process parameters on the responses have been investigated. Tamilselvan and Raguraj (2014) used Taguchi methodology to investigate the effect of drilling parameters on thrust force, overcut, taper and circularity of the hole during the drilling of Ti-TiB composite produced by three processes of powder metallurgy namely, spark plasma sintering, hot isostatic pressing and vacuum sintering process. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) have also been employed to investigate the effects of parameters on response and estimation of percentage contribution, The spindle speed, feed rate, process, and drill material have been considered as process parameters. The results show that spindle speed and feed rate have been found most significant parameters that affect the dimensional accuracy of the produce hole, on the other hand, the spindle speed and feed rate affects the thrust force. Also, as the spindle speed increases, the thrust force and over cut decreases. The review of the research presented above reveals that work has been carried out to investigate the effect of machining parameters on surface roughness and metal removal rate during drilling of various ferrous and non ferrous metals. The AISI H11 steel is widely used as a main material in die making industries, where superior machinability is the most important factor. A study of surface roughness during drilling on this material will be quite useful. In the present work the response surface methodology based on face cantered design has been selected for development of prediction models and optimization of drilling   A Study of Surface Roughness in Drilling of AISI H11 Die Steel using Face Centered Design   (IJIRST/ Volume 1 / Issue 12 / 079) All rights reserved by www.ijirst.org   466 parameters for minimum surface roughness. An effort has also been made to investigate the effect of drilling parameters on surface roughness during drilling of AISI H11 die steel.  Drilling:  A. In manufacturing industries, the production of holes in workpiece is a common and most important process. There are many tools and processes for producing the holes. The selection of tools and process mainly depends on type of material, the size of the hole, quantity of holes produce in given time periods. Among the many hole making process, drilling is a major and commonly use hole making process. For some of processes, drilling is the initial process, such as reaming, tapping and boring. As the drill rotates and feed into the work piece, material is removed in the form of chips that move along the fluted shank of the drill. Drilling process involves relative motion between the drill and the work piece. Generally, the drill rotates and feed into the work piece for large workpieces, but sometimes workpiece rotate and feed into the drill. Figure 2.1 show the drilling process in which the drill is fed into the workpiece. Fig. 1: Drilling Process Usually, the hole diameters produced using drill are slightly larger than the diameter of drill (oversize). The amount of oversize depends on the selection of drill, on the machine and on the skill of machine operator. Surface Roughness:  B. The surface roughness is considered to be a measure of the technological quality of a product. Surface roughness is the one of the critical performance parameter that has an appreciable effect on several mechanical properties of machined parts such as fatigue behaviour, corrosion resistance, creep life, etc. It also affects other functional attributes of machined parts like friction, wear, light reflection, heat transmission, lubrication, electrical conductivity, etc. Hence, achieving the desired surface quality is of great importance for the functional behaviour of the mechanical parts. Out of all the surface condition criteria,  Ra  and  Rt   (expressed in μm) are often used to characterize the roughness of machined surfaces.  Rt   is total roughness (maximum depth or amplitude of the roughness), and  Ra is arithmetic roughness (mean arithmetic deviation   from the mean line of the roughness) as given in Eq. (1). Ra = ΣA + ΣB (1)  L Fig. 2: Figure 2.2 Schematic of parameter definition used to compute the mean arithmetic deviation(  Ra ) and total roughness (  Rt  ) Definition of the mean line is Σ  A   = Σ  B  as shown in Figure 2.2 . Surface condition is be determined by several factors:    Cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed)    The material the cutting tool is made from the rigidity of the assembly and of the machine,    The forming of chips, cutting forces, etc.   A Study of Surface Roughness in Drilling of AISI H11 Die Steel using Face Centered Design   (IJIRST/ Volume 1 / Issue 12 / 079) All rights reserved by www.ijirst.org   467 The following are the derivation of important machining parameter Spindle Speed: 1) The spindle speed is measure in revolutions per minute (RPM). It is the rotational frequency of the spindle. Too much spindle speed will cause early tool wear and breakage. The spindle speed significantly affects the tool life and the quality of the surface roughness. From the equation of spindle speed ( n ) to achieve a specific cutting speed can be expressed as Eq. (2).  N= Kv/π d  (2). If N is spindle speed in revolutions/minute (rpm), k is a constant to correct the cutting speed (V) and V is the desired cutting speed, and D is diameter of the tool.  Feed Rate: C. The feed rate is a velocity at which the cutter is feed into the workpiece. It is given in units of distance per revolution for turning, milling and other machining process that required cutting of a work piece.  f = N * f  r (3) III.   E XPERIMENTAL DETAILS   In this experimental work, which includes selection of drilling parameters, selection of range of drilling parameters, formation of design matrix using RSM based on face centred design, selection of work-piece material, experimental set-up, measurement of surface roughness. Selection of Drilling Parameters and the Range of Drilling Parameters:  A. The process parameters that were chosen for experimentation are given as under: 1)   Spindle speed (RPM) 2)   Feed (mm/rev.) 3)   Depth of hole (mm) These are the main drilling parameter that affect the surface roughness. Also, machine operator can change these parameters at the time of machining. The levels of each input parameter were decided by studying the literature in detailed and according to machine limitations. Table 3.1 shows the levels of drilling parameters according to RSM based on face centered design. Table - 1 Drilling Parameters and Their Levels Factor Name Units Type Minimum (+1)  Maximum (-1)  A Spindle Speed (RPM) Numeric 400 1200  B Feed (mm/rev) Numeric 0.01 0.02 C Depth of hole (mm) Numeric 10 20  Machining Trial:  B. Experiments were conducted using the design of experiments (DOE) technique RSM based on face centered design with and then followed by optimization of the results using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to find minimum surface roughness. The ranges of machining conditions were based on the real industry practice for AISI die steel. Total 20 numbers of experiments has been finalized according to RSM based on face centered design. Out of 20 experiments, 8 are the factorial points, 6 are the star point and 6 are the centre points. The table 3.2 shows the design layout for experimentation. Table - 2 Shows the Design Layout for Experimentation S.No. A:Spindle Speed (RPM) B:Feed (mm/rev.) C:Depth of hole (mm) 1 400 0.01 10 2 1200 0.01 10 3 400 0.02 10 4 1200 0.02 10 5 400 0.01 20 6 1200 0.01 20 7 400 0.02 20 8 1200 0.02 20 9 400 0.015 15   A Study of Surface Roughness in Drilling of AISI H11 Die Steel using Face Centered Design   (IJIRST/ Volume 1 / Issue 12 / 079) All rights reserved by www.ijirst.org   468 10 1200 0.015 15 11 800 0.01 15 12 800 0.02 15 13 800 0.015 10 14 800 0.015 20 15 800 0.015 15 16 800 0.015 15 17 800 0.015 15 18 800 0.015 15 19 800 0.015 15 20 800 0.015 15  Experimental Set Up: C.   CNC Vertical Machining Centre 1)The drilling operations have been carried out on a CNC MILL MT250 Machining Center, Make-Hytech educational equipment ltd., India. The CNC vertical machining centre equipped with continuously variable spindle speed up to 4000 rpm, and 2HP motor drive was used for experimentation Cutting Inserts 2)Coated carbide tool performs better than uncoated carbide tools. On this basis, commercially accessible K- series, tungsten carbide high speed core drills with Tialn coating having 10 mm diameter with two flute has been used for experimentation. Surface Roughness Measurement:  D. Surface roughness is defined as the finer irregularities of the surface texture that usually result from the inherent action of the machining process or material condition. There are many parameters used related to surface roughness in literatures. In this research, a portable surface roughness tester has been used to measure surface roughness indicators of finished work pieces. The constants for surface roughness tester for all the measurements of work pieces were standard ISO 97R, 0.8 mm cut-off, least count of 0.001μm. The measurements were repeated at three different locations of the finish work piece in the direction of th e tool movement. Finally, the mean of surface roughness values were considered for the particular trial. The table 3.6 shows the final value of Surface Roughness along with run number. Table  –   3 Measurement Results S.No.  A:Spindle Speed (RPM)  B:Feed (mm/rev.) C:Depth of hole (mm) Surface roughness (Microns) 1 400 0.01 10 1.03 2 400 0.015 15 1.503 3 800 0.01 15 1.15 4 400 0.02 20 1.95 5 800 0.02 15 1.55 6 800 0.015 10 0.841 7 800 0.015 15 1.331 8 1200 0.02 10 1.71 9 800 0.015 15 1.282 10 1200 0.02 20 2.46 11 800 0.015 15 1.352 12 1200 0.015 15 1.831 13 800 0.015 15 1.325 14 400 0.02 10 1.42 15 400 0.01 20 1.63 16 1200 0.01 10 1.182 17 1200 0.01 20 1.872 18 800 0.015 20 1.43 19 800 0.015 15 1.38 20 800 0.015 15 1.331
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