A Successful Lesson is All About Setting Realistic Aims That Meet the Students

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  A successful lesson is all about setting realistic aims that meet the students' needs and achieving them! Here's a list of aims and sub-aims, by no means exhaustive: 1. Introducing and practising new vocabulary. 2. Revising previously taught vocabulary. 3. Introducing a new grammatical point. 4. Introducing new functional language. 5. Revising or reviewing one or more grammatical points. 6. Revising or reviewing functional exponents. 7. Giving controlled/less-controlled/freer practice of a language point. 8. Contrasting two (or more) grammatical points. 9. Contrasting two (or more) functional exponents. 10. Warmers/icebreakers - getting to know your students. 11. Raising awareness/ear training and/or practising aspects of phonology: a) pronunciation of phonemes/individual sounds  b) word stress c) sentence stress d) intonation e) features of connected speech 11. Error correction work (usually revising previously taught language) 12. Self-access work. 13. Learner training. 14. Developing reading skills - prediction/skimming/scanning/inferring, etc. 15. Developing listening skills - prediction/gist/for specific information/inference, etc. 16. Developing speaking skills - fluency/accuracy practice/ consolidating recently taught language. 17. Freer speaking (e.g. role play) for revision of previously taught language. 18. Developing writing sub-skills - paragraph-writing/focus on linking devices, etc. 19. Developing study skills - note-taking/summarizing. 20. Developing dictionary skills. 21. Promoting interest in the culture. 22. Using video to build awareness of non-verbal communication. 23. Integrating the four skills. 24. Simulations for revision of previously taught language / for fluency practice. 25. To create a relaxed, non-threatening atmosphere in the classroom.  This is a suggested list of headings and rationale for an acceptable DELTA lesson  plan. You can choose other formats as long as you cover the same ground. Cover Sheet: Date   Location of Lesson   Time and Length of Lesson   Level of Class - Elementary, Intermediate, Advanced. You can also define the level by the number of hours of instruction, or by coursebook. Number of Students   Class Composition  - What sort of group they are, nationalities, sexes, strengths and weaknesses, know each other, etc. Aim(s)  - What you expect your students to achieve in the lesson, or to have achieved by the end of the lesson! This needs careful thought and wording as your lesson will be assessed on your achievement of your aim(s). Make sure your aims are achievable. They must meet your students' needs. CLICK HERE for examples to help you. Sub-aim(s)  - Use this section to include aims that you consider are of secondary importance. Timetable Fit  - classwork (past and future) - what was covered in previous lesson(s), and what will be covered in follow-up lesson(s). Does the lesson review language from previous lesson(s) or preview language for future lessons? Assumptions  - Language - what students have already covered in previous lessons or courses and so should be familiar with. Also assumptions you can make about the students, e.g. likes/preferences, familiarity with type of activity, etc. Anticipated Difficulties  - This is a useful section where you can put any difficulties you may encounter in the lesson. These may be · Conceptual - problems with the meaning of a structure or vocab items · Structural - problems with the formation of a structure · Phonological - problems with getting their tongues round a structure or vocab item · Cultural - this can include the content causing problems or the activities you plan e.g. working in pairs · Other  - time of class, class dynamics, use of Arabic, etc. Solutions  - use this section to present your solutions to the above difficulties. Some people prefer to put their solutions with the anticipated difficulties. Materials  - include everything you will use in the lesson : whiteboard, board pens, cassette, pictures, realia, handouts, etc…..    Lesson Plan Procedure  Timing   Stage/Procedure   Interaction   Aim/Rationale  How long you think this activity will take. You don't have to  be precise. You can use 5-7 mins. for example. Make sure the total is at least 45 mins. What you are going to do. Include each activity the students do as well as what you are doing. If you are monitoring, say what you are monitoring for. Whole class / groups /  pairs / individual / T - S(SS)S - T Why you are doing this  particular stage/activity. This section is important because it shows your thinking behind the activity. If you don't know 'why?' - change it!  Pre-session task  Please think about / make notes on the following: 1. Observation of teachers:  What did you gain from the classes you've observed so far? 2. Presenting language: a) What different ways are there to present language?  b) Which factors affect your choice of approach? c) What are PPP, ARC and TTT (referring to presentation of language, i.e. not 'Teacher Talking Time'!!)) d) Do you have a favourite approach? If so, what and why do you like it? 3. Practising language: a) controlled practice - think of 3 activities you like and the aim of each.   b) freer practice - think of 3 activities you like and the aim of each.  If any of these activities are taken from a coursebook, please bring a copy of them along to the session. During the session 4. Features of a good lesson What do you think are the features of a good lesson? Try and list twenty of them. Do yours match the twenty listed  by a mixture of students and teachers in a recent survey? 5. A metaphor for teaching language Traffic lights as a powerful tool for planning balanced lessons. Post-session reading & task Read pages 128-140 from Scrivener's Learning Teaching. Do observation task 4  based on the features of a good lesson.
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