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A successful modification from corrosion engineering to corrosion management

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Corrosion engineering is important because deterioration of critical structures, pipelines, and different major assets affect the safety of people and the economy significantly. Today, it has been proven that corrosion engineering alone cannot
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    A successful modification from corrosion engineering to corrosion management Tahere Ebrahimi Sadrabadi 1 , Masomeh Arjang 2   1, 2- Researcher at Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Tehran, Iran ebrahimisadrabadit@ripi.ir; ebrahimi.tahere@ut.ac.ir Abstract   Corrosion engineering is important because deterioration of critical structures, pipelines, and different major assets affect the safety of people and the economy significantly. Today, it has been proven that corrosion engineering alone cannot eliminate all the corrosion damages effectively. In fact, it needs a system to integrate its various execution elements. It was named Corrosion Management System (CMS). A CMS is the set of procedures required for planning, executing, and continually improving the ability of an organization to manage the threat of corrosion for existing and future assets. The engineers and managers should cooperate with each other to evaluate the existing conditions and, by making changes to the structure of the organization, provide conditions for the establishment of CMS. It is depended on making changes to the system that brings with it challenges. In this paper, the exact definitions and descriptions of "corrosion engineering" and "corrosion management" will be presented. Then the required changes for implementation of organization's CMS and its challenges will be discussed. Finally, the evaluation of the performance of the CMS will be considered. Keywords : corrosion engineering, corrosion management system, CMS, change management. 1 -Doctor of Philosophy in Materials Engineering (PhD) in the field of Corrosion Engineering, University of Tehran 2 -Master Degree in Materials Engineering (MSc) in the field of Corrosion Engineering, Sharif University of Technology      1-   Introduction Corrosion is a naturally occurring phenomenon commonly defined as the deterioration of a substance (usually a metal) or its properties because of a reaction with its environment. Corrosion affects our society on a daily basis, causing degradation and damage to household appliances, automobiles, airplanes, highway bridges, energy production and distribution systems, and much more. The cost of controlling this naturally occurring phenomenon—and the costs associated with the damage it causes—is substantial. The current per capita direct cost of corrosion for U.S. residents, figures from the U.S. Census, is approximately $970 per person per year. This figure does not include indirect/user costs, which would essentially double that amount. According to the current U.S. corrosion study, the direct cost of metallic corrosion is $276 billion on an annual basis. This represents 3.1% of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The use of appropriate corrosion prevention and control methods protects public safety, prevents damage to property and the environment, and saves billions of dollars in the U.S. and worldwide. [1] Furthermore, effective leadership and appropriate management tools should be in place to coordinate and integrate activities carried out in corrosion control field. However, poor understanding of the corrosion management concept and its practical applications often deprives many systems of having a proper corrosion management system. Because of this research gap, the purpose of this article is to define and clarify the exact definitions of "corrosion engineering" and "corrosion management". Then, the required changes for implementation of organization's CMS and its challenges will be considered. Finally, the descriptions of change management and its main elements in CMS will be mentioned. 2-   Corrosion Engineering (CE) Corrosion engineering is the application of science and art to prevent or control corrosion damages economically and safely. [2] Since early on, corrosion engineering (CE) has been one of the most important tools to manage corrosion failures and their costs. The main concentration of CE is on the determination of places where corrosion occurs, defining the corrosion mechanism that takes place and interrupting the process. The main goal is to mitigate corrosion, hence unexpected failures plummet, safety levels increase and production loss drops. One of the most important steps in using CE is the determination of the corrosion mechanism happening in a given situation correctly. Some of the most common forms of corrosion include: •   Galvanic corrosion •   Crevice corrosion •   Pitting •   Intergranular corrosion •   Selective leaching •   Erosion corrosion •   Stress corrosion •   Hydrogen damages [2] CE uses different methods for each corrosion mechanism to mitigate corrosion but all of them can be categorized into five general techniques: 1.   Design   2.   Materials selection 3.   Alteration of environment 4.   Cathodic and anodic protection 5.   Coatings [2] 2-1- CE shortcomings Although it seems that CE would be enough to mitigate corrosion and its failures, several observations show that in many corrosion related occurrences such as leaks or other failures, the main operant is not in CE domain. In these cases, corrosion does occur, but corrosive agents are the secondary cause of failure. In the other words, CE is essential but not enough to contain corrosion failures. Some of CE shortcomings and their consequences are listed in Table 1. It is worth mentioning even though these shortcomings are not related to CE; they do have great impacts on production efficiency. Hence, there should be a more comprehensive system in place that monitors both CE-based factors and non-CE-based factors. This concept has evolved over the years to introduce “Integrity Management Measure” and “Corrosion Management” that cover both CE-based and non-CE-based factors. In this paper, Corrosion management is defined within a more comprehensive system, called Asset Integrity Management (AIM) [3]. Table 1: Examples of shortcomings associated with various non-CE-based integrity measures and their effects on asset integrity or the associated integrity management cost or safety [3]    3-   Corrosion Management (CM) Since there are several non-CE factors, it is now clear that CE cannot alone mitigate corrosion efficiently. Corrosion Management System (CMS) describes a system where both CE and non-CE factors are brought together. The CM definition-since its inception by Dr. Ali Morshed in 2005-has evolved continuously to portray a clearer and more accurate image of the CM concept and its various components and applications. Corrosion Management can be defined as follows: "The process of reviewing the existing Integrity Management (IM) measures, regular monitoring of their performance, and assessment of their effectiveness post-commissioning". In this definition, the phrase "the existing IM" refers to both CE and CM activities and applications. [4] 3-1-The Integrity Management Measure An integrity management measure could be defined as anything -an activity, document, procedure, or individual’s competence- that contributes to an Asset Integrity Management System (AIMS) and influences its functioning, effectiveness, and outcome. Integrity measures are both CE-based and non-CE-based. The CE-based measures include design, materials selection, and chemical treatment, and the non-CE-based ones consist of inspection, monitoring, management, and Failure Risk Analysis (FRA) requirements. Figure 1 shows the integrity management measures. Studies have shown the root cause of the majority of shortcomings is the absence or inadequate application of one or all of the following three processes: •   Integrity reviews Reviewing the existing integrity management measures with an Integrity Review Process (IRP). •   Performance monitoring Evaluating the performance of an integrity management measure through corrosion monitoring or inspection activities. •   Effectiveness assessment Comparing the measured performance with an acceptable threshold, standard, value, etc. to determine its efficiency. In order to have an optimized integrity management measures in place, one has to review thoroughly the relevant factors that are listed in the lowermost boxes (except the yellow one) in Figure 1. The IRP is conducted to define the requirements of integrity management measures. Without reviewing each of the parameters associated with a certain integrity management measure, it may not be conceivable to have an optimized one in place [3].    Figure 1: The integrity management measures (the yellow boxes) and the pertinent parameters that influence their successful and effective implementation [3]. 3-2- CE vs. CM In spite of fundamental differences between CE and CM concepts, their principles, and applications, confusion between these two concepts, often leads to the common misunderstanding that CE and CM are the same thing or at least very similar. The most common mistake is the idea that the responsible corrosion engineer is also presumed to be well aware of CM or, in other words, a competent corrosion manager. This kind of blunders can cause: 1.   Increasing the risk of failure due to corrosion, leading to lower personnel safety and diminishing environmental protection. 2.   Higher chemical treatment, repair, and inspection costs. 3.   Rising in the number and duration of unplanned shutdowns [3]. While corrosion is an ancient problem, CM and AIMS are rather new concepts. Thus in order for an already established organization to practice CM, they may need to go through an enormous transformation. It can even affect their organization charts, so it may face some resistance from personnel. In order to make an efficient and permanent transformation to CM, companies may need to adapt techniques from another division: Change management .
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