Creative Writing

A Study on the Employee Absenteeism

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Employee Absenteeism, Attrition, Non Performance
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  A STUDY ON THE EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY  Absenteeism is a serious workplace problem and an expensive occurrence for both employers and employees seemingly unpredictable in nature. A satisfactory level of attendance by employees at work is necessary to allow the achievement of objectives and targets by a department. Employee Absenteeism is the absence of an employee from work. It is a major  problem faced by almost all employers of today. Employees are absent from work and thus the work suffers. Absenteeism of employees from work leads to back logs, piling of work and thus work delay. Absenteeism is of two types - 1.   Innocent absenteeism  - Is one in which the employee is absent from work due to genuine cause or reason. It may be due to his illness or personal family problem or any other real reason 2.   Culpable Absenteeism  - is one in which a person is absent from work without any genuine reason or cause. He may be pretending to be ill or just wanted a holiday and stay at home. Many employees will, on occasions, need a few days off work because of illness, however, when absences become more frequent or long term and reach an unacceptable level, action by management is necessary. Absence from work can be expensive in both monetary and human terms. The costs incurred when an employee is absent from work may include: (i) Replacing the employee or requiring other staff to cover the absence; (ii) Inability to provide services, or achieve section and departmental objectives; (iii) Low morale and general dissatisfaction from other staff, particularly if the absence is  perceived as unwarranted  CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK DEFINITIONS OF ABSENTEEISM i.   Absents constitutes a single day of missed work(Martocchio & Jimeno 2003) ii.   Absence occurs whenever a person chooses to allocate time to activities that compete with scheduled work either to satisfy the waxing and warning of underlying motivational rhythms(Fichman 1984) or to maximise personal utility(Chelius 1981) iii.   An individuals lack of physical presence at a given location and time when there is a social expectation for him or her to be there. (Martocchio & Harrison, 1993) iv.   Absenteeism refers to Non-attendance of employee for sheduled work( Gibson, 1966  john, 1978) v.   Absenteeism is defined as a failure of an employee to report to work when he or she is sheduled to do so TYPES OF ABSENTEEISM There are two types of absenteeism, each of which requires a different type of approach. 1. Innocent Absenteeism Innocent absenteeism refers to employees who are absent for reasons beyond their control; like sickness and injury. Innocent absenteeism is not culpable which means that it is blameless. In a labour relations context this means that it cannot be remedied or treated by disciplinary measures. 2. Culpable Absenteeism Culpable absenteeism refers to employees who are absent without authorization for reasons which are within their control. For instance, an employee who is on sick leave even though he/she is not sick, and it can be proven that the employee was not sick, is guilty of culpable absenteeism.  Counseling Innocent Absenteeism Innocent absenteeism is not blameworthy and therefore disciplinary action is not justified. It is obviously unfair to punish someone for conduct which is beyond his/her control. Absenteeism, no matter what the cause, imposes losses on the employer who is also not at fault. The damage suffered by the employer must be weighed against the employee's right to be sick. There is a  point at which the employer's right to expect the employee to attend regularly and fulfill the employment contract will outweigh the employee's right to be sick. At such a point the termination of the employee may be justified, as will be discussed. The procedure an employer may take for innocent absenteeism is as follows: 1.   Initial counselling(s) 2.   Written counselling(s) 3.   Reduction(s) of hours and/or job reclassification 4.   Discharge 5.   Initial Counselling Presuming you have communicated attendance expectations generally and have already identified an employee as a problem, you will have met with him or her as part of your attendance program and you should now continue to monitor the effect of these efforts on his or her attendance. If the absences are intermittent, meet with the employee each time he/she returns to work. If absence is prolonged, keep in touch with the employee regularly and stay updated on the status of his/her condition. (Indicate your willingness to assist.) You may require the employee to provide you with regular medical assessments. This will enable you to judge whether or not there is any likelihood of the employee providing regular attendance in future. Regular medical assessments will also give you an idea of what steps the employee is taking to seek medical or other assistance. Formal meetings in which verbal warnings are given should be given as appropriate and documented. If no improvement occurs written warning may be necessary.  Written Counselling If the absences persist, you should meet with the employee formally and provide him/her with a letter of concern. If the absenteeism still continues to persist then the employee should be given a second letter of concern during another formal meeting. This letter would be stronger worded in that it would warn the employee that unless attendance improves, termination may be necessary. Reduction(s) of hours and or job reclassification In between the first and second letters the employee may be given the option to reduce his/her hours to better fit his/her personal circumstances. This option must be voluntarily accepted by the employee and cannot be offered as an ultimatum, as a reduction in hours is a reduction in pay and therefore can be looked upon as discipline. If the nature of the illness or injury is such that the employee is unable to fulfill the requirements of his/her job, but could for example benefit from modified work, counsel the employee to bid on  jobs of such type if they become available. Discharge Only when all the previously noted needs and conditions have been met and everything has been done to accommodate the employee can termination be considered. An Arbitrator would consider the following in ruling on an innocent absenteeism dismissal case. 1.   Has the employee done everything possible to regain their health and return to work? 2.   Has the employer provided every assistance possible? (i.e. counselling, support, time off.) 3.   Has the employer informed the employee of the unworkable situation resulting from their sickness? 4.   Has the employer attempted to accommodate the employee by offering a more suitable  position (if available) or a reduction of hours? 5.   Has enough time elapsed to allow for every possible chance of recovery? 6.   Has the employer treated the employee prejudicially in any way? As is evident, a great deal of time and effort must elapse before dismissal can take place. These  points would be used to substantiate or disprove the following two fold test. The absences must
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