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A Study on the Enrichment of Olive Oil with Natural Olive Fruit Polyphenols

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In the last years, has been a sudden and increased interest by scientists in producing creating plant origin food products. This is explained by their polyphenolic content, to which has been attributed a large scale bioactivity as described in many
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  International Journal of Food and Biosystems Engineering, August, 2017 Vol 5(1): 68-74 A Study on the Enrichment of Olive Oil withNatural Olive Fruit Polyphenols Tsilfoglou Sotiria 1,2 ∗ , Petrotos Kostantinos 1 , Leontopoulos Stefanos 1 ,Hadjichristodoulou Christos 2 , Tsakalof Andreas 2 1 Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Dept. of Biosystems Engineering, Ring Road of Larissa-Trikala, 41110 Larissa, Greece 2 University of Thessaly, Dept. of Medicine, Lab of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Papakyriazi 22, 41222 Larissa Abstract In the last years, has been a sudden and increased interest by scientists in producing creating plant srcin food products. This is explained by their  polyphenolic content, to which has been attributed a large scale bioactivity asdescribed in many studies. Foods that have beneficial effects due to their high content in polyphenols are olive oil, wine, cocoa, coffee, fruits and vegetableswith intense color, whole grain products, tea and other herbal beverages. The purpose of this study was the enrichment of olive oil with olive polyphenolsand specifically with hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein aglycones in or-der to produce a final product with increased bioactivity and official healthclaim. Initially, we developed a fast and accurate method of total polyphenolsanalysis by UV-VIS method, in order to evaluate the degree of enrichment of olive oils, by three specific chosen methods. Also, the UV-VIS method wasused to examine and to measure the commercial olive polyphenols compared with cold pressed olive oil. The three alternative oil enrichment methods witholive polyphenols are: I) Addition of encapsulated polyphenol derivatives into liposomes, II) Extraction of polyphenols from olive oil using an organic solvent and then incorporating them with cryogenics sublimation with another olive oil, III) Extraction of polyphenols in the body olive oil from olive leaves using ultrasound at a controlled low temperature. Consequently, based on the results, the first two methods are effective. The final product combines nutritional andmedical benefits in the prevention of diseases and can be used by the industry,  for food and pharmaceutical products improvement.Keywords: Olive oil, natural polyphenols, functional Foods ∗ Corresponding author e-mail:sotiria tsilfogloy@yahoo.gr 68  International Journal of Food and Biosystems Engineering, August, 2017 Vol 5(1): 68-74 I. I ntroduction S i nce ancient times, it is known that oliveoil in our diet is important to our health. Olive oil was used for skin care and mus- cle luster, abrasion therapy, burn healing, and dehydration caused by the sun. It is a product with equally spectacular properties for bothhealth and beauty. The body cells incorpo-rate the valuable fatty acids of olive oil, mak-ing the arteries and the skin smoother. Today, modern medicine continues to recommend the widespread use of olive oil in the nutrition of adults and children, health, thanks to its valu- able ingredients that provide health, well-being and longevity. The Mediterranean diet derived from theolive oil producing countries of Greece, Spain and south Italy is famous all over the world forits beneficial properties. The beneficial effect of olive oil is due to its high content of substances with antioxidant action, combining effectively and effectively reducing the destructive action of free radicals, enhancing the defense of the  body and shielding the heart and vessels (Dewet. al., 2005; Visioli et al., 1998; Visioli and Galli, 2001; Visioli and Galli, 1998a; Visioli and Galli, 1998b; Visioli and Bernardini, 2011). In the last years, has been an increased in- terest in producing natural food additives src-inated by plants. One of them are polyphenoliccompounds, attributing a large scale bioactivityas described in many studies showing multiple  benefits for human health captivating strong interest of the scientific community (Bulotta et al., 2014). The three polyphenols with the high-est concentrations in olive oil are the glucoside elephrophin, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. Studies have shown that the composition of  polyphenols in olive oil depends on many fac- tors such as the altitude of the area where the olive trees are grown, the maturity stage of thefruit, soil and climatic conditions (height of pre-cipitation, temperature) (Cinquanta et al., 1997; Ryan and Robards, 1998). In the case of olive oil, the olive oil is also used for the production of olive oil. Concentration of polyphenols in olive oil varies from 50 to 1000 µ g / g (ppm) of  oil, depending on the olive variety and extrac- tion system, and this amount of antioxidantsin olive oil is only 1-2% (Rodis et al., 2002; Tsimidou et al, 1992). The most important properties of the polyphenols are their antioxidant activity, their effect on the digestion of macronutrients andabsorption of metal elements, their anticancerand antibacterial effect and their antiallergic properties. Furthermore, studies done by Leon- topoulos et al., (2015); Leontopoulos et al.,(2016) have demonstrated the antimicrobialactivity since studies done by Kokkora et al., (2015); Kokkora et al., (2016) demonstrated the possible effect on maize production and soil properties. Other ingredients of the olive oil are caffeic, vanilla, syringic and coumaric acids. Other an- tioxidant compounds present in olive oil are various flavonoids and anthocyanins (Visioli et al., 1998; Benavente-Garcia O et al, 2002; Scal-  bert et al., 2005). Several recent research works have been studied the extraction and absorp-tion of polyphenolic compounds (Petrotos et al., 2015; Petrotos et al., 2016). Foods that have beneficial effects due to their high content in polyphenols are olive oil, wine, cocoa, coffee, fruits and vegetables with intense color, whole grain products, tea and other herbal beverages. The aim of this study was the enrichment of olive oil with olive polyphenols and specifically with hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropeinaglycones in order to produce a final product with increased bioactivity for human health. II. M aterial and  M ethods In this work the measurement of total polyphe- nols in olive oils (derived from differentsources) was studied. Studies of olive oilenrichment with olive polyphenols included addition of encapsulated derivative of polyphe-nols in lecithin liposomes, addition of polyphe- nols that extracted from olive oil incorporated with cryogenic sublimation with other olive oil. And extraction of polyphenols, in the ’body’ olive oil, from olive leaves using ultrasound at 69  International Journal of Food and Biosystems Engineering, August, 2017 Vol 5(1): 68-74controlled low temperature. Measurement of total Polyphenols inolive oil  Pure polyphenols extracted fromolive oil using a centrifuge followed by spec-trophotometric determination of the extractusing Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and measure-ment at 725nm (Tsimidou, 1998; Tsimidou, 2005). Olive oil enrichment with encapsulatedderivative of polyphenols in lecithin lipo-somes Encapsulation of liquid polyphenol in lecithin using Freeze Dryer was used in this study.Then, Mix powder (lecithin with polyphenol)with olive oil at three different concentrations (200, 500 and 1000 ppm) to increase antioxidan- tâ ˘A´Zs activity was examined enriching olive oil by adding liquid polyphenol (200, 500, 1000 ppm). Funally, samples were measured with RANCIMAT method for their resistance to oxi- dation. Extraction of olive oil polyphenols usingorganic solvent followed by a cryogenic sub-limation technique to add polyphenols intoother olive oil samples Extraction of olive oil and collection of hy-dro alcoholic phase was the first step at this stud followed by adding hydro alcoholic phaseinto a sample of olive oil. Then, evaporation of  methanol in Freeze Dryer and determination of total polyphenols using UV-VIS method was used. Extraction of polyphenols, in the ’body’olive oil, from olive leaves at controlled lowtemperature using ultrasound technique Collection, washing and slicing of olive leaves was the first step of this study followed  by incorporation of chopped olive leaves to the sample of olive oil at three different concentra- tions (1%, 5% and 10%). The placement of oliveoil samples in an ultrasonic probe for 5 minutes and the determination of total polyphenols us- ing UV-VIS method in the srcinals and theenriched samples of olive oil were the final steps. III. R esults and  D iscussion Observing the Figure 2, we conclude that both standardized and bulk olive oil producers have a lower total polyphenol concentration thancold pressed olive oils due to the heat treat- ment they present in the oil mills. It is therefore confirmed that the processing temperature of olive oil plays an important role in its quality as it also affects its polyphenol content. Figure 3 shows the concentration of total polyphenols (ppm) in the srcinal olive oil sam- ple and after enrichment. It was observed thatthe concentration of total polyphenols after en- richment almost doubled. This method is there- fore considered effective. Figure 4 shows the results of the concen-tration of polyphenols (ppm) in the olive oilsample before and after enrichment with the olive leaves. It was observed that the olive leaf  enrichment method did not give satisfactoryresults. There was not a large increase in the total polyphenols (6% increases). 70  International Journal of Food and Biosystems Engineering, August, 2017 Vol 5(1): 68-74 71  International Journal of Food and Biosystems Engineering, August, 2017 Vol 5(1): 68-74 In Figure 5 appeared that sample 4 enriched with encapsulated polyphenol in lecithin (1000 ppm) exhibits greater oxidative strength thanthat of the samples enriched with liquidpolyphenol. Lecithin retains polyphenols in the oil which in turn protects it from oxidation.Therefore, this particular enrichment process is effective as an increase in polyphenol concen- tration of 40% is achieved. 72
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