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A study on industrial relation at rehabilitation plantations ltd

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1. A Study on Industrial Relation at Rehabilitation Plantations Ltd SUBODH G KRISHNA’S PROJECTS. subodhgopalakrishna@gmail.com Page 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION Large scale…
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  • 1. A Study on Industrial Relation at Rehabilitation Plantations Ltd SUBODH G KRISHNA’S PROJECTS. subodhgopalakrishna@gmail.com Page 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION Large scale industries present a picture of complex system. It is therefore on the part of the management to identify the changing social attitude of their work for e.g. Modern industries are facing the problem of lack of co-ordination of effort particularly at the shop floor level. So it is on part of Human Resource department in an organization to identify the changing social attitude and motivate them for the purpose of improving co-ordination of efforts, so we say that Industrial Relation is the part and of human resources management. The concept of industrial relations means the relationship between employees and management in the day-to-day working industry. But the concept has a wide meaning. When taken in the wider sense, industrial relations is a “set of functional interdependence involving historical, economic, social, psychological, demographic, technological, occupational, political and legal variables”. According to dale Yoder, industrial relations are a “whole field of relationship that exists because of the necessary collaboration of men and women in the employment process of an industry. The concept of industrial relations has been extended to denote the relations of the state with employers, workers, and their organizations. The subject therefore includes individual relations and joint consultations between employers and work people at their work place collective relations between employers and their organizations and trade unions and part played by the state in regulating these relations. Labour management relation, employee employer relations, union management relations, personal relations, human relations and so on.IR is the relationship between employees and management in the day - to - day working of industry . IR describe relationships between management and employees or among employees and their organisations that characterise or grow out of employment. Industrial relation means the relationship between employers and employees in course of employment in industrial organisations. Industrial relation is used to denote the collective relationships between management and the worker. IR is used
  • 2. A Study on Industrial Relation at Rehabilitation Plantations Ltd SUBODH G KRISHNA’S PROJECTS. subodhgopalakrishna@gmail.com Page 2 to cover such aspects of industrial life as trade unionism, collective bargaining, workers participation in management , discipline and industrial disputes. The human resources are the most important assets of an organization. The success or failure of an organization is largely dependent on the caliber of the people working therein. Without positive and creative contributions from people, organizations cannot progress and prosper. In order to achieve the goals or the activities of an organization, therefore, they need to recruit people with requisite skills, qualifications and experience. While doing so, they have to keep the present as well as the future requirements of the organization in mind.
  • 3. A Study on Industrial Relation at Rehabilitation Plantations Ltd SUBODH G KRISHNA’S PROJECTS. subodhgopalakrishna@gmail.com Page 3 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Primary objective To study the industrial relation in Rehabilitation Plantation Ltd Punalur Secondary Objective 1. To find the nature of relationships in and between different organizational levels. 2. To assess the relationship between Employees, Unions and Employers. 3. To offer suggestions for improvement of industrial relations in Rehabilitation plantation ltd 4. To offer suggestions by assessing the industrial democracy. 5. To promote and develop congenial relations between employees and employer. NEED OF THE STUDY Any organization to be effectively performed should have sound Industrial Relations. A sound Industrial Relations comprises.., 1. Congenial relations between employees and employer. 2. Congenial labour management relations 3. Minimized industrial conflicts 4. Highly developed trade unions 5. Contribution to the organizational objectives With respect to all these requirements an IR has to be maintained. As the contribution of IR is vast there is a definite need to undertake a study to assess and to develop the given requirements.
  • 4. A Study on Industrial Relation at Rehabilitation Plantations Ltd SUBODH G KRISHNA’S PROJECTS. subodhgopalakrishna@gmail.com Page 4 1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The main study was conducted at Rehabilitation Plantation Ltd, punalur,can get a clear picture about the Relationship among employees, between employees and their superiors or managers in and between different organizational levels. Collective relations between trade unions and management.
  • 5. A Study on Industrial Relation at Rehabilitation Plantations Ltd SUBODH G KRISHNA’S PROJECTS. subodhgopalakrishna@gmail.com Page 5 1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A research is a plan of the proposed research work. It is a systematic self critical enquiry. This enquiry is aimed at understanding a thing, or phenomenon or solving a problem. The research designs simply a specific presentation of the various steps in the process of research. Design means adopting that type of technique of research which is most suited for the research and study of the problem. It constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. After selecting the topic and problems, defining concepts, and frame hypothesis, a researcher has to think about the research design. TYPES OF RESEARCH Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods, according to the intent, research may be classified as: 1. Pure Research 2. Applied Research 3. Exploratory Research 4. Descriptive Research 5. Diagnostic Research 6. Evaluation Studies 1. Pure Research Pure research is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply in practice, e.g., Einstein’s theory of relativity, Newton’s contributions, Galileo’s contribution’s etc.Pure research is also known as basic or fundamental research. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness. It is not necessarily problem- oriented. It aims at extension of knowledge. It may lead to either discovery of a new theory or refinement of an existing theory.
  • 6. A Study on Industrial Relation at Rehabilitation Plantations Ltd SUBODH G KRISHNA’S PROJECTS. subodhgopalakrishna@gmail.com Page 6 2. Applied Research Applied research is carried on to find solution to real- life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It is thus problem-oriented and action directed. It seeks an immediate and practical result. 3. Exploratory or Formulative Research Exploratory research is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has title or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and much less focused on predetermined objectives. 4. Descriptive Research Descriptive study is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research. It is more specific than an exploratory study’s it has focus on particular aspects or dimensions of the problem studied. 5. Diagnostic Study This is similar to descriptive study but with different focus. It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can be done about. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it 6. Evaluation Studies Evaluation study is the one type of applied research. It is made for assessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. Research Design This study on Industrial Relations has been carried out at GTN Textiles’ manufacturing plant, Medak Unit. A certain sample of workmen and staff has been chosen for the process. The views of staff and workmen have been extracted separately with the help of a pre-
  • 7. A Study on Industrial Relation at Rehabilitation Plantations Ltd SUBODH G KRISHNA’S PROJECTS. subodhgopalakrishna@gmail.com Page 7 devised questionnaire. And in the due process of the study a detailed analysis has been done on the responses given by them. RESEARCH APPROACH There are two approaches to research namely quantitative approach and qualitative approach. In the quantitative approach, the research is based on measurable quantities. Therefore, the data, in this approach can further be classified in to inferential, experimental and simulation approaches. In this approach a sample is selected from the population and it is studied to determine the characteristics. In this qualitative approach, subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions, behaviors, Research in such situation is function of researcher’s insight and impressions. Such an approach to researchers generates results either in non qualitative form. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Simple random sampling was used as sampling technique. A sample Random sample is a subset of individual (a sample) chosen from a larger set of population. Each individual is chosen randomly and rarely by chance, such that each individual has the same probability of being chosen at any stage during the sampling process. Data collection method The data collected to carry out the study involves two types of data. Primary Data: The primary data has been collected from the employees. This data helps most for the completion of the study by providing full and direct information, which needs some interpretation and analysis, to attain the objectives of the study. Secondary Data:
  • 8. A Study on Industrial Relation at Rehabilitation Plantations Ltd SUBODH G KRISHNA’S PROJECTS. subodhgopalakrishna@gmail.com Page 8 This secondary data has been collected from various sources such as books, journals, magazines and sites. Although the data collected or gathered from these sources neither participate directly in the analysis nor influence the outcomes. This forms a basis for an effective approach in making a report of what has been studied. This data forms a part of the report and facilitates to acquire pre-requisite knowledge regarding the study under consideration. Data collection tools 1 To collect the above-mentioned primary data, the following tools can serve at its best: 2 Personal Interview: The employees under consideration have been interviewed personally to get the desired responses by asking questions. And those responses were noted. 3 Structural Questionnaire: The questionnaire consists of a set of close-ended questions, which are orderly arranged to extract the best from employees. In this study we make use of the questionnaire, for collecting the responses of workmen level and staff level separately. Research measuring tools To carry out the above laid research design and to collect data in the prescribed manner, we have to use a tool that facilitates our study. As we cannot take all employees into consideration certain sample of staff and workmen is considered. Sampling: Sampling may defined as the process of obtaining information about an entire population by examining only a part of it. In any investigation, data are collected only from a representative part of universe we say that the data are collected by sampling. Sampling plan: The employees come to plant in 4-shifts viz., A-shift, B-shift, C-shift and one General shift. . There are 6 departments Sampling size: The sample size for workmen level is 100 The sample size for staff level is 100 Thus the total sample size is 200
  • 9. A Study on Industrial Relation at Rehabilitation Plantations Ltd SUBODH G KRISHNA’S PROJECTS. subodhgopalakrishna@gmail.com Page 9 STASTITICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DATA ANALYSIS Statistical techniques are to obtain findings and analyzing information in logical sequence from the questionnaire data collected. STATISTICAL TOOLS:  Percentage Analysis. PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS Percentage method refers to a special kind of ratio. Percentage is used in matching comparison between two or more series of data. Percentage can also be used to compare relative terms, distribution of two or more series of data. Percentage (%) = (Number of respondents /Total Number of respondents) *100
  • 10. A Study on Industrial Relation at Rehabilitation Plantations Ltd SUBODH G KRISHNA’S PROJECTS. subodhgopalakrishna@gmail.com Page 10 1.5 DURATION OF THE STUDY The project was a detailed study on the topic “Study On Industrial Relation” was successfully completed within the time period of Two Weeks with the guidance and support from the project guide. 1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY  The topic under the study is vast and requires much information, but the information available is very limited.  Findings and conclusions are drawn on the basis of samples. So it may have the limitation of sample study.  Data was collected only from the permanent workers.  Behavioural constraints of people.  Some respondents don’t reveal the truth because of fear.  Time constraint is another limiting factor, which led interviewing only limited number of people.
  • 11. A Study on Industrial Relation at Rehabilitation Plantations Ltd SUBODH G KRISHNA’S PROJECTS. subodhgopalakrishna@gmail.com Page 11 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE According to the ILO, “Industrial relations deal with either the relationships between the State and employers’ and workers’ organization or the relationship between the occupational organizations themselves. The ILO uses the expression to denote such matters as freedom of association and the protection of the right to organize, the application of the principles of the right to organize and the right of collective bargaining, collective agreements, conciliation and arbitration and machinery for cooperation between the authorities and the occupational organizations at various levels of economy.” “The concept of industrial relations has been extended to denote the relations of the State with employers, workers and their organizations. The subject, therefore, includes individual relations and joint consultation between employers and work people at their work place; collective relations between employers and their organizations and trade unions and the part played by the State in regulating these relations.” Thus Industrial Relations may be defined as: “The relations and interactions in the industry particularly between the labor and the management as a result of their composite attitudes and approaches in regard to the management of the affairs of the industry, for the betterment of not only the management and workers but of the industry and natural economy as a whole.” The concept of Industrial Relations means the relationship between employees and management in the day-to-day working industry. But the concept has a wide meaning.
  • 12. A Study on Industrial Relation at Rehabilitation Plantations Ltd SUBODH G KRISHNA’S PROJECTS. subodhgopalakrishna@gmail.com Page 12 When taken in the wider sense, Industrial Relations is a “set of functional interdependence involving historical, economic, social, psychological, demographic, technological, occupational, political and legal variables”. According to Dale Yoder, Industrial Relations are a “whole field of relationship that exists because of the necessary collaboration of men and women in the employment process of an industry. The concept of industrial relations has been extended to denote the relations of the state with employers, workers, and their organizations. The subject therefore includes individual relations and joint consultations between employers and work people at their work place collective relations between employers and their organizations and trade unions and part played by the state in regulating these relations. Three Actors of Industrial Relations According to John T. Dunlop three major participants or actors of industrial relations viz., workers and their organizations, management and Government are identified. 1. Workers and their organizations The total worker plays an important role in industrial relations. The total worker includes working age, educational background, family background, psychological factors, culture, skills etc., Worker’s organizations prominently known as trade unions play their role more to protect the workers’ economic interest through collective bargaining and by bringing pressure on management through economic and political tactics. 2. Employers and their organizations Employer is a crucial factor in industrial relations. He employs the worker, pays the wages and various allowances, and regulates the working relations through various rules, regulations and by enforcing labour laws. Employers form their organizations to equate or excel their bargaining power with that of trade unions. These organizations protect the interest of the employer by pressuring the trade unions and government. 3. Government Government plays a balancing role as custodian of the nation. Government exerts its influence on industrial relations through its labour policy, industrial relations policy,
  • 13. A Study on Industrial Relation at Rehabilitation Plantations Ltd SUBODH G KRISHNA’S PROJECTS. subodhgopalakrishna@gmail.com Page 13 implementing labour laws, the process of conciliation an adjudication by playing the role of a mediator etc., PARTIES TO INDUSTRIAL RELATION Principles of Sound Industrial Relations Maintenance of sound industrial relations is as crucial and difficult as that of human relations. Hence, the following principles should be followed to maintain sound industrial relations:  Recognition of the dignity of the individual and of his right to personal freedom and equality of opportunity.
  • 14. A Study on Industrial Relation at Rehabilitation Plantations Ltd SUBODH G KRISHNA’S PROJECTS. subodhgopalakrishna@gmail.com Page 14  Mutual respect, confidence, understanding, goodwill, and acceptance of responsibility on the part of the both employer, management and workers and their representatives in the exercises of the rights and duties in the operation of the industry.  Similarly, there has to be an understanding between the various organizations of employers and employees who represent the management and workers. Functional requirements for Sound Industrial Relations  Top management support: Since industrial relations is a functional staff service, it must derive authority from the line organization. This is accomplished by having the industrial relations director report to the top line authority- the president, chairman or vice-president. Besides, top management must also set an example for others.  Sound Personnel Policies: They constitute a business philosophy for the guidance of the human relations’ decisions of the enterprise. The purpose of such policies is to decide ahead of emergency and what shall be done with a large number of problems that may arise daily. Policy can be successful only when it is followed at all levels from top to bottom.  Adequate practices: Adequate practices should have been developed by professional in the field to assist the policies of the units. A system of procedures is necessary to translate intention into action. The procedure and practices of industrial relations are the “tools of management” which keep the supervisor ahead of his job; the work of time-keeping, rate adjustments, grievance reporting a merit rating.  Detailed supervisory training: To carry out the policies and practices by the industrial relations staff the job supervisors must be trained in detail, and the significance of the policies must be communicated to the employees. They must be trained in leadership and communication. Industrial Relation System An industrial relations system consists of the whole gamut of relationships between employees and employees and employers which are managed by the means of conflict and
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