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A STUDY ON THE GUIDELINES STATUS AND THE PREVALENCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PRODUCTS IN JORDAN

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Genetically modified (GM) crops are providing supply for ever increasing demand of food and feed; however, there are concerns about their biosafety. Many unlabeled genetically modified products have started to appear in the Jordanian market, this
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    A STUDY ON THE GUIDELINES STATUS AND THE PREVALENCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PRODUCTS IN JORDAN By Nawar Tareq Kamal El Husseini Supervisor Prof. Mohammed Abdulkader Ibrahim Al-Obaide Co- Supervisor Dr. Nisreen Daifallah Al-Hmoud This thesis was submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master’s Degree i n Environmental Management and Technology King Abdulla School for Graduate Studies and Scientific Research Princess Sumaya University for Technology May, 2013  ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I thank God who guided me all through this research and gave me the strength and knowledge. I also thank deeply my supervisor Professor Mohammed Al-Obaide and my co- supervisor Dr. Nisreen Al Hmoud for their patience, continuous support and motivation to carry out this challenging research. I am also very grateful to Professor Eric Kubler for giving me the chance to train at the FHNW (University of Applied Sciences North Western Switzerland), labs. Furthermore I also want to express my gratitude to the Royal Scientific Society/Biosafety Unit for offering me the opportunity to carry out my experiments in their professional labs. Most importantly I thank Princess Sumaya University of Technology (PSUT) and the Environment Technology & Management faculty for their efforts, collaboration and encouragement throughout my research and the whole master program. I finally dedicate all the results and findings of my thesis to the relevant and concerned stakeholders and officials in Jordan and I hope they can take all the recommendations seriously and implement all the necessary actions to ensure better health and safer environment for all.  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS   COMMITTEE DECISION ………………………………………………………………… ii   ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ………………………………………………………………… iv LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………………………... iiiii   LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………………………...viii   LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ……………………………………………………………. x   LIST OF ANNEXES …………………………………………………………………….. .xii   ABSTRACT … . ………………………………………………………………………… ..xiii INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………… 1   CHAPTERONE: LITERATURE REVIEW   1.1   What is genetically modified food ………………………………………………… 5   1.2   The historical background and global cultivation of genetically modified crops ..… 6   1.3   Public perceptions and consumers acceptance of genetically modified food crops in different parts of the world ……………………………………………  10   1.4   Health risks,environmental impacts and biosafety of genetically modified food and feed ……………………………………………………………………………...… 12   1.5   Ethical and religious views of biotechnology and genetically modified food ……. 16   1.6   Laws and regulations controlling the prevalence of genetically modified food and feed ………………………………………………………………………………... 18   CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY   2.1   Prevalence of genetically modified maize in Jordan ……………………………… 23   2.1.1   Collection of maize samples from Jordanian market … . ……………………… 23   2.1.2   Samples pretreatment ………………………………………………………... ..24   2.1.3   Lab procedure for extraction of genomic DNA from plant.  …………………. 27   2.1.4   Determination of DNA purity and concentration: ……………………………  28   2.1.5 DNA amplification by qualitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) ………  28   2.1.6   Gel electrophoresis ……………………………………………………………. 30   2.2   Examining Jordanians awareness regarding the different issues of genetically modified food and feed ………………………………………………………….. .33   2.2.1   Survey methodology ………………………………………………………..… 33   2.2.2   Data entry and processing …………………………………………………… ..35    iv 2.3   Assessing the current status of laws and regulations controlling genetically modified food and feed in Jordan ………………………………………………… 36   CHAPTER 3: RESULTS & DISCUSSION   3.1   Local production of maize ………………………………………………………... 37   3.2   Incidence of 123 bp and 390 bp DNA fragments in genetically modified maize...43   3.3   Sequencing results of genetically modified maize with second band ……………. 45   3.3.1   Alignment sequence analysis ……………………………………………………. 47   3.3.2   Genetic event of genetically modified maize …………………………………… 48   3.4   Results of survey analysis ……………………………………………………….. ..52   3.5   Major findings of    laws and regulations governing genetically modified food and feed ………………………………………………………………………………. ..76   3.5.1   Current status of bio-safety laws in Jordan …………………………………… 83   3.5.2 Summary of Jordan biosafety framework, draft by law and latest national report on the implementation of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety …………………. .....................................................................................88   Discussion ……………………………………………………………………………...…91  Conclusions and Recommendations ……………………………………………………... 96   References ………………………………………………… . ……………………… . …..100   Annexes …………………………………………………………………………………. 107   Arabic Abstract ………………………………………………………………………..… 178    v LIST OF TABLES   NUMBER TABLE CAPTION PAGE 1.6 EU Biotech Regulations. 20 2.1.5  –   A Sequences of primers used in PCR amplification experiments and sizes in Base pairs (bp) of PCR amplified DNA fragments. 30 2.2.1 Numbers of surveys carried out in different organizations around Jordan. 34 3.1-A Total quantities and price of yellow maize imported from different countries around the world from 1994 -2010. 38 3.1-B Self-Sufficiency Ratio (SSR) of maize, Jordan, 2002  –   2010. 39 3.1- C Biotec Mega Countries. 41 3.1-D Jordan imports of maize from different countries between 1994 -2010. 42 3.2 Incidence of 123 bp and 390 bp DNA fragments in maize (food and feed) samples and country of srcin, + and  –   indicate presence and absence of DNA fragments respectively. 46 3.3 The amplified DNA sequences obtained from 390 bp DNA sequence. 49 3.3.1 Sizes in base pairs (bp) of PCR amplified DNA fragments when using specific primers for detection of GM maize MON810/JBU. 51 3.5 Current status of GMO regulations in different Arab Countries. 79 0 Jordan status with regard to Cartagena Protocol treaty. 85
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